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Data Guard25 August

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OEM and Oracle Data Guard 11gR2

OEM and Oracle Data Guard 11gR2

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Data Guard25 August Data Guard25 August Presentation Transcript

  • Oracle Data Guard 11g Release 2 with Oracle Enterprise Manager 11g Grid Control
  • Oracle Data Guard 11g Release 2 with Oracle Enterprise Manager 10g Grid Control
    Introduction to High Availability
    Data Guard Concepts
    Managing Data Guard with OEM
    Setup Data Guard without OEM
  • Introduction to High Availability
    Availability is the degree of accessibility of an application, service or system. It is measured as the percentage of uptime in a given year.
    Characteristics of a highly available systems
    • Reliability
    • Resiliency
    • No single point of failure (SPOF)
    • Recoverability
    • Timely error detection
    • Continuous operation
  • Introduction to High Availability
    Finalize with all stake holders prior to DR planning and implementation
    Service Level Agreement (SLA): agreement between two parties specifying levels of availability, performance or operation. In the contract the level of each service should be clearly defined.
    Recovery Time Objective (RTO): maximum amount of time that application, service or system can be down before the organization starts suffering unacceptable consequences.
    Recovery Point Objective (RPO): maximum amount of data that can be lost without harm to the organization as a result from failure of an application, service or system.
  • Introduction to High Availability
    Resiliency and protection from failures
    Unplanned
    Site failure
    Cluster failure
    Computer failure
    System failure
    Storage failure
    Data corruption
    Human error
    Hang or slowdown
    Natural disaster
    Planned
    System and database changes
    Data changes
    Application changes
  • Introduction to High Availability
    Present demand for high availability
    Oracle HA solutions as response
    Oracle RAC
    Oracle Data Guard
    Oracle Flashback
    Oracle Streams
    Oracle Goldengate
    How we benefit leveraging Oracle RAC, Oracle Data Guard and Oracle Flashback implementing MAA?
    How Oracle RAC, Oracle Data Guard, Oracle Flashback work in tandem in implementing MAA solutions.
    Data Guard Configurations
    Fast Start failover
    Flashback as a way to avoid restoring the primary from backup in case of a failover, converting it to standby and synching it with the new primary.
    OEM as a primary tool for managing MAA solutions.
  • Data Guard Concepts
    Oracle Data Guard provides the managements, monitoring and automation software to create and maintain one or more standby databases to protect Oracle data from failures, disasters, human errors and data corruption
    Data Guard configuration consist of one primary database and one or more standby databases. The databases in a Data Guard configuration may be dispersed geographically.
    Managing primary and standby databases can be done using SQL command-line interfaces, Data Guard broker interfaces or using a GUI interface provided with OEM Grid Control.
  • Data Guard Concepts
    Primary database: accessed by most applications, can be a single instance or RAC database
    Standby database: consistent copy of the primary database. Maintained automatically using redo data. Can be a single-instance or RAC database.
  • Data Guard Concepts
    Physical Standby database
    • Provides a block-for-block physically identical copy of the primary database.
    • Synchronized through Redo Apply. Redo records are shipped and applied to the standby database.
    • Benefits:
    Switchover and failover
    Standby database can be open in read only mode while redo apply continues ( Active data Guard). Can not be used when with reporting tools requiring read-write access such as repository creation.
    Can be used as a robust DR implementation.
    Logical Standby database
    • Provides a logically (transactionally) identical copy of the primary database. Contains the same logical information as the primary database although the physical organization and structure can be different.
    • Synchronized via SQL Apply. Redo records are shipped to the standby database and mined and applied as a SQL to the standby database.
    • Additional structures can be created to optimize the reporting workload.
    • Some restrictions on data types, types of tables and types of DDL and DML operations.
    • Benefits:
    Switchover and failover
    Standby database open in read-write mode. Offload production when apps need read-write access but do not modify primary data such as when repositories are created.
    Can be used to perform upgrades to primary database with near zero downtime.
  • Data Guard Concepts
    Switchover : the primary database transition to a standby role and the standby database transition to the primary role. It is used during the course of a planned maintenance of the primary database and ensure no data loss. Final EOR is applied on the standby database.
    Failover: Occurs when the primary database is unavailable. Failover is performed only in case of a failure of the primary database and the failover results in a transition of a standby database to the primary role. Final EOR is not applied on the standby database.
  • Data Guard Concepts
    Maximum availability: Archive destination is mandatory with log writer sync and affirm. Set by ‘alter database set standby to maximize availability’. Transactions do not commit until all redo data needed to recover the transactions has been written to the online redo log and to the standby redo log on at least one synchronized standby database. Ensures zero data loss except in case of certain failures when standby can not receive redo from primary.
