Search and rescue (SAR) is the searchfor and provision of aid to peoplewho are in distress or imminentdanger
Canadian Forces: "Search and Rescue comprises the searchfor, and provision of aid to, persons, ships or other craft whichare, or are feared to be, in distress or imminent danger.United States Coast Guard: "The use of available resourcesto assist persons or property in potential or actual distress.United States Defense Department: A search is "an operationnormally coordinated by a Rescue Coordination Center (RCC)or rescue sub-center, using available personnel and facilitiesto locate persons in distress" and rescue is "an operation toretrieve persons in distress, provide for their initial medical orother needs, and deliver them to a place of safety.
At 1656, one of the Netherland merchant ship,which is the Vergulde Draeck wreck at the coastof Australia. Survivors sent for help, and inresponse three separate SAR missions wereconducted, but there is nothing but failure.
Vergulde DraeckThe Vergulde Draeck (Gilt Dragon) was a Dutch East IndiaCompany ship of the seventeenth century. She sailed from Texelbound for Batavia (now Jakarta), under Pieter Albertsz and wascarrying trade goods and eight chests of silver worth 786,000guilders/euro. On 28 April 1656 the Gilt Dragon was wreckedjust south Ledge Point, 107 km north of what is now Perth,Western Australia.
Mountain rescue Combat search and rescue Air-sea rescueGround search and rescue Urban search and rescue
Mountain rescue refers to search and rescue activitiesthat occur in a mountainous environment, The difficultand remote nature of the terrain in which mountainrescue often occurs has resulted in the development ofa number of specific pieces of equipment andtechniques. Helicoptersare often used to quickly extractcasualties, and search dogs may be used to locatethem.
Ground search and rescue is the search for persons who arelost or in distress on land or inland waterways. Traditionallyassociated with wilderness zones, ground search and rescueservices are increasingly required in urban and suburbanareas to locate persons with Alzheimersdisease, autism, dementia, or other conditions that lead towandering behaviour
Combat search and rescue (CSAR)are search and rescue operations thatare carried out during war that arewithin or near combat zones
Urban search and rescue (abbreviated as USAR, alsoknown as Urban SAR, or US&R in the UnitedStates)involves the location, extrication, and initial medicalstabilization of victims trapped in confined spaces.Structural collapse is most often the cause of victims beingtrapped, but victims may also be trapped in transportationaccidents, mines and collapsed trenches.
Air-sea rescue (ASR or A/SR, also known as sea-airrescue or SAR )is the coordinated search and rescue of thesurvivors of emergency water landings as well as peoplewho have survived the loss of their sea-going vessel. ASRcan involve a wide variety of resourcesincluding seaplanes, helicopters, submarines, rescueboats and ships.
International waters are divided into variousregions according tothe SOLAS convention. Each compartmenthas its own organisation which responsiblefor the compartment.
MARITIME SARThe employment of available personnel and facilities inrendering aid to person in distress arising of an incidentwhich happen at sea, near or on the coast which involveslives, property and environment and originate from vesselor craft.
MARITIME SAR POLICYThe Maritime SAR Policy is containes in the Merchant ShippingOrdinance 1952 and 1960 which make it a legal obligation forthe saving of lifes, property and the enviroment withinMalaysia Maritime SAR Region of responsibility. The Safety ofLifes at Sea Convension (SOLAS), 1974 was ratified by Malaysiain 1983 and this ratification Malaysia is obliged to provideMaritime SAR facilities.By virtue that SOLAS is part of the Merchant ShippingOrdinance, the Marine Department is entrusted to provideMaritime SAR for all vessels and persons of all nationalitywithin the Malaysia SAR Region of responsibility.
Overall co-ordination of Maritime SAR organisationCo-ordination with other Malaysia SAR organisation and authoritiesLiason with international SAR organisationsEstablishment of standards for facilities, equipment, staffing,training operation and proceduresFinancial arrangements, budget estimate, procurement anddisposition of stores and equipment
The SAR Team Rescue Group must:-Meet all respective standards according to national andINSARAG requirements.-Have training in confined spaces, collapsed reinforcedconcrete structures, high angle rope rescue and tunnelingoperations, and basic training in search and medical issues.-Have additional training in operating in adverse weatherconditions, haz mat environments, all other climacticconditions and team safety.
The equipment stock must meet internationaltransportation regulations (i.e., ADR, RID, IATA(internationalair transport association), etc.).
Assistance with Search Activities -Prior to locating trapped victims, Rescue personnel provide a significant search resource. -The Rescue personnel may be used to assist the canine and electronic search personnel with safety assessments at collapse sites, gain access to difficult areas, conduct shoring and bracing operations, deploy equipment, etc.
-These personnel may also conduct physical searchoperations.-Apart from canine and electronic searchpersonnel, Rescue personnel should be the onlyresource used for physical search inside void areas,as they are the most capable of identifying overallhazards in these areas and are trained in operatingin confined spaces.
Rescue StrategyRescue operations follow the search phase and are focused onextricating the greatest number of victims in the shortest amount oftime, prioritizing technical rescues that cannot be addressed bylocal resources.Rescue operations are conducted under the five following phases:PHASE ONE: Assessment of the collapse area. The area is searchedfor possible victims (surface and/or buried) and the evaluation ofthe structures stability and potential danger to rescue personnel isperformed. All utilities must be evaluated and controlled for safety.
PHASE TWO: Removal of all surface victims as quicklyand safely as possible. Extreme care must be used duringthis phase to ensure that rescuers do not becomevictims. Personnel should not be misled by the outwardappearance of a structure - what appears to be a settledpile of debris could, in reality, be lacking any genuinesupport and a secondary collapse could occur withoutwarning.
