RECOGNIZE! HIP HOP AND CONTEMPORARY PORTRAITURE Teacher Resource Packet Kehinde Wiley National Portrait Gallery
Contents About the exhibit Vocabulary terms and definitions Brief bio of artist Student objectives Lesson plans Additional artwork Resources
About the exhibit:RECOGNIZE! Since its inception in the late 1970’s, hip hop has become hugely influential in America. This exhibit demonstrates a variety of work yet each clearly reflect hip hop’s influence on contemporary portraiture. In their visual diversity, these works not only highlight hip hops vitality and beauty, but also suggest compelling new directions for the future of portrayal. Throughout its history, hip hop has inspired people to use their minds and their talent to create something larger than simply themselves. Whether they have found expression through DJ-ing, MC-ing, breakdancing, or art-making, hip hop has given voice and visibility to a new generation. In this exhibit, we recognize just a few of those who have portrayed and are a part of the culture itself: Kehinde Wiley, photographer David Scheinbaum, video artist Jefferson Pinder, poet Niki Giovanni, sculptor Shinique Smith, and graffiti muralists Tim Conlon and Dave Hupp (Fortune, Goodyear, and Boone, 2008).
Vocabulary recognize- v. (used with object), -nized, -niz·ing.1.to identify as something or someone previously seen, known “RECOGNIZE” connotes a “paying of respect” to the progenitors (originators) of the hip hop genre, while acknowledging those who have continued to push the limits of hip hop’s power as an outlet for POSITIVE expression. Hip Hop- A culture and form of ground breaking music and self expression with elements that consisted of the elements of graffiti art, DJing, MCing, and breaking. Inspired by: funk, soul, rhythm & blues, jazz, rock heavy metal, salsa, soca (calypso). It has given voice to a wide range of previously unheard individuals. It has made tangible what much that previously had gone unacknowledged. portrait- n. a likeness of a person, esp. of the face, as a painting, drawing, or photograph: a gallery of family portraits
PORTRAIT ARTIST KEHINDE WILEY ABOUT THE ARTIST Kehinde Wileygrew up in Los Angeles and received an MFA from Yale in 2001. Kehinde Wiley has firmly situated himself Within art history’s portrait painting tradition. As a Contemporary descendent of a long line of portraitists, Including Reynolds, Gainsborough, Titian, Ingres, among others. Wiley engages the signs and visual rhetoric of the Heroic, powerful, majestic and the sublime in his Representation of urban, black and brown men found throughout the world.
Student Objectives(pre and post visit) Students will: become “virtual” visitors of the exhibit RECOGNIZE! broaden the definition of portraiture by viewing artworks created by contemporary artist, Kehinde Wiley discuss the artwork of Kehinde Wiley and the themes of power and identity through portraiture analyze his artwork, compare and contrast his work to Renaissance artwork be able to observe and discuss the tie between the human condition, social aspirations, and society’s effect on the world engage in discussion about stereotypes and how the media plays a role in encouraging stereotype understand the visual arts in relation to history and culture
Lesson plans(after viewing the exhibit) Lesson #1: Create their own artwork using digital photography emulating his style of recreating artwork in a modern way and learn about composition through the Renaissance work. Lesson #2: Create a full length body portrait expressing an attitude about themselves with attention to composition, concept, and craftsmanship Lesson #3: Discuss and interpret the style and inspiration of portraiture in Neo-Classical art. Compare and contrast the work of Kehinde Wiley, Raphael, Dominique Ingres, and Anthony van Duke Lesson #4: Create a definition and rubric for identifying and interpreting stereotype in art and advertising. Analyze an advertisement in a magazine which uses a person to sell a product.
Lesson 1: Lesson Description: Students will learn about the artwork of Kehinde Wiley, a contemporary African-American artist. They should be able to analyze his artwork, compare and contrast his work to Renaissance artwork, and create their own artwork using digital photography emulating his style of recreating artwork in a modern way and learn about composition through the Renaissance work. Lesson Length: Four class periods or of 90 minutes Vocabulary: Renaissance, composition, modern, compare, contrast. Objective/Learning Outcomes: Students will begin to learn about composition using the Renaissance masters as inspiration. Students will gain practice on critiquing each other's work. Students will get practice using the digital camera. Students will learn about a contemporary artist. Materials needed: Whiteboard, LCD projector, Internet Access, Digital Cameras (with memory card), Memory Card Reader. WARM UP: Introduction of Kehinde Wiley - “Portrait of a Venetian Ambassador, Age 59, II” will be displayed on a white board. (artwork, artwork title, and sample questions are hidden) LESSON/PROCEDURE: Briefly discuss Kehinde Wiley's biography by showing a short movie and highlighting certain portions of his biography on his personal website. 2. Johannes Verspronck's "AndriesStilte as a Standard Bearer, 1640" will be compared to Kehinde Wiley's "Portrait of AndriesStilte, 2005". Students should compare and contrast the two pieces. Images should be set in the split screen mode.