    Maximum performance: Archive destination is either mandatory/optional and transport is log writer or archive process and synchronous or asynchronous. Set by ‘alter database set standby to maximize performance’ .Is the default protection mode. Transactions commit as soon as redo data generated by those transactions has been written to the online log. Offers less data protection than maximum availability mode.
    Maximum protection: Archive destination is mandatory with log writer sync and affirm. Set by ‘alter database set standby to maximize protection’. Redo data needed to recover as a transaction must be written to both the online redo log and to the standby database redo log on at least one synchronized standby database before the transaction commits. Ensures zero data loss.
  • Data Guard Concepts
    New features in 11gR1
    • Support up to 9 standby databases.
    • Real time query capability of physical standby database (New Active Data Guard) feature.
    • User configurable conditions to initiate fast-start failover.
    • New Snapshot Data Guard feature.
    • Transport of redo data using SSL
    • Support of TDE with Data Guard SQL Apply.
    New features in 11gR2
    • Support up to 30 standby databases.
    • Integrated support for Application failover.
    • Compressed table support in logical standby databases.
    • Automatic redo corruption detection and repair.
  • Data Guard Concepts
    Lets put it together…
  • Managing Data Guard with OEM
    Add physical or logical standby database.
    Crate a new physical or logical standby database
    Add an existing standby database for management with Data Guard Broker.
    Flexible options for creating standby database based on RMAN features for backup and cloning.
    Direct cloning using the primary database as a source.
    Using a staged backup
    Created with create standby database wizard
    Created as level 0 and level 1 regular backup
    Monitor performance of a standby database
    Redo Generation Rate
    Redo Apply Rate
    Transport Lag
    Apply Lag
    Monitor the archiving and application of redo log
    Verify structure of a Data Guard
    Perform Switchover or Failover
    Set the type of a standby database (Active Data Guard & Snapshot Data Guard)
    Manage a Data Guard configuration and set fast-start failover.
  • Managing Data Guard with OEM
    Add physical or logical standby database.
  • Managing Data Guard with OEM
    Add physical standby database.
  • Managing Data Guard with OEM
    Add physical standby database.
  • Managing Data Guard with OEM
    Add physical standby database.
  • Managing Data Guard with OEM
    Add physical standby database.
  • Managing Data Guard with OEM
    Add physical standby database.
  • Managing Data Guard with OEM
    Add physical standby database.
  • Managing Data Guard with OEM
    Add physical standby database.
  • Managing Data Guard with OEM
    Add physical standby database.
  • Managing Data Guard with OEM
    Add physical standby database.
  • Managing Data Guard with OEM
    Add physical standby database.
    After adding a standby database new options under Data Guard hyperlink appears
    What we gain?
  • Managing Data Guard with OEM
    Verify structure of a Data Guard
  • Managing Data Guard with OEM
    Verify structure of a Data Guard
    What OEM do for us?
    What we need to do if we do it ourselves?
    Initializing
    Connected to instance oel55.gj.com:D11P
    Starting alert log monitor...
    Updating Data Guard link on database homepage...
    Skipping verification of fast-start failover static services check.
    Data Protection Settings:
    Protection mode : Maximum Performance
    Redo Transport Mode settings:
    D11P: ASYNC
    D11P1: ASYNC
    Checking standby redo log files.....OK
    Checking Data Guard status
    D11P : Normal
    D11P1 : Normal
    Checking inconsistent properties
    Checking agent status
    Checking applied log on D11P1...OK
    Processing completed.
  • Managing Data Guard with OEM
    Monitor performance of a standby database
  • Managing Data Guard with OEM
    Monitor performance of a standby database
  • Managing Data Guard with OEM
    Manage a Data Guard configuration
  • Managing Data Guard with OEM
    Manage a Data Guard configuration
  • Managing Data Guard with OEM
    Manage a Data Guard configuration
  • Managing Data Guard with OEM
    Manage a Data Guard configuration
  • Managing Data Guard with OEM
    Manage a Data Guard configuration
  • Managing Data Guard with OEM
    Manage a Data Guard configuration – Perform a switchover
  • Managing Data Guard with OEM
    Manage a Data Guard configuration – Perform a Failover
  • Managing Data Guard with OEM
    Manage a Data Guard configuration – Perform a Failover
  • Managing Data Guard with OEM
    Manage a Data Guard configuration – Perform a Failover & Reinstate the old physical database
  • Managing Data Guard with OEM
    Manage a Data Guard configuration – Perform a Failover & Reinstate the old physical database
  • Managing Data Guard with OEM
    Manage a Data Guard configuration – Configure fast-start failover
    • Select a standby database as a target for the fast-start failover
    • Configure observer ( specify observer host and observer ORACLE_HOME)
    • Set failover properties
    • Enable flashback logging
    • Enable observer
    • Fast start failover does NOT work in maximum protection role. In 10g only max availability role was supported for FSFO. Since 11g both maximum performance and maximum availability are supported.