PHASE THREE: All voids and accessible spaces created asa result of the collapse must be searched and exploredfor live victims. An audible call out system can be usedduring this phase (refer to the SAR Team SearchGuidelines). Only trained canine or specially trainedrescue personnel should be used in voids and accessiblespace searches.PHASE FOUR: Selected debris removal, using specialtools and techniques, may be necessary after locating avictim. It may be necessary to remove only certainobstructions that are blocking access to the victim.Information concerning a victims location prior to thecollapse can be helpful during the selected debrisremoval phase. Information gathering on other possiblevictim locations can greatly enhance the operation.
PHASE FIVE: General debris removal is usually conducted after allknown victims have been removed. Exceptions would be: 1) wheninformation is obtained that indicates the possibility of other victimsnot originally accounted for and, 2) when large amounts of debrisare impairing or obstructing operations. The decision to use heavyequipment during this phase must be given serious consideration,especially when the possibility exists that there are still live victimsin the debris.Rescue prioritization is based on:-A mission assignment from the LEMA or the UN OSOCC.-Any search intelligence/recommendations.-The degree and difficulty of each opportunity.-The possible end result of each opportunity.-Any safety and security considerations.-The capabilities and limitations of available resources (personnel,equipment, site accessibility, etc.).
A rescue plan will ensure that all the Rescue team efforts arebrought to bear in a systematic and coordinated manner, utilizingthe most up-to-date intelligence about victims and buildings.The rescue plan should include:-Identified objectives.-All search results.-Any resources assigned.-Any safety and security issues.
-The capabilities of assigned resources.-The limitations of assigned resources.-Any other support resources.-All communications requirements.-Implementation of the rescue plan should include:-Personnel briefings.-The commencement of rescue operations.-The evaluation of operational effectiveness.-Any plan revisions as appropriate.
The SAR team is composed (generically) of threefunctional components as well as a managementcomponent supported by the safety/security,information and planning, liaison and publicinformation functions.The core functional elements of the Rescue Groupare:ManagementRescueSafetyMedical
The supporting functional elementsare:Structures engineering.Haz mat.Logistics.Doctors.Heavy lifting.Local resources.Interpreters.
-Rescue operations are conducted following the principlesof the five rescue phases.-These phases are based on those tasks that are easilyachievable, moving toward those that are morecomplicated.-The on-site activities begin with the rescue work site setup.Rescue work site set up includes:-Work site and collapse hazard zone identification.-Operations post.-Medical treatment area.-Personnel staging area.
-Rescue equipment staging area.-Cribbing/shoring working area.-Entry/exit routes.-A Rescue Squad must be staged in a state of full readinessshould an unforeseen occurrence or emergency occur.-Once the size up is completed and the plan of actiondeveloped, a Team briefing must be conducted:-A simple drawing of the site features and rescue -operation should be made that can be quickly done on awriting pad or erasable marker board.-In addition, safety considerations, structural concerns,hazard identification, emergency signaling and evacuationguidelines must be addressed at this time.
Each work site must have one person designated as officer-in-charge to maintain unity of command. The officer-in-chargehas authority over all assigned personnel.When two or more Rescue Squads are assigned to operatetogether, one officer-in-charge must be assigned to be incharge overall of the work site (this must be clearlycommunicated to all personnel involved).A work site safety officer should be assigned to all operations.The work site safety officer is responsible for acting as asecond set of eyes and ears for the officer-in-charge, assistingin the formulation of the rescue plan, and focusing on safetyconsiderations during rescue operations.
It is important that the officers-in-charge and safety officers are clearly identified. (Refer to the SAR Team Identification & Marking Guidelines.)-The tools, equipment and supplies in the equipment stock should beseparated and organized according to their function. The set up andorganization of the equipment stock must be addressed beforesignificant rescue operations can be supported together with themaintenance requirements of the rescue equipment Once the equipment stock is organized, it is imperative that an effective inventory and tracking process be implemented. The limited number of specialized tools may require them to be shared between one or more rescue sites during simultaneous operations. It is important that everyone coordinate the sharing and movement of these tools between the rescue sites.
Adequate time should be allocated at scheduled shiftexchanges for briefings and information exchange to promotecontinuity of operations.Management and supervision of local resources is of criticalimportance to the overall safety and effectiveness of rescueoperations.Operational logs and site sketches should be maintained at alltimes.Following extrication of deceased victims, the remains shouldbe processed as directed by the UN OSOCC and/or theLEMA.
Maritime Rescue Co-Ordinating Centres (MRCC)The MRCC is the Operation Centre established by theMarine Department for the purpose of controllingand co-ordinating Maritime SAR operations.The MRCCs estiblished in Malaysia are:MRCC PORT KLANGMRCC LABUAN
Maritime Rescue Sub-Centre (MRSC)The MRSC is the Operation Centre established bythe Marine Department to control and co-ordinateMaritime SAR operations which is small in natureand require only the facilities available within theregion concerned. Each centre has its own area ofresponsibility. The MRSC established in Malaysiaare:MRSC PENANGMRSC JOHORMRSC TERENGGANUMRSC KUCHINGMRSC SANDAKAN
MARITIME SAR UNITSVessels and aircraft for Maritime SAR operations are provided by:Vessels Marine Department Royal Malaysia Navy Royal Malaysia Police Port Authorities Royal Custom and Excise Fishery Department Merchant Ships Fishing VesselsAircraft Royal Malaysia Air Force Royal Malaysia Police Royal Malaysia Navy
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