Tracking: Investigating the Positives and Negatives<br />Nick Glab & Jed StuartEDUC 246The George Washington University<br />
To Track or Not to Track?<br />What is tracking?<br />Began in mid-19th century<br />Extensive research since the ‘90s on ...
Major benefits of Tracking<br />Homogenous groups make teaching easier<br />Increases student achievement for both high an...
Tracking Study in Kenya<br />Sample of 10,000 first-grade students in 121 schools<br />Each class was given an additional ...
Results of Kenyan Studyon Student Achievement<br />Test scores in tracking schools were higher<br />Both the high and low ...
Results of Kenyan studyon Teacher Motivation<br />Teacher attendance rate was 9.6% better in tracked schools<br /> Heterog...
Tracking in Massachusetts Middle Schools<br />Study of high-achievers in tracked and non-tracked schools<br />Collected qu...
Results from Massachusetts Study<br />6% more advanced students in tracked math programs <br />3% more scored advanced con...
Study of Seventh-Grade Math Tracking<br />Survey of 173 students<br />Self-esteem versus self- concept<br />How do student...
Results of Math Study on Self-esteem and Self worth<br />Students compare UP<br />Students compare more within track<br />...
American Education<br />Equal opportunity?<br />Civil Rights Movement<br />Goals of education<br />Democracy<br />Active c...
How are students placed into tracks?<br />“Less advantaged children are twice as likely to be held back in school and ofte...
Effects of Tracking on Performance<br />A study by Hanushek and Woessmann (2005) compares performance in students tracked ...
Effects of Classifying<br />Fitting in<br />Self-esteem/confidence<br />A lasting effect<br />
Why is tracking still socommon in schools? <br />Majority of schools have tracking<br />Influences of a social hierarchy<b...
Advantages of De-tracking<br />Heterogeneous classrooms<br />“realworld<br />Diversity<br />In a study of teacher opinions...
Conclusion<br />Tracking and detracking both have their benefits<br />Needs to be right fit<br />More research!<br />
References<br />Ansalone, G. and Biafora, F. (2004). Elementary school teachers’ perceptions and attitudes to the educatio...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Tracking: Investigating the Positives and Negatives

6,706 views

Published on

Published in: Education
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
6,706
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
18
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
53
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Tracking: Investigating the Positives and Negatives

  1. 1. Tracking: Investigating the Positives and Negatives<br />Nick Glab & Jed StuartEDUC 246The George Washington University<br />
  2. 2. To Track or Not to Track?<br />What is tracking?<br />Began in mid-19th century<br />Extensive research since the ‘90s on the effects of tracking and de-tracking<br />
  3. 3. Major benefits of Tracking<br />Homogenous groups make teaching easier<br />Increases student achievement for both high and low tracked groups<br />Increased teacher motivation<br />Tracking does not have a negative impact on self-esteem or self-concept of subject matter<br />
  4. 4. Tracking Study in Kenya<br />Sample of 10,000 first-grade students in 121 schools<br />Each class was given an additional teacher to split the class in two<br />60 schools remained <br /> non-tracking schools<br />61 schools were made to<br /> be tracking schools<br />Lasted 18 months<br />
  5. 5. Results of Kenyan Studyon Student Achievement<br />Test scores in tracking schools were higher<br />Both the high and low groups showed similar growth<br />Students benefit from homogeneity<br />The positive effects of tracking lasted for years<br />
  6. 6. Results of Kenyan studyon Teacher Motivation<br />Teacher attendance rate was 9.6% better in tracked schools<br /> Heterogeneous grouping forces teachers to cover more material<br />Teachers are easily burned out<br />
  7. 7. Tracking in Massachusetts Middle Schools<br />Study of high-achievers in tracked and non-tracked schools<br />Collected questionnaires on tracking from 128 principals<br />Examined data from Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS)<br />Are there more “advanced” students at tracked schools?<br />
  8. 8. Results from Massachusetts Study<br />6% more advanced students in tracked math programs <br />3% more scored advanced considering SES<br />Every math track added increases advanced students by 3%<br />The opposite is true for detracking classes<br />
  9. 9. Study of Seventh-Grade Math Tracking<br />Survey of 173 students<br />Self-esteem versus self- concept<br />How do student compare themselves?<br />Within-track comparison versus across-track comparison<br />Impact of grades?<br />
  10. 10. Results of Math Study on Self-esteem and Self worth<br />Students compare UP<br />Students compare more within track<br />Grades impact self-concept more than tracking<br />Lower track = lower grades<br />
  11. 11. American Education<br />Equal opportunity?<br />Civil Rights Movement<br />Goals of education<br />Democracy<br />Active citizen<br />wsaq.net<br />
  12. 12. How are students placed into tracks?<br />“Less advantaged children are twice as likely to be held back in school and often fail to complete their education and educational psychologists have identified the role of teacher expectations and instructional prejudices to help explain documented educational gaps. Rist notes that kindergarten reading groups are formed within the first few days of each term and that placements are influenced by student dress, vocabulary, and racial differences. Social class is also a factor in teacher expectations in studies conducted by Persell and Oakes (Ansalone & Biafora 2004).” <br />
  13. 13. Effects of Tracking on Performance<br />A study by Hanushek and Woessmann (2005) compares performance in students tracked at a young age across different countries<br />Greatest impact on lower achieving students<br />No benefit for higher achieving students<br />See figure 2 on next slide<br />
  14. 14.
  15. 15. Effects of Classifying<br />Fitting in<br />Self-esteem/confidence<br />A lasting effect<br />
  16. 16. Why is tracking still socommon in schools? <br />Majority of schools have tracking<br />Influences of a social hierarchy<br />Superintendent and teacher influence<br />
  17. 17. Advantages of De-tracking<br />Heterogeneous classrooms<br />“realworld<br />Diversity<br />In a study of teacher opinions by Ansalone and Biafora, more than 75% of teachers thought that slower students should be taught in a classroom with brighter students, so that they can learn from one another (Ansalone and Biafora, 2009). <br />
  18. 18. Conclusion<br />Tracking and detracking both have their benefits<br />Needs to be right fit<br />More research!<br />
  19. 19. References<br />Ansalone, G. and Biafora, F. (2004). Elementary school teachers’ perceptions and attitudes to the educational structure of tracking. Education. Mobile, AL: Project Innovation. <br />Chiu, D., Beru, Y., & Watley, E. (2008). Influences of math tracking on seventh-grade students’ self-beliefs and social comparisons. Journal of Educational Research. 102, 125-136. <br />Duflo, E., Dupas, P., Kremer, M. (2009). Can tracking improve learning? Education Next, v9, n3, 64-70. Retrieved January 24, 2010 from Academic Search Premier database.<br />El-Haj, T. R. A. and Rubin, B.C. (2009). Realizing equity-minded aspirations of detracking and inclusion: toward capacity oriented framework for teacher education. Malden, MA: Wiley Periodicals. <br />Hanushek, E.A. and Woessmann, L. (2005). Does educational tracking affect performance and inequality: Differences in differences across countries. CESifo. International Education Performance. <br />Loveless, T. (2009). Tracking and detracking: high achievers in massachusetts public schools. Thomas B. Fordham Institute<br />Lucas, S.R. (1999). Tracking inequality: Stratification and mobility in american high schools. New York: Teacher College Press.<br />

×