EXPLORATORY PHASE: INQUIRE & IDENTIFY Week 11. Data Collation & Analysis BLUE PRINT
<ul><li>For teams to successfully compile their data and findings from secondary research and observational scan </li></ul><ul><li>For teams to evaluate and interpret the data they have collected (Data Analysis) </li></ul><ul><li>Area of Concern (AOC) & Problem Statement </li></ul>Lesson Objectives
Part 1: Data Collation Once you have collected the data from whatever source you selected, you will then have to bring the data together and present it in a manageable form. This process is called collation . In order to enable easy interpretation and analysis, collation will usually involve summarising and tabulating the information. Sources Findings Cause & Effects Found Observation Scanning Secondary Research BLUE PRINT
Long Queues at Photocopy Stations during Peak Hours Part 1: Data Collation Consider this AOC! BLUE PRINT
AOC: Long Queues at Photocopy Stations during Peak Hours Part 1: Data Collation Sources Summarised Findings Cause & Effects Found Observation Scanning Queues of 20-30 people between 12-1pm on weekdays Closer observations showed that only 8 photocopy machines are in operation during those times Machines often break down midway. Students rushing between classes to print materials Slowdown in turnover of machines between users. As a result, each student experienced an average waiting time of 22 minutes Students were printing an average of 9.5 pages each Secondary Research School Admin Records show that whilst student population increased by average 3.5% annually from 2006-2010, machines increased from 6 units to 8 ( over the same period) Heavy demand for printing hardcopies coupled with limited number of machines attributed to slowdown BLUE PRINT
Part 2: Data Analysis Tools Tool 1: Cause & Effect Analysis A Cause-and-Effect Diagram (also known as a "Fishbone Diagram" ) is a graphical technique for grouping people's ideas about the causes of a problem. BLUE PRINT
Tool 2: The Multiple Whys The Multiple Whys is a simple problem-solving technique that helps you to get to the root of a problem quickly Multiple Whys strategy involves looking at any problem and asking: "Why?" and "What caused this problem?“ Very often, the answer to the first "why" will prompt another "why" and the answer to the second "why" will prompt another and so on; hence the name the 5 Whys strategy. Benefits of the Multiple Whys include: It helps you to quickly determine the root cause of a problem. It's simple, and easy to learn and apply.
Tool 2: The Multiple Whys (taught in Year 1 Idea Jumpstart) Example: Long Queues at the Photocopying Machines Using the Multiple Whys, you go through the following steps to get to the cause of the problem: -Why are students unhappy when they go to use the machines? Because it takes too long a time. -Why does it take a long time? Too much time taking to sign in to the machines -Why is that so? Users need to sign in with their name and IDs to identify and track their usage. -Why did we not notice this before? Because this problem has got incremental worse over time. We clearly need to review our user registration system.
Tool 3: Pareto Principle of Analysis Conceived by quality management guru Joseph M. Juran. Named after Italian Vilfredo Pareto, who in 1906 observed that 80% of income in Italy went to 20% of the population. Pareto later carried out surveys on a number of other countries and found to his surprise that a similar distribution applied. The 80/20 rule can be applied to almost anything: -80% of customer complaints arise from 20% of your products or services. -80% of delays in schedule arise from 20% of the possible causes of the delays. -20% of your products or services account for 80% of your profit. -20% of your sales-force produces 80% of your company revenues. -20% of a systems defects cause 80% of its problems. Source: http://www.projectsmart.co.uk/pareto-analysis-step-by-step.html
Tool 3: Pareto Principle of Analysis The Pareto Principle states that only a "vital few" factors are responsible for producing most of the problems This principle can be applied to quality improvement to the extent that a great majority of problems (80%) are produced by a few key causes (20%). BLUE PRINT Order Responses % Cumulative % Users have to sign in onto the machines 42 33.6 33.6 Machines should be dispersed across campus 33 26.5 60 Too many assignments in hardcopy 25 20 80 Staff assistants are not helpful 17 13.6 93.6 Students do not know how to operate the machines 7 5 99.2 Staff are not efficient 1 0.8 100 Total Responses 125 100% 100%
‘ Pareto’s Principle’: Example 2PHAT Clothing Store at Orchid Mall has been seeing a steady decline in business. The current store manager at the store has assumed that the decline has been due to customer dissatisfaction with the clothing line he is selling and he has blamed his the lack of quality/defects of the clothes and lack of availability of stock for customers. He did a survey lasting 1 month, ranking responses for the 6 most common complaints for the store and solicited feedback from 293 2PHAT’s walk-in customers. Help him plot a Pareto’s curve to identify the key issues. See the summary of data (next slide).
