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Lean manufacturing
 

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کیهان اسدی سی سخت

کیهان اسدی سی سخت
دانشگاه تهران
سیستم تولید ناب

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    Lean manufacturing Lean manufacturing Presentation Transcript

    • ‫ﺑﻪ ﻧﺎﻡ ﺧﺪﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﻛﺴﺐ ﻭ ﻛﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺯﻧﺠﻴﺮﻩ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻧﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻛﻴﻬﺎﻥ ﺍﺳﺪﻱ ﺳﻲ ﺳﺨﺖ‬ ‫‪Gkeyhan at gmail.com‬‬‫1‬
    • ‫ﻓﻬﺮﺳﺖ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﺐ‬‫‪ ‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻣﻮﺩﺍ –ﻣﻮﺩﺍﻫﺎﻱ ﻫﻔﺖ ﮔﺎﻧﻪ‬ ‫‪ ‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺗﻔﻜﺮ ﻭ ﺯﻧﺠﻴﺮﻩ ﻧﺎﺏ‬ ‫‪ 3 ‬ﺗﺤﺮﻳﻒ ﺩﺭ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﺭﺯﺵ‬ ‫‪ ‬ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻛﺸﺸﻲ‬ ‫‪ ‬ﻣﻘﺎﻳﺴﻪ ﺯﻧﺠﻴﺮﻩ ﻧﺎﺏ ﻭ ﭼﺎﺑﻚ‬ ‫‪ ‬ﺍﺻﻮﻝ ﺗﻔﻜﺮ ﻧﺎﺏ‬ ‫‪ ‬ﺷﺶ ﺳﻴﮕﻤﺎﻱ ﻧﺎﺏ‬ ‫2‬
    • ‫ﻓﻬﺮﺳﺖ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﺐ‬ ‫‪ ‬ﻛﺎﻳﺰﻥ)ﺍﺻﻮﻝ ﻭ ﺍﺟﺮﺍ(‬ ‫‪Value chain mapping ‬‬ ‫‪ ‬ﺍﺻﻮﻝ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻲ ﺯﻧﺠﻴﺮﻩ ﻧﺎﺏ‬‫‪ ‬ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺑﻬﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﻭ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺁﻥ)‪(JIT‬‬ ‫‪-5S ‬ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺁﺭﺍﺳﺘﮕﻲ‬ ‫‪ ‬ﻛﺎﻧﺒﺎﻥ)ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ،ﻣﺰﺍﻳﺎ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩ (‬ ‫‪ ‬ﻣﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﺷﺪﻩ‬ ‫3‬
    • ‫ﻣﻮﺩﺍ‬‫‪ ‬ﻣﻮﺩﺍ ﻭﺍژﻩﺍﻱ ژﺍﭘﻨﻲ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻌﻨﻲ ﺍﺗﻼﻑ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺟﺎﻣﻊ، ﺑﻪ ﺁﻥ ﺩﺳﺘﻪ‬‫ﺍﺯ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺖﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﺍﻃﻼﻕ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ ﻛﻪ ﺟﺎﺫﺏ ﻭ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﻛﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﻭ ﺫﺧﺎﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ، ﻭﻟﻲ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺣﺎﻝ ﻫﻴﭻ ﺍﺭﺯﺷﻲ ﻧﻤﻲﺁﻓﺮﻳﻨﻨﺪ.‬‫‪ ‬ﻣﻮﺩﺍﻫﺎ ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ ﻛﻪ ﻫﺮ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺖﻫﺎ ﻭ‬‫ﺷﻨﺎﺧﺖ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺷﻨﺎﺳﺎﻳﻲ ﻛﺮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺳﻌﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺯ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺑﺮﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ.‬ ‫4‬
    • 5
    • ‫ﻣﻮﺩﺍﻫﺎﻱ ﻫﻔﺖ ﮔﺎﻧﻪ‬ ‫1 - ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺍﺿﺎﻓﻲ ) ﭘﻴﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺩﺭﻳﺎﻓﺖ ﺗﻘﺎﺿﺎ(‬ ‫2 - ﺍﻧﺘﻈﺎﺭ )ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﮔﺎﻡ ﺑﻌﺪﻱ ﻓﺮﺁﻳﻨﺪ ﻳﺎ ﺧﺮﺍﺑﻲ ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻦ (‬ ‫3 - ﺣﻤﻞ ﻭ ﻧﻘﻞ ﻏﻴﺮﺿﺮﻭﺭﻱ) ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﻭ ﻗﻄﻌﺎﺕ (‬ ‫4 - ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﺵ ﺑﻴﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺣﺪ ﻗﻄﻌﺎﺕ ﺑﻪ ﺧﺎﻃﺮ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻲ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﺍﺑﺰﺍﺭ ﻳﺎ ﻗﻄﻌﻪ‬‫)‪(Overprocessing‬ﺍﺑﺰﺍﺭ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﺍﺳﺖ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﺵ ﺭﺍ ﻃﻮﻝ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﺪ‬ ‫5 - ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﻱ ﻫﺎ ) ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻪ ، ﻧﻴﻤﻪ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ ، ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ ، ﺩﺭ ﺭﺍﻩ (‬ ‫6 - ﺣﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮﺿﺮﻭﺭﻱ ﻛﺎﺭﻛﻨﺎﻥ )ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﺑﺰﺍﺭ ﻳﺎ ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﻳﺎ ...(‬ ‫7 - ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻗﻄﻌﺎﺕ ﻣﻌﻴﻮﺏ‬ ‫6‬
    • ‫ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﻮﺩﺍﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺨﺶ ﺧﺪﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﺷﺘﺒﺎﻫﺎﺗﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺍﺻﻼﺡ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ .‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻠﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻓﺮﺁﻳﻨﺪ ﻛﺎﺭ ﻛﻪ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺗﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ .‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ﺟﺎﺑﺠﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﻲ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻴﺮﻭﻱ ﺍﻧﺴﺎﻧﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺳﻄﻮﺡ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ﺣﻤﻞ ﻭ ﻧﻘﻠﻬﺎﻱ ﺑﻴﻬﻮﺩﻩ )ﺟﺎﻳﺠﺎﻳﻲ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﻱ(‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺍﻳﻪ ﺧﺪﻣﺎﺗﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﻛﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﻧﻤﻲ ﮔﻮﻳﻨﺪ.‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﮕﺎﻧﻲ ﻭ ﺍﻧﺒﺎﺭﻛﻬﺎﻱ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﻱ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺘﻬﺎﻱ ﻣﻮﺍﺯﻱ ، ﺩﻭﺑﺎﺭﻩ ﻛﺎﺭﻱ ، ﺗﻜﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻊ ﺁﻭﺭﻱ ﻭ ﺛﺒﺖ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﺿﺎﻓﻲ ﻭ ﺗﻜﺮﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫‪‬‬‫ﺗﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﻳﻚ ﻓﺮﻡ ﻭ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻓﺮﻡ ﺑﺎ ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩ ﺁﻥ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﺑﻴﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺣﺪ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺗﻮﺭﻡ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ﭘﻴﭽﻴﺪﮔﻲ ﺭﻭﺷﻬﺎﻱ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻛﺎﺭ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫7‬
    • ‫‪ ‬ﻧﻮﺷﺪﺍﺭﻱ ﻣﻮﺩﺍ/ﺗﻔﻜﺮﻧﺎﺏ‬ ‫‪ ‬ﺗﻔﻜﺮ ﻧﺎﺏ ﺷﻴﻮﻩ ﺍﻱ ﺭﺍ ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻥ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﺎ ﻛﻤﺘﺮﻳﻦ )ﻧﻴﺮﻭﻱ ﺍﻧﺴﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺘﺮ،ﺗﺠﻬﻴﺰﺍﺕ ﻛﻤﺘﺮ،ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻛﻤﺘﺮ ﻭ ﻓﻀﺎﻱ ﻛﻤﺘﺮ (ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺭﺳﺎﻧﺪ‬ ‫‪ ‬ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻧﺎﺏ:ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻛﺎﻻ ﻳﺎ ﺧﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺑﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻈﺮ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻦ ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﻱ ﺍﻧﺒﺎﺭ‬ ‫،ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﺧﺎﻡ ،ﻛﻤﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﻛﺎﺭ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻭ ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ﻛﺎﻻﻱ ﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﺷﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬‫‪ ‬ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻧﺎﺏ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻳﻚ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﮋﻱ ﻳﺎ ﻓﻠﺴﻔﻪ ﺍﻱ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺮ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ ﺍﻱ ﺍﺯ‬‫ﺭﻭﺵ ﻫﺎ )ﻣﺜﻞ ﻛﺎﻧﺒﺎﻥ،‪ JIT‬ﻭ..( ﺗﻜﻴﻪ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﺪ ﺗﺎ ﺿﺎﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﺗﻼﻑ )ﻣﺜﻞ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﺿﺎﻓﻲ،ﺩﻭﺑﺎﺭﻩ ﻛﺎﺭﻱ ﻭ...( ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺑﻬﺒﻮﺩ ﻛﺎﺭﺍﻳﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺳﺎﻧﺪ)0991,‪(Womack‬‬ ‫‪ ‬ﺍﺭﺯﺵ:‬ ‫‪ ‬ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺭﺯﺵ:ﻫﺮﭼﻴﺰﻱ ﻛﻪ ﺭﻓﺎﻩ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻱ ﺭﺍ ﺗﺎﻣﻴﻦ ﻛﻨﺪ.‬‫‪ ‬ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﺷﺮﻭﻉ ﺗﻔﻜﺮ ﻧﺎﺏ ،ﺍﺭﺯﺵ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﻛﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺯﺵ ﺭﺍ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻛﻨﺪ.‬ ‫‪ ‬ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻛﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﺑﺮ ﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻱ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺭﺯﺵ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍ ﺍﺭﺯﺵ ﺭﺍ ﺷﻨﺎﺳﺎﻳﻲ ﻭ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺳﭙﺲ ﻣﻲ ﺍﻓﺮﻳﻨﺪ‬ ‫8‬
