Comparative And Superlatives

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Comparative And Superlatives

Comparative And Superlatives

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  • 1. Making Comparisons in English
  • 2. We often use comparisons because we want to talk about the differences between people, places, and things.
    • Here is an example:
    • Janet’s house is bigger than Tom’s.
    • Tom’s house is a lot smaller than Janet’s.
    • 3. Janet’s house is fancier and more elaborate than Tom’s house.
    Tom's house Janet's house
  • 3. The comparative forms from the previous example are: - bigg er than -small er than -fanc ier than - more elaborate than So . . . When do we use “–er” and when do we use “more?” Here are the rules
  • 4. Rule 1: How many syllables are the words: “ big” and “ small ?” 1 For 1-syllable adjectives, JUST add “er” to the end. Example: Tom is smarter than Joe. *If the 1-syllable adjective ends with the letter “e,” JUST add “r” to the end. Examples: nicer wiser **If the 1-syllable adjective has a C-V-C pattern, Double the consonant and add “er .”  Examples: San Francisco is wetter than San Diego. San Diego is bigger than San Francisco.
  • 5. Rule 2: For adjectives that end with the letter “y,” DROP the “y” and add “ier .” Examples: Adjective = fancy Janet’s house is fancier than Tom’s. Adjective = pretty Janet’s house is prettier than Tom’s. Adjective = friendly Alison is friendlier than Susan.
  • 6. Rule 3: How many syllables is the word: elaborate ? 4 (more than 1) For adjectives that are 2 or more syllables, use “ more” + the adjective to make the comparative form. Examples: Adjective = elaborate Janet’s house is more elaborate than Tom’s. Adjective = comfortable This chair is more comfortable than that chair.
  • 7. Rule 4: Irregular comparatives: You MUST memorize these! Examples: good = better than far = farther (further) than bad = worse than Adjective = good Sara’s grades are better than Michael’s.
  • 8. Grammar Rule: Never use both MORE and “ER!” Incorrect: Lisa’s job is more better than mine. Correct: Lisa’s job is better than mine.
  • 9. Rule 5: Using “less than” Sometimes we compare two things by using “less than.” To do this, use LESS + adjective + THAN When using “less than,” the adjective DOES NOT CHANGE Examples: He is LESS energetic than my other teacher. This class is LESS crowded than the other one. New York City is LESS polluted than Los Angeles.
  • 10. Review of Rules less quiet than less crowded than quiet crowded 5. Less Than better than worse than farther/further than good bad far 4. Irregular forms: (memorize) more polite than more beautiful than more important than polite beautiful important 3. Adjectives with two or more syllables: use “more” friendlier than busier than easier than friendly busy easy 2. Adjectives that end in “Y”: drop “Y”, add “ier” older than bigger than cheaper than old big cheap 1. Adjectives with one syllable: add “er” COMPARATIVE ADJECTIVE Rule . . .
  • 11. Some Exceptions...
    • There are a few exceptions with comparative grammar . . .
    • These are adjectives that don’t follow the basic rules or that have more than one acceptable form. To learn these, you must memorize them.
    • “ fun” We say: more fun funner
    • 2. “simple” We say: more simple OR simpler
    • 3. “narrow” We say: more narrow OR narrower
    • 4. “quiet” We say: more quiet OR quieter
  • 12. Practice!
    • Try these examples. Use the comparative form.
    • I think Social Studies is _________________ (interesting) than Math.
    • 2. San Diego is a _____________ (pretty) city than L.A.
    • 3. A dog is usually _______________ (friendly) than a cat.
    • 4. It is _____________ (hot) today than it was yesterday.
    • 5. My cousin is ______________ (rich) than I am.
    • 6. USE LESS: Some people think that Spanish is __________________ (difficult) than English.
    more interesting prettier friendlier hotter richer less difficult
  • 13. More Practice Online! For Additional Explanation and Practice, go to these websites: 1. Comparative / Superlative Explanation and Quizzes: http://web2.uvcs.uvic.ca/elc/studyzone/330/grammar/regcom.htm 2. Comparatives Challenge Board Game: http://www.quia.com/cb/283937.html If you do these exercises, the grammar will get easier! Javier Burgos E.L.T.