Students should then be split into groups of two to research a Renaissance artwork on the internet and reinterpret it using modern day clothing, background and technology, specifically a digital camera. 4. Students might spend the rest of the class researching Renaissance artwork to find a piece of artwork that they would like to "modernize." Students should bring their choice of Renaissance artwork to emulate to their next class for approval by the teacher. Closing Activity: Students will have a critique of their artwork with their peers by displaying their Work. Some of the critique questions could be the following: How did the artwork emulate the Renaissance artwork? What are some positive qualities of the artwork- how is it successful? What are some things about the artwork that could be improved upon- or- if you were to do it yourself, what would you do differently? Extension Activities: Students can continue to work on a series of artwork based on one Renaissance master's artwork or do the lesson in acrylic paint.
AndriesStilte as Stand Bearer, 1640 Oil on canvas Johannes Verspronck Portrait of AndriesStilte, 2006 Oil on canvas Kehinde Wiley
Lesson 2: Attitude Portraits Objective: Students will look at and interpret contemporary artists dealing with the theme of identity through portrait and self-portrait works. (Art history/cultures) Objective: Students will create a 3⁄4 to full-length body self-portrait expressing an attitude about themselves With attention to composition, contrast, concept, and craftsmanship. (Art production) Students will interpret meaning of artist works Wiley and Sherman. Resources: Kehinde Wiley’s painting Triple Portrait of Charles I, 2007 from the RECOGNIZE! Exhibit (additional suggestion: Images ofCindy Sherman’s photography from her film stills) Introduction/Motivation: Teacher will take full-length body shot of students and print these for student use. Teacher should engage conversation of different messages and meaning artists can convey through their self-portraits. Teacher will ask students about the differences reflected concern on how other people view them versus how they see themselves or wish to be seen. ? What do you think Kehinde Wiley’s paintings of men mean? (What do you think Cindy Sherman is saying in her image of “Film Still #”?) Art images have been used to influence politics and social issues such as gender bias and racism throughout history. The media icons in advertisements, slogans and more all influence our perception and our perceptions of our truths. We need to understand how images influence our thinking. How it creates a perception of truth that isn’t the truth. Teacher will stress that good art projects might include not only making art but also dissecting some of these visual images and discuss how they influence how you feel about the topic.
Procedures: 1) Teacher will instruct students to do a practice sketch of themselves from the full- length bodyphoto teacher has taken. 2) Teacher will instruct students to make a brainstorm list of ideas to incorporate into drawing that tells something about themselves. Teacher suggests that the lists can be done with using symbolism or metaphors. 3) Teacher will assist students to narrow down ideas and choose something that is meaningful to them. 4) Teacher will have students sketch out ideas from their brainstorming lists. 5) Teacher will help students with their composition by stressing the use of design elements and principles. 6) Teacher will assist students cutting large roll paper into sheet sizes of 24x30. 7) Teacher will instruct students to transfer their design to the large paper. 8) Teacher will remind students to use full rang of value when coloring in their designs. Materials: Art history books, paper, drawing materials, pastels and colored pencils. Student Procedures: 1) Students will make practice sketches working from full body length photographs. 2) Students will make brainstorming lists with sketches with composition has to express something meaningful about themselves. 3) Students will sketch out drawings on sheet of 24x30 paper cut from large roll paper. 4) Students will add elements for background chosen. 5) Students will color in using colored pencil or pastels. Students will use full range of value tones in their coloring. Closure/Reinforce: This lesson builds on portrait work as well as the theme of social art. You have looked at the history of this and adapted the style to express your ideas. Do you like your project? Why? Does your art feel more meaningful than some of your other projects. Good art projects include not only making art but can also influence our thinking. Assessment Questions: Did the student look at and interpret contemporary artists dealing with the theme of identity through portrait and self-portrait works? Did the student create 3⁄4 to full-length body self-portrait expressing an attitude about them? Did the students interpret meaning of artist works Wiley and Sherman?
Triple Portrait of Charles I, 2007 Oil and enamel on canvas Kehinde Wiley Charles I, King of England, from Three Angles, 1636 Oil on canvas Anthony van Duke
Lesson 3: Stereotype Defined Goal Create a definition and rubric for identifying and interpreting stereotype. Objectives The student will be able to: Participate in group brainstorming activities. Identify stereotypes in everyday life. Write a definition of stereotype. Participate in group activities leading to producing a list of questions or statements which can be applied to identifying and interpreting stereotype in art and film. Look at and analyze stereotype in an artwork or film excerpt by applying rubric.
Materials large paper and markers for recording ideas (save) magazines scrap paper box ruled paper or journal scrapbook
Activities Each student writes an occupation on a piece of paper which is folded and placed in a box. Each student selects a paper and writes a detailed physical description of an imaginary person whose occupation they have selected. Each student reads his/her description aloud, not revealing the occupation. Classmates guess the occupation. Discuss how stereotypes were used or not used in this exercise. By means of group discussion, students respond to the question: In what positive and negative ways can stereotyping people be used?