    • ‫3 ﻧﻮﻉ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﻒ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺭﺯﺵ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫‪ ‬ﺗﺤﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎﻳﻲ)ﺗﺤﺮﻳﻒ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻭﻝ(:‬ ‫‪ ‬ﻣﺪﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﺍﺭﺷﺪ ﺷﺮﻛﺘﻬﺎﻱ ﺍﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎﻳﻲ ﺍﻛﺜﺮﺍ ﺗﺮﺑﻴﺖ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺩﺍﻧﺸﻜﺪﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﺕ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ.‬ ‫‪ ‬ﺗﻔﻜﺮﺍﻥ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﺍﺭﺷﺪ ﺍﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎﻳﻲ:‬ ‫‪-1 ‬ﺷﻐﻠﻬﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺣﺬﻑ ﻛﻨﻴﻢ‬‫‪-2 ‬ﭘﻮﻝ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﺟﻴﺐ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﭘﺎﻳﻴﻦ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﻭ ﻣﻨﻔﻌﺖ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺎﻣﻴﻦ ﻛﻨﻨﺪﮔﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﻻﻱ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺑﻴﺮﻭﻥ ﺑﻜﺸﻴﻢ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ:‬ ‫‪-1 ‬ﺗﺎﻣﻴﻦ ﺳﻮﺩ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺳﻬﺎﻣﺪﺍﺭﺍﻥ2-ﺍﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻭ ﭘﺎﺩﺍﺵ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﻋﺎﻟﻲ ﺗﺎﻣﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺷﻮﺩ‬ ‫‪ ‬ﺑﻪ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺗﻲ ﺳﻮﺩ ﺳﻬﺎﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﻭ ﭘﺎﺩﺍﺵ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﻣﻘﺪﻡ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻓﺎﻩ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺩ ﺗﺎﻣﻴﻦ ﻛﻨﻨﺪﮔﺎﻥ ﺍﺳﺖ)ﺍﺭﺯﺵ ﺩﺭ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻦ ﺣﺪﺍﻛﺜﺮ ﺳﻮﺩ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺎﻻ ﻭ‬ ‫ﭘﺎﻳﻴﻦ ﺯﻧﺠﻴﺮﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ(‬ ‫9‬
    • ‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﻒ ﺁﻟﻤﺎﻧﻲ)ﺗﺤﺮﻳﻒ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺩﻭﻡ(‬ ‫‪ ‬ﻣﺪﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﺍﻛﺜﺮﺍ ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺳﺎﻥ ﻭ ﻣﺘﺨﺼﺼﺎﻥ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬ ‫‪ ‬ﺑﻪ ﺩﻧﺒﺎﻝ ﻇﺮﺍﺋﻒ ﻭ ﭘﻴﭽﻴﺪﮔﻲ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﺑﻮﺩﻧﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻋﻼﻗﻪ ﺧﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﻬﺎ ﺑﻮﺩ ﺗﺎ ﺩﻳﮕﺮﺍﻥ‬ ‫‪ ‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﺭﺯﺵ:ﻭﻗﺘﻲ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﺭﺍ ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﻛﻨﻴﺪ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻱ ﺍﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺧﻮﺍﺳﺖ‬‫‪ ‬ﺩﺭ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﺷﻜﺴﺖ ﻣﻲ ﮔﻮﻳﻨﺪ”ﺧﺮﻳﺪﺍﺭﺍﻥ ﻓﺎﻗﺪ ﭘﻴﭽﻴﺪﮔﻲ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻓﻜﺮﻱ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﻙ ﺍﺭﺯﺷﻬﺎﻱ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﺑﻮﺩﻧﺪ”‬ ‫‪ ‬ﺍﺭﺯﺵ ﺩﺭ ﭘﻴﭽﻴﺪﻩ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫‪ ‬ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻲ ﻫﺎﻱ ﭘﻴﭽﻴﺪﻩ ﻛﻪ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻋﻼﻗﻪ ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺳﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺍﺯ ﻗﺪﺭﺕ ﺧﺮﻳﺪ‬‫ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻃﻲ ﺑﺎ ﺧﻮﺍﺳﺘﻪ ﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻳﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ.‬ ‫01‬
    • ‫ﺗﺤﺮﻳﻒ ژﺍﭘﻨﻲ)ﺗﺤﺮﻳﻒ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺳﻮﻡ(‬ ‫‪ ‬ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﺩﺭ ﻭﻃﻦ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﺩ)ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﺩﺍﺩﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻧﺘﻈﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺷﺘﻐﺎﻝ ﻭ ﺭﻭﺍﺑﻂ ﭘﺎﻳﺪﺍﺭ ﺑﺎ ﺗﺎﻣﻴﻦ ﻛﻨﻨﺪﻩ(‬ ‫‪ ‬ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻃﺒﻖ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻱ ژﺍﭘﻨﻲ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﺩ.‬ ‫‪ ‬ﺍﻣﺎ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺮﺩﻡ ﺳﺎﻳﺮ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﺑﺎ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺮﺩﻡ ژﺍﭘﻦ ﻣﻨﻄﺒﻖ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ‬‫‪ ‬ﻛﺎﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ژﺍﭘﻦ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻛﺎﻻ ﺩﻳﺮ ﺗﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﻛﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﺗﻌﺮ‬‫ﻳﻔﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺭﺯﺵ ﺭﺍ ﻗﺒﻮﻝ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻧﻬﺎ ﻣﺜﻞ ژﺍﭘﻨﻲ ﻫﺎ ﺍﺭﺯﺵ ﻳﻚ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮ ﺍﺳﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻞ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻧﻤﻲ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ‬ ‫‪ ‬ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪ ﺣﻤﻞ ﻭ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺑﺎﻻ ﻣﻲ ﺭﻭﺩ‬ ‫‪ ‬ﻭﻗﺘﻲ ﻳﻦ ﻗﻮﻱ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻣﺎﻧﺪﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻫﺮ ﻗﻴﻤﺘﻲ ﺩﺭ ژﺍﭘﻦ ﻣﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﻣﺎﻟﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﺮﺍﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻲ ﺍﻭﺭﺩ‬ ‫‪ ‬ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎﻱ ﻓﻮﺭﻱ ﻛﺎﺭﮔﺮﺍﻥ ﻭ ﺗﺎﻣﻴﻦ ﻛﻨﻨﺪﮔﺎﻥ ﺑﺮ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﻛﻨﻨﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻳﺎﻓﺘﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫11‬
    • ‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻛﺸﺸﻲ‬ ‫‪ ‬ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻧﺎﺏ ﺑﺮ ﺍﻳﻦ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻫﻴﭻ ﭼﻴﺰﻱ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻧﻤﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻣﮕﺮ ﺍﻳﻨﻜﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ.‬ ‫‪ ‬ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻭﻗﺘﻲ ﺗﻘﺎﺿﺎﻱ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻲ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﻣﻲ ﺍﻓﺘﺪ.‬ ‫‪ ‬ﻭﻗﺘﻲ ﺍﻳﺘﻤﻲ ﻓﺮﻭﺧﺘﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﺑﺎﺯﺍﺭ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﻳﻚ ﺍﻳﺘﻢ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺭﺍ ﻃﻠﺐ ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺪ)ﺑﻪ ﺍﺻﻄﻼﺡ ﻣﻲ ﻛﺸﺪ(‬ ‫‪ ‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﻳﻚ ﺳﻔﺎﺭﺵ ﺩﺭ ﺧﻂ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ.ﺟﺎﻳﻲ ﻛﻪ ﻳﻚ ﻛﺎﺭﮔﺮ‬ ‫ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﺩﻳﮕﺮﻱ ﺭﺍ ﻃﻠﺐ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﺪ ﺗﺎ ﺟﺎﻳﮕﺰﻳﻦ ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺷﻮﺩ.‬‫‪ ‬ﻭ ﻫﻤﻴﻨﻄﻮﺭ ﻛﺸﺶ ﺍﺯ ﭘﺎﻳﻴﻦ ﺯﻧﺠﻴﺮﻩ ﺷﺮﻭﻉ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺎﻻﻱ ﺯﻧﺠﻴﺮﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺭﺳﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻔﺎﺭﺵ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻪ ﻭ...ﺧﺘﻢ ﺷﻮﺩ.‬ ‫‪ ‬ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﻳﻨﻜﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻛﺸﺶ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻳﻜﻨﻮﺍﺧﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺮﺍﺳﺮ ﺯﻧﺠﻴﺮﻩ ﺍﺩﺍﻣﻪ ﻳﺎﺑﺪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻧﺎﺏ ﺑﺎ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺖ ﺑﺎﻻ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺮﺍﺳﺮ ﺯﻧﺠﻴﺮﻩ ﺑﻪ ﺧﻮﺑﻲ ﺍﺟﺮﺍ ﺷﻮﺩ.‬ ‫21‬
    • ‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻛﺸﺸﻲ‬ ‫ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻭ ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﻗﻄﻌﺎﺕ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺑﺮ ﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﺩﺭﺧﻮﺍﺳﺖ ﺍﻳﺴﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﺑﻌﺪﻱ‬ ‫‪‬‬‫ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ)ﺑﻪ ﺍﺻﻄﻼﺡ ﻣﻲ ﮔﻮﻳﻨﺪ ﺗﻘﺎﺿﺎ ﺍﺯ ﻁﺮﻑ ﺍﻳﺴﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﺑﻌﺪﻱ ﮐﺸﻴﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ(.‬ ‫ﻭﺍژﮔﻮﻧﻲ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪﻱ ﻓﺸﺎﺭﻱ ﮐﻪ ﻗﻄﻌﺎﺕ ﺑﺮ ﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﺒﻨﺪﻱ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﻳﺴﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﺑﻌﺪﻱ ﻫﻞ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﺪ.)ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺍﻧﺒﻮﻩ(‬ ‫ﻫﻤﮑﺎﺭﻱ ﻣﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻳﺴﺘﮕﺎﻫﻬﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻣﻲ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﺪ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﮐﻤﺘﺮ ﻳﺎ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﺟﻠﻮﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﺪ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫31‬
    • ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻳﺴﻪ ﺯﻧﺠﻴﺮﻩ ﺗﺎﻣﻴﻦ ﻧﺎﺏ ﻭ ﭼﺎﺑﻚ‬ ‫‪ ‬ﺯﻧﺠﻴﺮﻩ ﻧﺎﺏ‬ ‫‪- ‬ﺑﺮ ﺑﻬﺒﻮﺩ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺘﻬﺎﻳﻲ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻥ ﺑﺘﻮﺍﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺗﻲ ﺭﺍ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻃﻮﻝ ﺯﻧﺠﻴﺮﻩ ﺗﺎﻣﻴﻦ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﺍﺭﺯﺵ ﻧﻤﻲ ﻛﻨﺪ ﺭﺍ ﺣﺬﻑ ﻧﻤﻮﺩ‬ ‫‪ ‬ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺭﺍﻩ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻱ ﺭﺍ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫‪ ‬ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪ ﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫‪ ‬ﺯﻧﺠﻴﺮﻩ ﻧﺎﺏ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻﺕ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻﺗﻲ ﻛﻪ‬‫ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﺗﻘﺎﺿﺎﻱ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﻃﻮﻝ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻧﺪﺭﺕ ﺩﭼﺎﺭ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺷﻮﻧﺪ.‬ ‫‪ ‬ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﺍﻳﻦ ﮔﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻﺕ ﺑﻪ ﺧﻮﺑﻲ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺷﺪﻩ)ﭼﻮﻥ ﭼﺮﺧﻪ ﻋﻤﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻﻳﻲ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ(‬ ‫41‬
    • ‫‪ ‬ﺯﻧﺠﻴﺮﻩ ﭼﺎﺑﻚ:‬ ‫‪ ‬ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﮔﻮﻳﻲ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺑﺎﺯﺍﺭ‬ ‫‪ ‬ﭘﻮﻳﺎﻳﻲ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ‬ ‫‪ ‬ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺷﺪ ﻭ ﺍﻧﻌﻄﺎﻑ ﭘﺬﻳﺮﻱ‬ ‫‪ ‬ﺣﻤﻞ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ‬‫‪ ‬ﺯﻧﺠﻴﺮﻩ ﭼﺎﺑﻚ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻧﺒﺎﻝ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻﺕ ﺍﺑﺪﺍﻋﻲ ﻭ ﻧﻮﺍﻭﺭﻱ ﺍﺳﺖ.‬ ‫51‬
    • ‫‪ ‬ﻃﻮﻝ ﭼﺮﺧﻪ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ:‬ ‫-ﻧﺎﺏ:ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻﺕ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩﭼﺮﺧﻪ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﺎﻻﻱ ﺩﻭ ﺳﺎﻝ‬ ‫-ﭼﺎﺑﻚ:ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻﺕ ﺍﺑﺪﺍﻋﻲ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﭼﺮﺧﻪ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻛﻮﺗﺎﻩ ﺑﻴﻦ 3ﻣﺎﻩ ﺗﺎ ﻳﻚ ﺳﺎﻝ‬ ‫‪ ‬ﺑﺎﺯﺍﺭ:‬ ‫-ﻧﺎﺏ:ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﺎﺯﺍﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫-ﭼﺎﺑﻚ:ﮔﺸﻮﺩﻥ ﺑﺎﺯﺍﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫‪ ‬ﺭﻭﻳﻜﺮﺩ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﻋﺮﺿﻪ ﻛﻨﻨﺪﻩ:‬ ‫ﻧﺎﺏ:ﻋﺮﺿﻪ ﻛﻨﻨﺪﮔﺎﻧﻲ ﻛﻪ ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪ ﭘﺎﻳﻴﻦ ﻭ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺖ ﺑﺎﻻ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ‬‫ﭼﺎﺑﻚ:ﻋﺮﺿﻪ ﻛﻨﻨﺪﮔﺎﻧﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺍﻧﻌﻄﺎﻑ ﭘﺬﻳﺮﻱ ﻭ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺖ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬ ‫61‬
    • ‫‪ ‬ﺍﻟﮕﻮﻱ ﺗﻘﺎﺿﺎ:‬‫-ﻧﺎﺏ:ﺗﻘﺎﺿﺎ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺕ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ﭘﻴﺶ ﺑﻴﻨﻲ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﺧﻄﺎ ﭘﺎﻳﻴﻦ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ 01‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺻﺪ‬ ‫-ﭼﺎﺑﻚ:ﺗﻘﺎﺿﺎ ﻏﻴﺮﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﭘﻴﺶ ﺑﻴﻨﻲ ﻭ ﺧﻄﺎ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ 05 ﺩﺭﺻﺪ‬ ‫‪ ‬ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﮋﻱ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻲ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ:‬ ‫-ﻧﺎﺏ:ﺣﺪﺍﻛﺜﺮﺳﺎﺯﻱ ﻋﻤﻠﻜﺮﺩ ﻭ ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻥ ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪ‬ ‫-ﭼﺎﺑﻚ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻲ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻﺗﻲ ﻛﻪ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎﻱ ﻫﺮ ﻛﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮﺍﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﻛﻨﺪ‬ ‫71‬
    • ‫ﺍﺻﻮﻝ ﺗﻔﻜﺮ ﻧﺎﺏ‬ ‫1 – ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﺭﺯﺵ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﺍﺯﺩﻳﺪﮔﺎﻩ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻱ)‪(value‬‬ ‫2 – ﺷﻨﺎﺳﺎﻳﻲ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺍﺭﺯﺵ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ)‪(value stream‬‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻠﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﺍﺭﺯﺵ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺣﺬﻑ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻠﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺗﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﻨﺪ‬ ‫3 – ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﺣﺮﻛﺖ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻭﻗﻔﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﺭﺯﺵ)‪(flow‬‬ ‫4 – ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻛﺸﺶ ﺩﺭ ﺯﻧﺠﻴﺮﻩ)‪(pull‬‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﺁﻥ ﭼﻴﺰﻱ ﻛﻪ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻱ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﻭ ﺳﻔﺎﺭﺵ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﻛﻪ ﻛﻪ ﺍﻧﺮﺍ ﻣﻲ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻱ ﻛﺸﺶ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﻛﻨﺪ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ.‬ ‫5 – ﺗﻌﻘﻴﺐ ﻛﻤﺎﻝ )‪(perfection‬‬ ‫81‬ ‫‪‬ﺷﻔﺎﻓﻴﺖ + ﺑﻬﺒﻮﺩ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ‬
    • ‫‪ ‬ﭼﺮﺍ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ‪Six sigma‬ﻭ ‪Lean‬ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﻣﻮﺛﺮ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ؟‬ ‫. ﻫﺪﻑ ﺷﺶ ﺳﻴﮕﻤﺎ ﺭﺳﻴﺪﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺧﻄﺎﻱ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺪ ﺻﻔﺮ ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ 4٫3 ﻋﻴﺐ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ ﻣﻴﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺗﻜﺮﺍﺭ ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ .‬‫‪ ‬ﻭﻟﻲ ﺁﻳﺎ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻﺕ ﻭ ﺧﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺧﻄﺎ ﻣﻮﻓﻘﻴﺖ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ ﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ ﺣﺘﻤﻲ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ ؟‬ ‫‪ ‬ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻓﻲ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻧﺎﺏ ﺭﻭﺷﻲ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﻧﺘﻈﺎﺭ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺳﻔﺎﺭﺵ ﻭ ﺩﺭﻳﺎﻓﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﺩﺭ ﻳﻚ ﺯﻧﺠﻴﺮﻩ ﺍﺭﺯﺵ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﺑﻄﻮﺭﻳﻜﻪ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﺑﻬﺒﻮﺩ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ، ﺣﺬﻑ‬ ‫ﺿﺎﻳﻌﺎﺕ ، ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﻱ ﺍﻧﺒﺎﺭ ﻭ ﺗﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ .‬ ‫‪ ‬ﻭﻟﻲ ﺁﻳﺎ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﺑﻬﺮﻩ ﻭﺭﻱ ﺩﺭ ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪﻱ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ 001‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻮﻓﻘﻴﺖ ﻧﺎﻳﻞ ﺷﺪ؟‬ ‫،‬ ‫91‬