  • Managing Data Guard with OEM
    Manage a Data Guard configuration – Configure Observer
  • Managing Data Guard with OEM
    Manage a Data Guard configuration – Enable flashback logging
  • Managing Data Guard with OEM
    Manage a Data Guard configuration – complete fast-start failover configuration
  • Managing Data Guard with OEM
    Manage a Data Guard configuration – complete fast-start failover configuration
  • Managing Data Guard with OEM
    Manage a Data Guard configuration – Create logical standby database
    • Specify ‘Create new logical standby database’ and follow similar steps as create a physical standby database.
    • SQL Apply Unsupported tables
    • Specify Backup options
    • Specify Database location
    • Specify File locations
    • Specify Configuration
  • Managing Data Guard with OEM
    Manage a Data Guard configuration – Create logical standby database
    SQL Apply Unsupported tables
  • Managing Data Guard with OEM
    Manage a Data Guard configuration – Create logical standby database
  • Managing Data Guard with OEM
    Monitor a Data Guard configuration
  • Managing Data Guard with OEM
    Monitor a Data Guard configuration
    Redo logs archived and applied
  • Managing Data Guard with OEM
    Active Data Guard
    What is Active Data Guard?
    How to set Active Data Guard?
  • Managing Data Guard with OEM
    Snapshot Data Guard
    What is Snapshot Data Guard?
    How to set Snapshot Data Guard?
    Set Redo Transport Off
    Enable Flash back Database
    Set Redo Transport On
    Use Convert to toggle between Snapshot Database and Physical Database
  • Managing Data Guard with OEM
    Manage a Data Guard configuration – Add existing Data Guard with OEM
    • Configuring Data Guard Broker with OEM Grid Control to manage an existing Data Guard by enabling Data Guard Broker
    • Select ‘Add standby database screen’
    • Specify the standby database to be enabled for management with Data Guard Broker and specify the additional properties (login credentials, archive destination, FRA).
    • Review the changes and confirm the creation of a Data Guard Broker configuration enabling us to manage the database via OEM or DGMGRL.
  • Managing Data Guard with OEM
    Manage a Data Guard configuration – Remove Data Guard configuration
    • Removing a standby database from Data Guard Broker.
    • Select a standby database you want removed from the Data Guard configuration
    • Press REMOVE button.
    • Acknowledge that you want to remove it at the confirmation page (database remains on ASM or disk).
    • Remove a Data Guard configuration
    • Click at the ‘Remove Data Guard Configuration’ link
    • Acknowledge that you want to remove the configuration at the confirmation page.
    • When complete you are returned to the Data Guard home page.
  • Managing Data Guard without OEM
    Setup Data Guard without OEM
    Configure primary database
    Configure Oracle NET
    Prepare standby site
    Create directory structures on the standby site
    Copy password file from primary database
    Create init file
    Set-up environment variables on the standby site
    Create the standby database using the new 11g RMAN feature for duplicating a database using an active primary database.
    Verify that the standby database is correct and redo data is received and archived on the standby database.
    Create a data Guard Broker configuration using DGMGRL utility
  • Managing Data Guard without OEM
    Configure primary database
    Make sure the primary database has a spfile;
    Enable force logging on primary:
    SQL> alter database force logging;
    Configure database to have standby redo logs on primary:
    SQL> alter database add standby logfile;
    Configure database initialization parameters LOG_ARCHIVE_CONFIG and LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_n on primary:
    SQL>alter system set log_archive_config=’dg_config=(d11p,d11s)’;
    SQL>alter system set log_archive_dest_2=’service=d11s ASYNC valid_for=(ONLINE_LOGFILE,PRIMARY_ROLE) db_unique_name=d11s’;
    Configure the primary database in ARCHIVELOG mode
    SQL> alter database arhivelog;
  • Managing Data Guard without OEM
    Configure Oracle NET
    Create an alias for the standby in tnsnames.ora
    D11S =
    (DESCRIPTION =
    (ADDRESS_LIST =
    (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = oel55.gj.com)(PORT = 1521))
    )
    (CONNECT_DATA =
    (SERVER = DEDICATED)
    (SERVICE_NAME = D11S)
    )
    )
     
    On the standby site configure an entry for the standby database in listener.ora
    SID_LIST_LISTENER =
    (SID_LIST =
    (SID_DESC =
    (GLOBAL_DBNAME = D11S)
    (ORACLE_HOME = /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1 )
    (SID_NAME = D11S)
    )
    )
  • Managing Data Guard without OEM
    Prepare Standby site for D11S standby database
    Create the directories required for the standby database D11S.
    Copy the orapw from the primary site and rename it to orapwD11S to match the name of the standby instance.
    Create initD11S.ora with a line db_name=D11S
    Set environment variables.