‘ Pareto’s Principle’: Example Order Responses Percentage Cumulative Percentage Sizes Limited 27 9 9 Store Layout Confusing 32 11 20 Sales reps were rude 62 21 41 Clothing fades 21 7 48 Clothing shrinks 18 6 55 Parking to access store was difficult 88 30 85 Poor lighting in the store 45 15 100 Total 293 100% 100%
‘ Pareto’s Principle’: Step 1&2 Step 1. Develop a list of possible problems, items, or causes to be compared. Step 2. Tally, for each item, how often it occurred. Then add these amounts to determine the grand total for all items. Find the percent of each item in the grand total by taking the sum of the item, dividing it by the grand total, and multiplying by 100 Problems Responses Percentage Cumulative Percentage Sizes Limited 27 9 9 Store Layout Confusing 32 11 20 Sales reps were rude 62 21 41 Clothing fades 21 7 48 Clothing shrinks 18 6 55 Parking to access store was difficult 88 30 85 Poor lighting in the store 45 15 100 Total 293 100% 100%
‘ Pareto’s Principle’: Step 3 Step 3. List the items being compared in decreasing order of the measure of comparison: e.g., the most frequent to the least frequent. The cumulative percentage for an item is the sum of that item’s percent of the total and that of all the other items that come before it in the ordering by rank. ~100% ~100% 293 Total 99 6 18 Clothing shrinks 93 7 21 Clothing fades 86 9 27 Sizes limited 77 11 32 Store layout confusing 66 15 45 Poor lighting in the store 51 21 62 Sales reps were rude 30 30 88 Parking to access store was difficult Cumulative Percentage Percentage Responses Problems
‘ Pareto’s Principle’: Step 4 & 5 Step 4. List the items on the horizontal axis of a graph from highest to lowest. Create 2 y-axes, one for the number of responses and another on percentages up to 100%. Draw in the bars for each item. Step 5. Draw a line graph of the cumulative percentages. The first point on the line graph should line up with the top of the first bar.
‘ Pareto’s Principle’: Step 6 & 7 Step 6. Draw a horizontal line from the 80% percentile on the y-axis to where it meets the curve of cumulative percentages. Step 7. Analyze the diagram by identifying those items that appear to account for most of the difficulty. This is done by looking at the area labelled ‘Significant Few’. These are the vital factors to focus on.
‘ Pareto’s Principle’: Example After charting the frequency of the answers in his customer survey, however, it was very clear that the real reasons for the decline of his business had nothing to do with his supply chain. By collecting data and displaying it in a Pareto chart, the manager could see which variables were having the most influence. In this example, parking difficulties, rude sales people and poor lighting were hurting his business most. Following the Pareto Principle, those are the areas where he should focus his attention to build his business back up.
‘ Pareto’s Principle’: Activity There has been an increasing amount of students arriving late for lessons in your school. You have been tasked to investigate this phenomenon and try to recognise the key factors that contribute to this problem. You have just completed a survey of 365 students. Using Pareto’s Principle of analysis, chart out and identify the key contributing causes behind this problem. Reasons Responses Family problems 40 Sick 30 Traffic tie-up 160 Woke up late 100 Bad weather 15 Had to take the bus 20 TOTAL 365
Tool 4: Root Cause Analysis (RCA) Root Cause Analysis (RCA) is a popular and often-used technique that helps people answer the question of why the problem occurred in the first place. Root Cause Analysis seeks to identify the origin of a problem. It uses a specific set of steps, with associated tools, to find the primary cause of the problem, so that you can: 1. Determine what happened. 2. Determine why it happened. 3. Figure out what to do to reduce the likelihood that it will happen again. Source: http://www.thinkreliability.com/Root-Cause-Analysis-CM-Basics.aspx
Tool 4: Root Cause Analysis (RCA) The Root Cause Analysis Process Root Cause Analysis has five identifiable steps. Step One: Define the Problem What do you see happening? What are the specific symptoms? Step Two: Collect Data What proof do you have that the problem exists? How long has the problem existed? What is the impact of the problem? Step Three: Identify Possible Causal Factors What sequence of events leads to the problem? What conditions allow the problem to occur? What other problems surround the occurrence of the central problem? Step Four: Identify the Root Cause(s) Why does the causal factor exist? What is the real reason the problem occurred?