    • ‫‪ ‬ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻳﻜﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺑﺰﺍﺭﻫﺎﻱ ‪Lean‬ﻭ ﻳﺎ ‪Six Sigma‬ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﻳﺘﻬﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ . ﺑﻌﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ‪Six Sigma‬ﺍﮔﺮ ﭼﻪ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺣﺬﻑ ﺧﺮﺍﺑﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻗﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﺪ ﻭﻟﻲ ﺍﻗﺪﺍﻣﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺑﺎ ﺑﻬﻴﻨﻪ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﻧﺪ ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪﻫﺎ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻧﻤﻲ ﺩﻫﺪ‬ ‫‪ ‬ﺍﺟﺮﺍﻱ ﻫﺮ ﺩﻭ ﻣﺘﺪﻟﻮژﻱ ‪Six Sigma‬ﻭ ‪Lean‬ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﺑﻬﺒﻮﺩ ﻗﻴﻤﺖ ،‬ ‫ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺖ ﻭ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ.‬‫‪ ‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺩﻭ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﺷﻨﺎﺳﺎﻳﻲ ﺳﺮﻳﻌﺘﺮ ﻭ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺘﺮ ﺭﺍﻩ ﺣﻞ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﻭ ﻣﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﺑﻪ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺖ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ.‬ ‫‪ ‬ﺩﺭ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ ‪ Solectron‬ﺍﺟﺮﺍﻱ ﻫﻤﺰﻣﺎﻥ ﺁﻥ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻩ،ﺗﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ﺭﺳﺎﻧﺪﻩ،ﻭ ﺭﻭﺵ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺧﺪﻣﺖ ﺭﺳﺎﻧﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻱ ﺭﺍ‬ ‫02‬ ‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ.ﺑﻪ ﻛﺎﺭﻣﻨﺪﺍﻥ ﻛﻤﻚ ﻛﺮﺩﻩ ﺗﺎ ﻛﺎﺭﺍﻳﻲ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎﻻ ﺑﺒﺮﻧﺪ‬
    • ‫‪ ‬ﻛﺎﻳﺰﻥ ﭼﻴﺴﺖ ؟‬ ‫‪ ‬ﻛﺎﻳﺰﻥ ﺍﺻﻄﻼﺣﻲ ژﺍﭘﻨﻲ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻱ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻤﺖ ﺑﻬﺘﺮ ﺷﺪﻥ ﻳﺎ ﺑﻬﺒﻮﺩ‬‫ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻭ ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺠﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ . ﺩﺭ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ، ﻛﺎﻳﺰﻥ ﺑﺮ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻓﻠﺴﻔﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﺑﻬﺒﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻫﺎ ﻻﺯﻡ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻧﺒﺎﻝ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻧﻔﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﻳﺎ ﻧﺎﮔﻬﺎﻧﻲ‬‫ﺑﺎﺷﻴﻢ ، ﺑﻠﻜﻪ ﻫﺮ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺑﻬﺒﻮﺩ ﻳﺎ ﺍﺻﻼﺡ – ﺑﻪ ﺷﺮﻁ ﺁﻥ ﻛﻪ ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺘﻪ ﻭ ﻣﺪﺍﻭﻡ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ-‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺗﻘﺎﻱ ﺑﻬﺮﻩ ﻭﺭﻱ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺭﻣﻐﺎﻥ ﻣﻲ ﺁﻭﺭﺩ‬ ‫12‬
    • ‫ﺍﺟﺮﺍﻱ ﻛﺎﻳﺰﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺳﻴﺰﺩﻩ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ ﺧﻼﺻﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ . ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﻧﺪ ﺍﺯ :‬ ‫‪ -1 ‬ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﻪ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ‬ ‫2- ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﮔﺮﻭﻩ ﺑﻬﺒﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺩﻫﻲ ﺁﻥ‬ ‫3- ﮔﺮﺩ ﺁﻭﺭﻱ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺁﻣﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫4- ﺁﺷﻨﺎ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻥ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﺎ ﻣﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﻭ ﺍﺑﺰﺍﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﺑﻬﺒﻮﺩ‬ ‫5- ﺁﻏﺎﺯ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻥ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺁﺭﺍﺳﺘﮕﻲ‬ ‫6- ﺷﻨﺎﺳﺎﻳﻲ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﺗﻼﻑ‬ ‫7- ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻞ ﺭﻭﻳﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﺗﻼﻑ ﺩﺭ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﻪ‬ ‫8- ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﺭﺍﻩ ﺣﻞ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻋﻤﻠﻲ‬ ‫9- ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻓﻴﺰﻳﻜﻲ ﺩﺭ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﻪ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ‬ ‫01- ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﺑﻬﺒﻮﺩ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ‬ ‫11- ﺍﻋﻼﻡ ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺎﻳﺮ ﻫﻤﻜﺎﺭﺍﻥ‬ ‫21- ﺍﺭﺯﻳﺎﺑﻲ ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ‬ ‫22‬ ‫31- ﭘﻴﺪﺍﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﻣﺸﻜﻞ ﺑﻌﺪﻱ‬
    • ‫ﺍﺻﻮﻝ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺩﺭ ﻛﺎﻳﺰﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﻮﻝ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺩﺭ ﻛﺎﻳﺰﻥ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫1- ﻧﮕﻮﻳﻴﺪ ﭼﺮﺍ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻛﺎﺭ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻧﻤﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻓﻜﺮ ﻛﻨﻴﺪ ﭼﮕﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﻴﺪ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺩﻫﻴﺪ؟‬ ‫2- ﺑﻪ ﺟﺎﻱ ﻧﮕﺮﺍﻧﻲ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻣﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺣﻞ ﺁﻥ ﺍﻗﺪﺍﻡ ﻛﻨﻴﺪ.‬ ‫3- ﺍﺯ ﻭﺿﻌﻴﺖ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺭﺍﺿﻲ ﻧﺒﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﻓﻜﺮ ﺑﻬﺒﻮﺩ ﺑﺎﺷﻴﺪ .‬ ‫4- ﺍﮔﺮ ﺍﺷﺘﺒﺎﻩ ﻛﺮﺩﻳﺪ ، ﻓﻮﺭﺍ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺭﻓﻊ ﻛﻨﻴﺪ .‬ ‫5- ﺍﮔﺮ 06 ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺤﻘﻖ ﻫﺪﻑ ﺍﻃﻤﻴﻨﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺭﻳﺪ ، ﺩﺳﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺎﺭ ﺷﻮﻳﺪ .‬ ‫6- ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﭘﻲ ﺑﺮﺩﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺭﻳﺸﻪ ﻱ ﻣﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﭘﻨﺞ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺑﭙﺮﺳﻴﺪ : ﭼﺮﺍ ؟‬ ‫7- ﺑﻪ ﺩﻧﺒﺎﻝ ﻣﺤﻞ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻲ ﺧﻄﺎ ﺭﻓﺘﻪ ﻭ ﺳﻌﻲ ﻧﻜﻨﻴﺪ ﻣﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻓﺘﺮ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺣﻞ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﻴﺪ .‬ ‫8- ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺣﻞ ﻣﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺍﺯ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻛﻤﻲ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﺭﻭﺯ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻛﻨﻴﺪ .‬ ‫9- ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺣﻞ ﻣﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺑﻪ ﺟﺎﻱ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪ ، ﺍﺯ ﺧﻮﺩ ﻭ ﻫﻤﻜﺎﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﻴﺪ .‬ ‫32‬‫01- ﺑﻪ ﻓﻜﺮ ﻧﻜﺎﺕ ﺭﻳﺰ ﺑﺎﺷﻴﺪ ، ﭼﺮﺍ ﻛﻪ ﺭﻳﺸﻪ ﻱ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ ﻫﺎﺳﺖ .‬
    • ‫‪‬‬ ‫11- ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺖ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﺍﺭﺷﺪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻣﺸﻬﻮﺩ ﻭ ﻣﻠﻤﻮﺱ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ .‬ ‫21- ﺍﺯ ﻭﺍﮔﺬﺍﺭﻱ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺯﻳﺮ ﺩﺳﺘﺎﻥ ﺍﺑﺎ ﻧﻜﻨﻴﺪ .‬ ‫31- ﻫﻴﭽﮕﺎﻩ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻧﺒﺎﻝ ﻣﻘﺼﺮ ﻧﺒﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﻋﺠﻮﻝ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻧﻜﻨﻴﺪ .‬ ‫41- ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺩﻳﺪﺍﺭﻱ ﻭ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺑﻬﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﺑﺰﺍﺭ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺣﻞ ﻣﺴﺌﻠﻪ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﮔﺮﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ .‬‫51- ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺍﺭﺷﺪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺎ ﻻﻳﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﭘﺎﻳﻴﻦ ﺗﺮ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺩﻭ ﺟﺎﻧﺒﻪ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ .‬‫61-ﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﮕﻮ ﻫﺎﻱ ﭼﻨﺪ ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺗﻲ ﻭ ﻏﻨﻲ ﺳﺎﺯﻱ ﺷﻐﻠﻲ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺷﻜﻮﻓﺎ ﺷﺪﻥ ﺍﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻛﻨﻴﺪ .‬ ‫71- ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺖ ﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﺭﺍ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺩﻫﻴﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﺭﺯﺵ ﺍﻓﺰﻭﺩﻩ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ .‬ ‫81- ﺑﺮ ﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﮕﻮﻫﺎﻱ ﻛﺎﺭ ﮔﺮﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﻛﺎﺭ ﺭﺍ ﺣﻞ ﻛﻨﻴﺪ .‬ ‫91- ﺣﺬﻑ ) ﻣﻮﺩﺍ ( ﻓﺮﺁﻳﻨﺪﻱ ﭘﺎﻳﺎﻥ ﻧﺎﭘﺬﻳﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ . ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻛﺎﺭ ﺧﺴﺘﻪ ﻧﺸﻮﻳﺪ‬ ‫42‬