    Start the standby database in nomount using the initD11S.ora
  • Managing Data Guard without OEM
    Run RMAN to create the standby database D11S from D11P
    On the primary site:
    Run RMAN for creating the standby database
    rman target / auxiliary sys@D11S
    execute the script: 
    run {
    allocate channel d11gp1 type disk;
    allocate channel d111p2 type disk;
    allocate auxiliary channel stby type disk;
    duplicate target database for standby from active database
    spfile
    parameter_value_convert ‘d11p,d11s’
    set db_unique_name=’d11’
    set db_file_name_convert=’/d11p/’,’/d11s/’
    set log_file_name_convert=’/d11p/’,’/d11s/’
    set log_archive_max_processe=’5’
    set fal_client=’d11s’
    set fal_server=’d11p’
    set standby_file_management=’AUTO’
    set log_archive_config=’dg_config=(d11p,d11s)’
    set log_archive_dest_2=’service=d11p SYNC valid_for=(ONLINE_LOGFILE,PRIMARY_ROLE) db_unique_name=d11p’;
    }
  • Managing Data Guard without OEM
    Verify the standby database creation. Make sure redo is received and archived on standby
    On the standby database check the sequence# of the last received log by issuing: 
    SQL> select sequence#, first_time, next_time, applied from v$archive_log order by sequence#;
    Perform a log switch on the primary
    SQL> alter system switch logfile;
    Check if the log is received and archived on the standby site by verifying that the sequence is increments by one.
    SQL> select sequence#, first_time, next_time, applied from v$archive_log order by sequence#;
  • Managing Data Guard without OEM
    Create a data Guard Broker configuration using DGMGRL utility
    Set the DG_BROKER_START=TRUE on both primary and standby database 
    SQL> alter system set dg_broker_start=true;
    Modify the listener to work with Data Guard Broker by adding a static entry for DGMGRL to avoid ORA-12154 errors. Errors can be observed on startup of the standby database after performing a switchover. Reload the listener.
    SID_LIST_LISTENER =
    (SID_LIST =
    (SID_DESC =
    (GLOBAL_DBNAME = D11P_DGMGRL)
    (ORACLE_HOME = /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1 )
    (SID_NAME = D11P)
    )
    (SID_DESC =
    (GLOBAL_DBNAME = D11S_DGMGRL)
    (ORACLE_HOME = /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1 )
    (SID_NAME = D11S)
    )
    )
    Invoke the DGMGRL and connect to the primary database. Create the Data Guard Broker configuration that includes a profile for the primary database.
    DGMGRL>create configuration ‘DR1’ as primary database is ‘D11P’ connect identifier is D11P;
    Add the physical standby database to the broker configuration.
    DGMGRL>add database ‘D11S’ as connect identifier is D11S;
    Enable the configuration. 
    DGMGRL> enable configuration;
    Verify the configuration.
    DGMGRL> show configuration;
  • Managing Data Guard without OEM
    Create a data Guard Broker configuration using DGMGRL utility
    How to setup Active Data Guard? 
    On the standby database perform: 
    DGMGRL> edit database ‘D11S’ set state=’apply-off’;
    SQL>alter database open read only;
    DGMGRL>edit database ‘D11S’ set state=’apply-on’;
  • Managing Data Guard without OEM
    Create a data Guard Broker configuration using DGMGRL utility
    How to enable Fast start failover? 
    Enable flashback on the primary and standby databases
    Verify we configured standby redo log files 
    Ensure the LogXptMode Property is set to SYNC. These commands will succeed only if database is configured with standby redo logs.
    DGMGRL> EDIT DATABASE D11P SET PROPERTY 'LogXptMode'='SYNC';
    DGMGRL> EDIT DATABASE D11S SET PROPERTY 'LogXptMode'='SYNC';
    Specify the FastStartFailoverTarget property
    DGMGRL> EDIT DATABASE D11P SET PROPERTY FastStartFailoverTarget='D11S';
    DGMGRL> EDIT DATABASE D11S SET PROPERTY FastStartFailoverTarget='D11P';
  • Managing Data Guard without OEM
    Create a data Guard Broker configuration using DGMGRL utility
    How to enable Fast start failover? (cont.) 
    Make sure maximum protection is not set.
    Enable Fast Start Failover
    DGMGRL>enable fast_start failover
    Verify configuration
    DGMGRL>show fast_start failover
    DGMGRL>show database D11P
    DGMGRL>show database D11S
    Perform switchover to the standby database 
    DGMGRL>switchover to D11S;
    Check changes to the configuration
    DGMGRL>show configuration;
    SQL> select database_role from v$database;
    Perform switchover to the original primary
    DGMGRL>switchover to D11P;
    Check changes to the configuration
    DGMGRL>show configuration;
    SQL> select database_role from v$database;
  • Oracle Data Guard 11g Release 2 with Oracle Enterprise Manager 11g Grid Control
    Questions?