By means of large and small group discussion, students generate words, phrases and ideas that define stereotype until the group decides on a definition to be used in class. The definition can be subject to change by the class at a later date. Each student should record the definition in his/her journal/scrapbook By means of group discussion, students respond to the question: How can you tell if you are looking at a stereotype in art or film. List answers in journal/scrapbook. Each student finds an advertisement in a magazine which uses a person to sell a product. Applying the answers to the question in #4, the student decides if, and specifically how, stereotype is being used in their selected advertisement. Share with whole group or in small groups.
Evaluation Participation in discussions and brainstorming activities. Application of concepts and elementary rubric to understanding stereotype in an advertisement by writing a brief analysis.
Lesson #4: “A lesson in nobility” Lesson Strategy Start by allowing students to view the image of Napoleon on the Imperial Throne, 1806 (Dominique Ingres) projected as the students walk in the room. Hand out the “What Do You See?” worksheet for students to fill out quickly based on their immediate observations of the image. Discuss their answers and ideas together and then give them the background/story of the image. “What Do You See” Worksheet Questions: What do you see in each image? What does the figure seem to be doing? How can you tell? Where are they? Describe the attire and postures of the person/people. Define the figure’s posture and the figure’s facial expression What type of emotion does the painting convey? What visual evidence supports that idea? Does this painting present a sense of power or authority? If so, how? Allow students to view the image of Ice T, VH-1 Hip Hop Honors, 2005, Kehinde Wiley. Discuss answers to the following questions: What are some similarities between these two images? What are some differences between these two images? What happens to the meaning of the artwork by placing a different person into it? What do you think is artist’s message?
Kehinde Wiley, as an artist, sees himself as similar to painters like Dominique Ingres, the only difference is he is painting now, using young black men as his subject matter. Do you find this figure powerful? Why or why not? What about the artist’s images suggest that the figures are powerful? Activity To wrap up the discussion, have students take out a piece of paper and respond to Kehinde Wiley’s artwork or the in class discussion. Create a writing prompt based on the lesson, such as “Do you think Wiley is inspired by everyday people by the way he paints them? How might you be painted to show your strength?” Assessment Students will be assessed by how much they participate in the discussion, their “What Do You See” worksheets and their written response to the artwork, discussion, or prompt.
Napoleon on the Imperial Throne, 1806 Oil on canvas Dominique Ingres Ice T, VH-1 Hip Hop Honors, 2005 Oil on canvas Kehinde Wiley
The Three Graces, 2005 Oil and enamel on canvas Kehinde Wiley The Three Graces, 1501-05 Oil Raphael
Big Daddy Kane, 2005 Oil on canvas Kehinde Wiley
Resources Garfield, J. (2010, Jan). Kehinde Wiley: Interview and portrait. Juxtapose, 108, 46-61. National Portrait Gallery Website-www.npg.si.edu/exhibit/recognize/ Wiley, K. , Jackson, B.K., & Thompson, K.A. (2009). Black light. Brooklyn, NY: Powerhouse Books
Graffiti artists TIM CONLON AND DAVE HUPP …your tag is who you are Bio: DC natives who have been “writing” together since 2000. Known best for: sophisticated lettering style, color combinations, and patterning Members of: National “crews”- Never Show Faces (NSF) and Burning America (BA) Graffiti isconsidered one of the four elements of hip hop culture
Conlon and Hupp “we pay homage to the styles and kings who came before us…the beats and rhymes that inspire us…a nod to the place where it all started…”
Conlon and hupp (cont.) RECOGNIZE!, 2007; Spray paint on panel; Tim Conlon and Dave Hupp AREK, 2007; Spray paint on panel; Tim Conlon and Dave Hupp
Photographer DAVID SCHEINBAUM “My introduction to hip hop began not as a photographer, but as a parent.” Thirty years experience as a photographer, teacher, and art dealer Known for: photographs of hip hop performers celebrating the culture and its larger significance in contrast to the negative stereotypes. Inspiration: Roy DeCarava (American photographer during the Harlem Renaissance)
David Scheinbaum Mos Def, Short List Los Angeles, California Gelatin silver print Common, Sunshine Theater Albuquerque, New Mexico 2003
Calligraphic graffiti SHANIQUE SMITH Born in Baltimore (1971) Known best for: painting, sculpture, collage, and video (former member of a graffiti crew) Inspired by: Japanese calligraphy and abstract expressionism Work for exhibit is a response to Nikki Giovanni’s poem “It’s Not a Just Situation”
Shinique Smith No Thief to Blame Mixed media installation “Hip hop has had a strong influence on me… it is a declaration; I am…a warrior” (2008) No Thief to Blame (detail)