    • ‫‪VALUE CHAIN MAPPING‬‬ ‫‪ ‬ﺭﻭﺷﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻮﺳﻴﻠﻪ ﺁﻥ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﻳﻚ ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻠﻲ ﻛﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﻬﺒﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺩ ،ﺍﻧﺎﻟﻴﺰ ﻛﺮﺩ.‬‫‪ ‬ﺍﻳﺪﻩ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺩﻳﺎﮔﺮﺍﻡ ﻳﻚ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺖ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ ﺟﺰﺋﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﻛﻨﻴﻢ ﺗﺎ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻭﺍﺿﺢ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺘﻬﺎﻳﻲ ﻛﻪ:‬ ‫‪- ‬ﺍﺭﺯﺵ ﺍﻓﺰﻭﺩﻩ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ‬ ‫‪- ‬ﺍﺭﺯﺵ ﺍﻓﺰﻭﺩﻩ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﻧﻤﻲ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ‬ ‫‪- ‬ﺍﻧﻬﺎﻳﻲ ﻛﻪ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﺍﻧﺘﻈﺎﺭ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬ ‫52‬
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    • ‫‪ ‬ﻧﻜﺎﺗﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻲ ﺯﻧﺠﻴﺮﻩ ﺗﺎﻣﻴﻦ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻣﺪ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ:‬ ‫‪ ‬ﺯﻧﺠﻴﺮﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺪﺍﻛﺜﺮ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻛﺎﺭ ﻛﻨﺪ‬‫‪ ‬ﺗﻠﻔﺎﺗﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﻛﻨﺪ ﺷﺪﻥ ﺯﻧﺠﻴﺮﻩ ﺗﺎﻣﻴﻦ ﻳﺎ ﺗﻮﻗﻒ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬‫‪ ‬ﺑﻴﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺗﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﺍﺭﺯﺵ ﻣﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺣﺬﻑ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺗﺎﻛﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﺩ.)ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﺗﻼﻑ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻭﻟﻮﻳﺖ ﺍﺳﺖ(‬ ‫‪ ‬ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻧﺒﺎﻝ ﺗﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺑﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﻛﺎﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪ ،ﺍﻓﻴﺲ ﻭ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺗﻬﺎﻱ ﻓﻴﺰﻳﻜﻲ ﻭ ﻓﻨﻲ‬ ‫82‬
    • ‫ﺍﺻﻮﻝ ﻭ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻲ ﺯﻧﺠﻴﺮﻩ ﺗﺎﻣﻴﻦ ﻧﺎﺏ‬ 1. Focused factory networks. 2. Group technology. 3. Quality at the source. 4. JIT production. 5. Uniform plant loading. 6. Kanban production control system. 7. Minimized setup times. 29
    • ‫ﺍﺻﻮﻝ ﻭ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻲ ﺯﻧﺠﻴﺮﻩ ﺗﺎﻣﻴﻦ ﻧﺎﺏ‬ ‫‪-1 ‬ﺷﺒﻜﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺘﻤﺮﻛﺰ ﻛﺎﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪ:.‪Focused factory networks‬‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪ ﻫﺎ ﺗﻚ ﻫﺪﻓﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ﺗﺎ ﺑﺮﻭﻛﺮﺍﺳﻲ ﮔﺮﻳﺒﺎﻧﮕﻴﺮﻣﺎﻥ ﻧﺸﻮﻧﺪ‬‫ژﺍﭘﻨﻲ ﻫﺎ ﻛﺎﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺗﺨﺼﺺ ﻳﺎﻓﺘﻪ ﻛﻮﭼﻚ ﻣﻲ ﺳﺎﺯﻧﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺟﺎﻱ ﺍﻳﻨﻜﻪ ﺷﺮﻛﺘﻬﺎﻱ ﺑﺰﺭﮔﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ ﻋﻤﻮﺩﻱ ﺑﺎ ﻫﻢ ﺍﺩﻏﺎﻡ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﻧﺪ ﺑﺴﺎﺯﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﻠﺖ ﻃﻮﻻﻧﻲ ﻭ ﺑﺮﻭﻛﺮﺍﺳﻲ ﻧﺎﺷﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻧﺮﺍ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﻣﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻲ ﺩﺍﻧﻨﺪ.‬ ‫‪Group technology.-2 ‬‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﺗﺨﺼﺼﻲ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺩﺭ ﻳﻚ ﺳﻠﻮﻝ ﺣﻀﻮﺭ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ﺗﺎ:‬ ‫-ﺣﺮﻛﺘﻬﺎﻱ ﺍﺿﺎﻓﻲ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬ ‫-ﺻﻒ ﻭ ﺍﻧﺘﻈﺎﺭ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺷﻮﺩ‬ ‫-ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﺍﻧﺒﺎﺭ‬ ‫-ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﭘﺮﺳﻨﻞ‬ ‫-ﺩﺭ ﻋﻴﻦ ﺣﺎﻝ ﻛﺎﺭﮔﺮﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺍﻣﻮﺯﺵ ﺑﺒﻴﻨﻨﺪ ﺗﺎ ﺑﺘﻮﺍﻧﻨﺪ ﭼﻨﺪﻳﻦ ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻦ ﺭﺍ ﺭﺍﻩ ﺑﻴﻨﺪﺍﺯﻧﺪ‬ ‫)ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺕ ﺑﺎﻻ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻛﺎﺭﮔﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﻣﻨﻴﺖ ﺷﻐﻠﻲ ﻫﻢ ﻣﻲ ﺍﻭﺭﺩ(‬ ‫03‬
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    • ‫‪‬‬ ‫.‪3. Quality at the source‬‬ ‫‪ ‬ﻛﺎﺭ ﻫﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺍﻭﻝ ﺩﺭﺳﺖ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺷﻮﺩ ﺗﺎ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺑﻪ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻧﺒﺎﺷﺪ‬‫‪ ‬ﻛﺎﺭﮔﺮﻫﺎ ﺑﺎ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﻣﺸﻜﻞ ﺧﻂ ﺭﺍ ﻣﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ ﺗﺎ ﺭﻓﻊ ﻋﻴﺐ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﮔﻴﺮﺩ‬ ‫33‬
    • ‫ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺑﻬﻨﮕﺎﻡ‬ ‫4-‪JIT‬‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻲ ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﻱ ﻫﺎ ﻱ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺍﺳﺖ.‬ ‫‪‬‬‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻫﻴﭻ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﻱ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻪ ﺧﺮﻳﺪﺍﺭﻱ ﻧﻤﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﻫﻴﭻ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻟﻲ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻣﮕﺮ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺕ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺏ ﻛﻨﺪ.‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺎﺳﺎ ﺑﺮ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪ ﻫﺎ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺣﺬﻑ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﻱ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﻧﺒﺎﺭ ﺗﻤﺮﻛﺰ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﮔﻔﺖ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ‪JIT‬ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭﺁﻥ‬ ‫‪‬‬‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﺣﺪ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺧﺮﻳﺪﺍﺭﻱ ﻭ ﻫﻤﺰﻣﺎﻥ ﺩﺭ ﻓﺮﺁﻳﻨﺪ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ، ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﻭ ﺑﻪ‬‫ﻛﺎﻻﻱ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﻃﻲ ﺭﻭﺯ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺑﻼﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ ﺑﺴﺘﻪ ﺑﻨﺪﻱ ، ﺑﺎﺭﮔﻴﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺍﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ. ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ، ﻣﺴﺘﻠﺰﻡ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﺭﻳﺰﻱ‬ ‫ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ، ﻫﻤﺎﻫﻨﮕﻲ ﻣﻮﺛﺮ ، ﻫﻤﻜﺎﺭﻱ ﺻﻤﻴﻤﺎﻧﻪ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻛﺎﺭﻛﻨﺎﻥ ﻭ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻘﻖ ﭘﻴﺪﺍ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ ﻓﺮﻫﻨﮓ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻭ ﻭﺟﺪﺍﻥ ﻛﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻲ ﻭ ﺍﻧﻀﺒﺎﻁ‬ ‫43‬ ‫ﭘﺬﻳﺮﻱ ﺩﺍﻭﻃﻠﺒﺎﻧﻪ ﻭ ﺧﻮﺩ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻟﻲ ﺩﺭ ﻳﻚ ﻛﺎﺭ ﮔﺮﻭﻫﻲ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ.‬
    • ‫‪‬‬ ‫ﭼﺮﺍ ﺑﺮﺧﻲ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ ﻫﺎ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ‪JIT‬ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ ؟‬‫ﺩﺭ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺳﻨﺘﻲ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ، ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﻱ ﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﺧﺎﻡ ﻭ ﻗﻄﻌﺎﺕ ، ﻛﺎﻻﻫﺎﻱ ﻧﻴﻤﻪ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﻭ‬‫ﻛﺎﻻﻫﺎﻱ ﺁﻣﺎﺩﻩ ﻓﺮﻭﺵ ﻧﮕﻬﺪﺍﺭﻱ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﺗﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺩﺳﺘﺮﺱ ﻧﺒﻮﺩﻥ ﺍﻗﻼﻡ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ‬ ‫، ﺍﻳﻤﻨﻲ ﻻﺯﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ. ﺍﻣﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﻝ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﺧﻴﺮ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺻﻨﻌﺘﻲ ﭘﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺩﻩ ﺍﻧﺪ ﻛﻪ ﻧﮕﻬﺪﺍﺭﻱ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﻱ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﻳﻤﻨﻲ ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪ ﻱ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺗﻮﺟﻬﻲ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺮ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ . ﺯﻳﺮﺍ‬‫ﻧﮕﻬﺪﺍﺭﻱ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﻱ ﻫﺎ ﻣﻮﺟﺐ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﺍﺭﺯﺷﻤﻨﺪ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺨﻔﻲ ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﺪ. ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳﻦ ، ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﺯ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪﻱ ﺩﺭ ﻛﺸﻮﺭ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺻﻨﻌﺘﻲ ، ﻧﺤﻮﻩ ﻱ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻭ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﻱ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﮋﻱ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﻱ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭ ﻓﺮﺁﻳﻨﺪ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ، ﺑﻪ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺟﺮﺍ ﮔﺬﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺍﻧﺪ ﻛﻪ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﻱ ﻫﺎ ﻧﺎﻣﻴﺪﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ.‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﮋﻱ ، ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﺧﺎﻡ ﻭ ﻗﻄﻌﺎﺕ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﻲ ﺧﺮﻳﺪﺍﺭﻱ ﻳﺎ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ‬‫ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻓﺮﺁﻳﻨﺪ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ. ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﺤﻮﻩ ﻱ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻭ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﻱ ﻫﺎ ،‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﺳﻄﺢ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﻱ ﻫﺎ ، ﻣﻮﺟﺐ ﺻﺮﻓﻪ ﺟﻮﻳﻲ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺗﻮﺟﻬﻲ ﺩﺭ ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪ ﻫﺎ ﺷﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ. ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﻴﻦ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ، ﻛﺎﻻﻫﺎﻱ ﻧﻴﻤﻪ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﻱ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺩﺭ ﻫﺮ ﻳﻚ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺯ‬‫ﺍﻳﻨﻜﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ ﻱ ﺑﻌﺪﻱ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ، ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻧﻤﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ. ﻛﺎﻻﻫﺎﻱ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺗﺎﻣﻴﻦ ﺳﻔﺎﺭﺵ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺕ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ.‬ ‫53‬
    • ‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺑﻬﻨﮕﺎﻡ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ﺍﺻﻮﻻً ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺑﻬﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﻣﺒﺘﻨﻲ ﺑﺮ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺯﻳﺮ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ:‬ ‫- ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﺳﻄﻮﺡ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﻱ؛‬ ‫- ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﻱ ﺣﻴﻦ ﻓﺮﺁﻳﻨﺪ )ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻﺕ ﻧﻴﻤﻪ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ(؛‬ ‫- ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻬﺎﻱ ﺭﺍﻩﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻱ ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻦ ﺁﻻﺕ؛‬ ‫- ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻬﺎﻱ ﺍﻧﺘﻈﺎﺭ ﺩﺭ ﺧﻄﻮﻁ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ؛‬ ‫- ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﻗﻄﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﺳﻘﺎﻃﻲ ﻭ ﺩﻭﺑﺎﺭﻩﻛﺎﺭﻱﻫﺎ؛‬ ‫- ﺁﺳﺎﻥﺳﺎﺯﻱ ﻓﺮﺁﻳﻨﺪﻫﺎ؛‬ ‫- ﺑﻬﺒﻮﺩ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺖ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ؛‬ ‫- ﺑﻬﺒﻮﺩ ﻧﮕﻬﺪﺍﺭﻱ ﭘﻴﺸﮕﻴﺮﺍﻧﻪ ﺗﺠﻬﻴﺰﺍﺕ؛‬‫- ﺑﻬﺒﻮﺩ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻱ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻃﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺑﺨﺸﻬﺎﻱ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻭ ﻣﺎﺑﻴﻦ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ؛ ﻭ‬ ‫- ﺑﻬﺒﻮﺩ ﺍﺛﺮﺑﺨﺸﻲ ﻛﻠﻲ ﻛﺎﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪ.‬ ‫63‬
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    • ‫‪5-U N I F O R M P L A N T L O A D I N G‬‬ ‫‪ ‬ﻳﻜﻨﻮﺍﺧﺖ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻓﺮﻭﻧﺸﺎﻧﺪﻥ ﻣﻮﺝ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻧﺎﺷﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻋﻜﺲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻭﺍﻛﻨﺶ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ‬ ‫‪ ‬ﭼﺎﺭﻩ ﻛﺎﺭ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﻃﺮﺡ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻣﺎﻫﺎﻧﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ.‬ ‫‪ ‬ﺗﻮﻳﻮﺗﺎ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻣﺎﻫﺎﻧﻪ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺭﻭﺯﺍﻧﻪ ﺷﻜﺴﺘﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺗﺎ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﻜﻞ ﺑﺪﺳﺖ ﺍﻳﺪ‬ ‫‪ ‬ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺳﻴﻜﻞ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺩﻭ ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ.‬ ‫‪ ‬ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻧﺤﻮﻱ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻣﺸﺨﺼﻲ ﺩﺭ ﻃﻮﻝ ﺭﻭﺯ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﺩ‬ ‫83‬
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    • ‫ﺑﻪ ﮐﺎﺭ ﮔﻴﺮی ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﺭﺍﺳﺘﮕﯽ‬ ‫‪5s‬‬ ‫.‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﺒﻨﺎی ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻧﺎﺏ‬‫ﺍﻳﺪﻩ ﺍﺻﻠﯽ:ﺍﻗﻼﻣﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻧﻬﺎ ﻧﻴﺎﺯی ﻧﻴﺴﺖ ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﮐﺎﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪ ﺍﻧﺒﺎﺭ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬ ‫‪Seiri ‬‬ ‫‪ ‬ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﻛﺎﺭ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻨﻈﻢ ﻛﻨﻴﺪ)ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﻧﻈﻢ ﻭ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ(‬ ‫‪Seiton‬‬ ‫‪ ‬ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﻛﺎﺭ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﺪﻫﻲ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬ ‫‪Seiso ‬‬ ‫‪ ‬ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﻛﺎﺭ ﺭﺍ ﻧﻈﺎﻓﺖ ﻛﻨﻴﺪ‬ ‫‪Seiketsu‬‬ ‫‪ ‬ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻣﻨﻈﻢ ،ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻭ ﺳﺎﻣﺎﻧﺪﻫﻲ ﺷﺪﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ﻭ ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﻴﺪ‬ ‫‪Shitsuke‬‬ ‫‪ ‬ﺑﻪ ﻛﺎﺭﻛﻨﺎﻥ ﺁﻣﻮﺯﺵ ﺩﻫﻴﺪ ﺗﺎ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎﺭﻛﻨﻨﺪ‬‫‪ ‬ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻲ ﺁﻣﻮﺯﺷﻲ ، ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻛﺘﻲ ، ﺍﻧﻀﺒﺎﻃﻲ ﻭ ﺑﺎﺯﺭﺳﻲ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻴﺪﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺑﻬﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﺿﻌﻴﺖ‬ ‫04‬
    • ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺒﺎﻥ‬‫‪ ‬ﻛﺎﻧﺒﺎﻥ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺯ ﻛﺎﺭﺗﻬﺎﻳﻲ ﺣﺎﻭﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﺸﺨﺼﻲ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﺪ.‬ ‫‪ ‬ﻛﺎﺭﺕﻫﺎﻱ ﻛﺎﻧﺒﺎﻥ ﻳﻜﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺭﺍﻳﺞﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﻭ ﺷﻨﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻩﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻣﺖﻫﺎﺳﺖ. ﺍﻳﻦ ﻛﺎﺭﺕﻫﺎ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻً ﻣﻘﻮﺍﻳﻲ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺩﺭﻭﻥ ﻳﻚ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﺷﻔﺎﻑ‬ ‫ﭘﻼﺳﺘﻴﻜﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺟﻨﺲ ﻭﻳﻨﻴﻞ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻲﮔﺮﻓﺘﻨﺪ.‬ ‫‪ ‬ﺭﻭﻱ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻛﺎﺭﺕﻫﺎ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗﻲ ﻫﻤﭽﻮﻥ ﻧﺎﻡ ﻗﻄﻌﻪ، ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ﻗﻄﻌﻪ، ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﺄﻣﻴﻦ ﻛﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﺩﺭﻭﻧﻲ ﻳﺎ ﺑﻴﺮﻭﻧﻲ، ﺁﺩﺭﺱ ﻣﺤﻞ ﺍﻧﺒﺎﺭﺵ ﺩﺭﺝ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ.‬ ‫14‬
    • ‫‪ ‬ﻛﺎﻧﺒﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻳﻚ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﺭﻳﺰﻱ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺑﺪﺍﻧﻴﻢ ﻛﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺭﺳﻴﺪﻥ‬‫ﺑﻪ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ‪ JIT‬ﻳﺎﺭﻱ ﻣﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ ﻭ ﺍﺑﺰﺍﺭﻱ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻧﻴﻞ ﺑﻪ ‪ JIT‬ﺍﺳﺖ.‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺒﺎﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻣﻲ ﮔﻮﻳﺪ ﻛﻪ :‬ ‫‪ ‬ﭼﻪ ﭼﻴﺰﻱ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻛﻨﻴﻢ.‬ ‫‪ ‬ﭼﻪ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻛﻨﻴﻢ.‬ ‫‪ ‬ﭼﻪ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻛﻨﻴﻢ.‬ ‫24‬
    • 43
    • 44
    • ‫‪ 6 ‬ﻣﺰﻳﺖ ﺯﻳﺮ، ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩﻱ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺘﻮﻥ ﺗﺨﺼﺼﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﺰﺍﻳﺎﻥ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺒﺎﻥ ﺷﻨﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ :‬ ‫‪ -1 ‬ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﻱ ﺍﻧﺒﺎﺭ‬ ‫‪ -2 ‬ﺑﻬﺒﻮﺩ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ‬ ‫‪ -3 ‬ﺟﻠﻮﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺍﺿﺎﻓﻪ‬ ‫‪ -4 ‬ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺩﺭ ﺳﻄﺢ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺗﻲ )ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺍﭘﺮﺍﺗﻮﺭﻫﺎ(‬ ‫‪ -5 ‬ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﻳﻚ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﺭﻳﺰﻱ ﻭ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫‪ -6 ‬ﺑﻬﺒﻮﺩ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﭘﺎﺳﺨﮕﻮﻳﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺩﺭ ﺗﻘﺎﺿﺎ‬ ‫‪ -7 ‬ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﺭﻳﺴﻚ ﻛﻤﺒﻮﺩ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﻱ‬ ‫‪ -8 ‬ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﻗﺪﺭﺕ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺯﻧﺠﻴﺮﻩ ﺗﺎﻣﻴﻦ‬ ‫54‬
    • ‫‪TYPES OF KANBAN‬‬‫‪‬‬ ‫‪Production kanban‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪Signal kanban‬‬ ‫‪ ‬ﺍﺟﺎﺯﻩ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﺪ‬ ‫‪ ‬ﻛﺎﻧﺒﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﺜﻠﺜﻲ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﺴﺘﮕﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺭﻱ ﻗﺒﻠﻲ ﻋﻼﻣﺘﻲ ﻣﺒﻨﻲ ﺑﺮ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ‬‫‪‬‬ ‫‪Withdrawal kanban‬‬ ‫ﻣﻲ ﻓﺮﺳﺘﺪ‬ ‫‪ ‬ﺍﺟﺎﺯﻩ ﺣﺮﻛﺖ ﻛﺎﻻ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﺪ‬ ‫‪ Container system‬‬‫‪‬‬ ‫‪Kanban square‬‬ ‫‪ ‬ﻣﺤﻠﻲ ﺩﺭ ﻛﺎﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪ ﻛﻪ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪﺍﺕ ﻛﻨﺎﺭ ﻫﻢ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﻫﺮﮔﺎﻩ ﭘﺮ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪Material kanban‬‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺴﺖ ﻭ ﺧﺎﻟﻲ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﺍﻥ ﺍﺟﺎﺯﻩ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫‪ ‬ﻧﻮﻋﻲ ﻛﺎﻧﺒﺎﻥ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺩﺭﺧﻮﺍﺳﺖ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﭘﺮﺍﺗﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺯ ﺷﺮﻭﻉ ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺎﺭ ﻣﻲ ﺭﻭﺩ‬ ‫64‬
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    • . 49
    • ‫ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﻛﺎﻧﺒﺎﻧﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻭﺟﻭﺩﻱ ﺍﺣﺗﻳﺎﻁﻲ + ﻣﻳﺎﻧﮕﻳﻥ ﺗﻘﺎﺿﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻁﻲ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﻧﺟﺎﻡ ﺳﻔﺎﺭﺵ‬‫= ﺗﻌﺩﺍﺩ ﮐﺎﻧﺑﺎﻧﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻅﺭﻓﻳﺕ ﻅﺭﻑ ﺟﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺟﺎﻳﻲ‬ ‫‪dL + S‬‬ ‫= ‪N‬‬ ‫‪C‬‬ ‫ﮐﻪ:‬ ‫‪N‬‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺩﺍﺩ ﮐﺎﻧﺑﺎﻧﻬﺎ ﻳﺎ ﻅﺭﻑ ﺟﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺟﺎﻳﻲ =‬ ‫‪d‬‬ ‫ﻣﻳﺎﻧﮕﻳﻥ ﺗﻘﺎﺿﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻭﺍﺣﺩ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ =‬ ‫‪L‬‬ ‫ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﻧﺟﺎﻡ ﺳﻔﺎﺭﺵ =‬ ‫‪S‬‬ ‫ﻣﻭﺟﻭﺩﻱ ﺍﺣﺗﻳﺎﻁﻲ =‬ ‫‪C‬‬ ‫ﻅﺭﻓﻳﺕ ﻅﺭﻑ ﺟﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺟﺎﻳﻲ =‬ ‫05‬
    • ‫ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﻛﺎﻧﺒﺎﻧﻬﺎ‬ ‫‪d‬‬ ‫051 ﺑﻁﺭﻱ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﻋﺕ =‬ ‫‪L‬‬ ‫5.0 ﺳﺎﻋﺕ = 03 ﺩﻗﻳﻘﻪ =‬ ‫‪S‬‬ ‫5.7 = )0/5‪= 1/0(15x‬‬ ‫‪C‬‬ ‫‪= 25 bottles‬‬ ‫‪dL + S‬‬ ‫5.7 + )5.0 ‪(150 x‬‬ ‫=‪N‬‬ ‫=‬ ‫‪C‬‬ ‫52‬ ‫5.7 + 57‬ ‫=‬ ‫3.3ﮐﺎﻧﺑﺎﻥ ﻳﺎ ﻅﺭﻑ ﺟﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺟﺎﻳﻲ =‬ ‫52‬ ‫15‬
    • ‫ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺘﻬﺎﻱ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻧﺎﺏ‬ ‫1 – ﺗﻼﺵ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺣﺬﻑ ﻫﺮﮔﻮﻧﻪ ﺍﺗﻼﻑ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ‬ ‫2 – ﺗﻜﺮﻳﻢ ﺍﻧﺴﺎﻥ‬‫– ﮔﺴﺘﺮﺵ ﻣﺮﺯ ﻛﺎﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪ ﺑﻨﺤﻮﻱ ﻛﻪ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻱ ﻭ ﺗﺎﻣﻴﻦ ﻛﻨﻨﺪﮔﺎﻥ ﺷﻮﺩ‬ ‫– ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻱ ﮔﺮﺍﻳﻲ ﻭ ﺍﻧﻌﻄﺎﻑ ﭘﺬﻳﺮﻱ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺟﻬﺖ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻱ‬ ‫– ﮔﺴﺘﺮﺵ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺖ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻧﻴﺮﻭﻱ ﺍﻧﺴﺎﻧﻲ ﻭ ﺑﻬﺮﻩ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ‬ ‫– ﻛﺎﺭ ﮔﺮﻭﻫﻲ‬ ‫– ﺑﻬﺒﻮﺩ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ‬ ‫– ﻧﮕﺮﺵ ﻭ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﺪﻫﻲ ﻓﺮﺁﻳﻨﺪﻱ‬ ‫25‬
    • ‫‪CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS FOR LEAN‬‬‫5002-‪IMPLEMENTATION WITHIN SMES‬‬ ‫‪ ‬ﺭﻭﺵ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ :ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺩﺑﻴﺎﺕ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﻩ ﻭ ﻣﺼﺎﺣﺒﻪ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﺴﺐ ﻭ ﻛﺎﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﻛﻮﭼﻚ ﻭ ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﺷﺮﻕ ﺑﺮﻳﺘﺎﻧﻴﺎ‬ ‫‪ ‬ﻓﺎﻛﺘﻮﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻬﻢ:‬ ‫‪ ‬ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﻭ ﺭﻫﺒﺮﻱ‬ ‫‪ ‬ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺎﻳﻲ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫‪ ‬ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺕ ﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺗﺨﺼﺺ ﻫﺎ‬ ‫‪ ‬ﻓﺮﻫﻨﮓ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫35‬
    • ‫‪IMPLEMENTING THE LEAN SIGMA FRAMEWORK‬‬‫6002-‪IN AN INDIAN SME: A CASE STUDY‬‬ ‫‪-1 ‬ﻓﺎﺯ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ:‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻟﻪ ﺭﺍ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻛﻨﻴﺪ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻜﻨﻴﻜﻬﺎﻱ ﻃﻮﻓﺎﻥ ﻣﻐﺰﻱ ﻭ ﺳﺎﻳﺮ ﺗﻜﻨﻴﻜﻬﺎﻱ ﻭﺍﺑﺴﺘﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻛﻨﻴﺪ‬ ‫2-ﻓﺎﺯ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ:‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩﻫﺎﻱ ﻛﺎﺭﺍﻳﻲ ﺭﺍ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻛﻨﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪ ﺭﺍ ﻣﺎﻧﻴﺘﻮﺭ ﻛﻨﻴﺪ‬ ‫‪-3 ‬ﻓﺎﺯﺍﻧﺎﻟﻴﺰ:‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻨﻴﻚ ﭘﺎﺭﺗﻮ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻛﻨﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭ ﻋﻠﺖ ﻭ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻝ ﺭﺍ ﺭﺳﻢ ﻛﻨﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻞ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻭ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﺍﻧﺮﺍ ﺷﻨﺎﺳﺎﻳﻲ ﻛﻨﻴﺪ‬ ‫‪-4 ‬ﻓﺎﺯ ﺑﻬﺒﻮﺩ:‬ ‫ﺍﺯﻣﺎﻳﺶ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺩﻫﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻞ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺭﺍ ﺯﻳﺮ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺑﮕﻴﺮﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ‪ 5S‬ﺭﺍ ﺍﺟﺮﺍ ﻛﻨﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮﻃﺮﻑ ﻛﻨﻴﺪ‬ ‫‪-5 ‬ﻓﺎﺯ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ:‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻭﻟﻲ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻣﺪﺍﻭﻡ ﺗﻬﻴﻪ ﻛﻨﻴﺪ‬ ‫45‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺳﻬﺎﻱ ﺍﻣﻮﺧﺘﻪ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻙ ﺑﮕﺬﺍﺭﻳﺪ‬
    • ‫ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﻛﺎﺭﺍﻳﻲ‬ ‫‪ ‬ﮔﺮﺩﺵ ﺍﻧﺒﺎﺭ‬ ‫‪ ‬ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺭﻭﺯ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﻱ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻧﺒﺎﺭ‬‫‪ ‬ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﻗﻄﻌﺎﺕ ﻣﻌﻴﻮﺏ ﺩﺭ ﻳﻚ ﻣﻴﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﻗﻄﻌﻪ‬ ‫‪ ‬ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻛﺎﺭ‬ ‫‪ ‬ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻓﻌﺎﻝ )ﺩﺍﻳﺮ ( ﺑﻮﺩﻥ‬ ‫‪ ‬ﺍﻣﺎﺭ ﺍﻳﻤﻨﻲ ﻭ ﺳﻼﻣﺖ‬ ‫55‬
    • ‫ﺗﺎﺛﻴﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﮋﻱ ﻧﺎﺏ ﺭﻭﻱ ﻛﺎﺭﺍﻳﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺗﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺗﺎﻳﻠﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻝ0102‬ ‫‪ ‬ﻛﺎﺭﺍﻳﻲ :4 ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫‪-1 ‬ﺗﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻘﺎﻳﺴﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺭﻗﻴﺐ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ‬ ‫‪-2 ‬ﻗﻴﻤﺖ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻘﺎﻳﺴﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺭﻗﺒﺎ‬ ‫‪-3 ‬ﺑﻬﺮﻩ ﻭﺭﻱ ﻛﻠﻲ‬ ‫‪-4 ‬ﺭﺿﺎﻳﺖ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻱ‬ ‫65‬
    • ‫ﺍﻧﺎﻟﻴﺰ ﻓﺎﻛﺘﻮﺭ ﺍﺯ ﺑﻴﻦ ﭼﻨﺪﻳﻦ ﻣﺸﺨﺼﻪ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻧﺎﺏ 3 ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺯﻳﺮ ﺭﺍ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﻛﺮﺩ:‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪ JIT ‬ﺷﺎﻣﻞ:‬ ‫‪- ‬ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﻱ‬ ‫‪- ‬ﻧﮕﻬﺪﺍﺭﻱ ﭘﻴﺸﮕﻴﺮﺍﻧﻪ‬ ‫‪ ‬ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺳﻴﻜﻞ‬ ‫‪ ‬ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮژﻱ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﻣﻞ:‬ ‫‪ ‬ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ﺳﺎﺯﻱ ﺿﺎﻳﻌﺎﺕ‬ ‫-ﺣﺬﻑ ﺿﺎﻳﻌﺎﺕ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫-ﺍﺯ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺑﺮﺩﻥ ﺗﻨﮕﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﻭﮔﻠﻮﮔﺎﻩ ﻫﺎ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫-ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻱ ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﺧﻄﺎ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫-ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻱ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ‪PULL-BASED‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫75‬
    • ‫‪ ‬ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺘﻲ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ:‬ ‫‪- ‬ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﺑﺨﺶ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ‬‫‪- ‬ﺗﻤﺮﻛﺰ ﺭﻭﻱ ﻳﻚ ﺗﺎﻣﻴﻦ ﻛﻨﻨﺪﻩ‬ ‫‪ ‬ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﻣﺪﺍﻭﻡ‬ ‫85‬
    • ‫‪ JIT ‬ﺑﺎ ﻛﺎﺭﺍﻳﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺷﺮﻛﺘﻬﺎﻱ ﺑﺰﺭگ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮﻱ ﺩﺍﺷﺖ‬‫‪ ‬ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ﺳﺎﺯﻱ ﺿﺎﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮﻱ ﺑﺎ ﻛﺎﺭﺍﻳﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺷﺮﻛﺘﻬﺎﻱ ﻛﻮﭼﻚ ﺩﺍﺷﺖ‬ ‫‪ ‬ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﻛﻤﺘﺮﻱ ﺑﺎ ﻛﺎﺭﺍﻳﻲ ﺩﺭ ﻫﺮ ﺩﻭ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ ﺩﺍﺷﺖ‬ ‫‪ ‬ﻛﺎﺭﺍﻳﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺗﻲ ﺷﺮﻛﺘﻬﺎﻱ ﺑﺎ ﻣﺎﻟﻜﻴﺖ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻲ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮﻱ ﺑﺎ ﺭﻭﺵ ﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻧﺎﺏ ﺩﺍﺷﺖ.)ﺑﻪ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺷﺮﻛﺘﻬﺎﻱ ﺗﺎﻳﻠﻨﺪﻱ ﻭ ‪(Joint Venture‬‬ ‫95‬
    • ‫-‪LEAN, LEANER, TOO LEAN? THE INVENTORY‬‬‫‪PERFORMANCE LINK REVISITED‬‬‫‪CUNEYT EROGLU, CHRISTIAN HOFER‬‬ ‫0102-‬ ‫‪ ‬ﺍﺛﺮ ﻧﺎ ﺏ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﻱ ﺭﺍ ﺭﻭﻱ ﻛﺎﺭﺍﻳﻲ ﺷﺮﻛﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﻛﺮﺩﻩ ﺍﻧﺪ‬‫‪ ‬ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺷﺮﻛﺘﻬﺎﻱ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪﻱ ﺍﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻳﻚ ﺩﻭﺭﻩ 6 ﺳﺎﻟﻪ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﺪ ﻛﻪ ﻣﻌﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﻭ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ ﺍﺯ ﻳﻚ ﺻﻨﻌﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻨﻌﺖ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫‪ ‬ﻳﻚ ﺳﻮﻡ ﺍﺯ 45 ﺻﻨﻌﺖ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﻪ ﻫﻴﭻ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻧﺎﺏ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﻱ ﻭ ﻛﺎﺭﺍﻳﻲ ﺑﻨﮕﺎﻩ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﻧﺪﺍﺩﻩ ﺍﻧﺪ.)ﺑﻪ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻭﺿﻌﻴﺖ ﺧﺎﺹ ﻛﺎﻻ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮژﻱ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﻋﺮﺿﻪ ﻭ ﺗﻘﺎﺿﺎ ﻣﻮﻇﻒ ﻭ ﻣﺠﺒﻮﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺭﻭﺵ ﻧﺒﻮﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺪ(‬ ‫‪ ‬ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﻳﺮ ﺻﻨﺎﻳﻊ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ ﻣﺜﺒﺘﻲ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻧﺎﺏ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﻱ ﻭ ﻛﺎﺭﺍﻳﻲ ﺑﺮﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫06‬
    • ‫ﻧﮕﻬﺪﺍﺭﻱ ﭘﻴﺸﮕﻴﺮﺍﻧﻪ‬‫‪ ‬ﺟﻬﺖ ﺣﺼﻮﻝ ﺍﻃﻤﻴﻨﺎﻥ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻨﻜﻪ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺛﺮ ﺳﻮ ﻛﺎﺭﻛﺮﺩ ﺗﺠﻬﻴﺰﺍﺕ، ﻗﻄﻊ ﻧﺸﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ ﺍﻳﻨﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺗﻌﻤﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻭ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺩﻭﺭﻩ ﺍﻱ ﺗﺠﻬﻴﺰﺍﺕ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻣﻲ ﮔﻴﺮﺩ‬ ‫‪‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺑﺎﺯﺭﺳﻲ ﻫﺎ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﺍﻥ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﻫﺎ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻣﻲ ﮔﻴﺮﺩ‬‫‪ ‬ﺩﺭ ﺧﻂ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻧﺎﺏ ﻫﻤﻴﺸﻪ ﭼﻨﺪﻳﻦ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﺑﺎ ﻋﻤﻠﻜﺮﺩ ﺁﺳﺎﻥ ﺟﺎﻳﮕﺰﻳﻦ ﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﺑﺎ ﻋﻤﻠﻜﺮﺩ ﭘﻴﭽﻴﺪﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ.‬ ‫16‬
    • ‫ﺳﻮﺍﻻﺕ‬‫‪ ‬ﺩﺭ ﻳﻚ ﻓﺴﺖ ﻓﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺑﻴﻤﺎﺭﺳﺘﺎﻥ ﭼﮕﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺭﻭﺷﻬﺎﻱ ﻧﺎﺏ ﺭﺍ ﺍﻋﻤﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻛﺮﺩ؟‬ ‫‪ ‬ﭼﺮﺍ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﻱ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻧﺎﺏ ﺩﺭ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﺳﺖ؟ﺁﻳﺎ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻧﺎﺏ ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﺑﺎ ﻣﻮﻓﻘﻴﺖ ﺍﺟﺮﺍ ﻛﺮﺩ؟‬ ‫26‬