Social search technologies in health and medicine Image courtesy of Lone Wolf LibrarianDean Giustini, UBC librarian | firstname.lastname@example.org | SPPH 581H, October 2011
Week V – Search technologies in public healthReadings• Hughes B et al. Junior physician’s use of Web 2.0 for information seekingand medical education: A qualitative study. Int J Med Inf 2009; 78:645-655.• Metzger MJ. Using web 2.0 technologies to enhance evidence-basedmedical information. J Health Communication. 2011; 16 (sup1).• Tang et al. Googling for a diagnosis-use of Google as a diagnostic aid:internet based study. BMJ 2006;1143-1145.WebsitesGoogle scholar – http://scholar.google.comPubMed Health – http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/Twitter search – http://search.twitter.com
Google search described in 3 minutes http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BNHR6IQJGZs
What is a search engine? An index?• A tool to help locate information within a database• Within corporate, proprietary networks or PCs• Search using specific criteria, items that match• Search an “index” to find material quickly• A ‘bot’ indexes webpages as it ‘crawls’ links A search engine is a program for the retrieval of data, files or documents from a database or network, esp. the Internet
Basic search engine tips & tricks• For phrase searching, use quotes • “Asperger’s Syndrome”• Targeted searching at a specific site • Example….bullying site:kidshealth.org• Not case sensitive• Will spell check• Can use Boolean searching ( OR, NOT )• With +, can limit search term to exactly what you• With *, can search for variations of a word
Search technologies on the web• Word frequency method • relevance based on # of times word is repeated • increase relevance by using keywords in ‘meta’ tags on web page• Google’s PageRank method • Based on mathematical algorithm • Incoming links are treated as “votes” • Popularity over quality • Many links on the web are invalid due to spam How advanced are you at googling? Health Search Reference Tools
What is a social search engine?• Social indexing of information we share on the web• Computational formulas are not guiding results• Listing search results by relevance is based on trust• Users of such a social search engine are automatically secured from spamming and phishing sites
What is a social search engine?“Weve gotten so inundated with junk; its hard to find the information you want …” Whats taking its place? Social-based search ... people are turning to Facebook, Twitter & social platforms … Instead of searching Google for restaurants in Toronto, theyll ask their social networks for a recommendation …” Source: “Social search supplanted indexed search in 2011: Info-Tech”
A social search engine …• Uses social networking information to filter your search results• Mines your ‘metadata’ to judge web page relevance• Metadata is defined as ‘data about data’• Metadata refers to feedback from groups about web pages
Google social search? YouTube explains http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aYf5iSA6t6g&feature=relmfu Google Flu Trends: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6111nS66Dpk
And, Wikipedia says …… social search takes into account the social graph of the person initiating the search …when applied to web searching this approach to relevance stands in contrast to established algorithmic or machine-based approaches where relevance is determined by analyzing the text of each document or link structure of documents … results produced by socialsearch engines give more visibility to content created or touched by users …… social data ranges from simple shared bookmarks or tagging of content with descriptive labels to more sophisticated approaches that combine human intelligence with computer algorithms
Put simply, social search is……the use of information from people we trust ...expertsincluding academics, researchers, scientists ... our friendsand family….these opinions and recommendations can be collected (and mined) making the data very powerful… metadata (data about other data) provides collaborative filtering capabilities & information sorting
Social search engines 20111. Blekko – sorting out what your friends like or think are important2. Google social circle – list your social circle of friends3. Mahalo – see human-recommended web sites4. Scour – vote for your favourite sites5. SideStripe – you have questions, friends have answers6. Social mention – real-time social media search & analysis7. Social search – find websites your friends like
Social future of findability? Social network & + Existing search engines social data on the webWho? What? Academics Amazon Librarians Bing Nurses Facebook Physicians Google Wikipedia Students Yahoo Social search engines Sum total of evidence of in public health “Evidence-based public health 2.0”?
“Seeing” social networkssocial network - set of socially-relevant nodes connected by one or more relationshipssocial network analysis - nodes and ties (also edges, links, or connections) conveyrelationships….nodes are individual actors in a network, and ties are the relationshipsbetween them. The resulting graph is complex with many ties between nodes. Researchshows that social networks operate on many levels from families up to the level of nations,and play a role in determining how problems are solved, organizations are run and thedegree to which individuals succeed in achieving their goalssociograms - is a graphic representation of social links that someone enjoys in theirrelationships online and offline. A sociogram, in other words, is a diagram of the structureand patterns of group interactions. A sociogram can be drawn on the basis of differentcriteria: social relations, channels of influence, lines of communication etc.
Linkage in social networkssocial capital - refers to the social networks, systems of reciprocal relations, sets of norms orlevels of trust individuals and groups have (or resources arising from them)Betweenness - connectivity of “kin” or nodes; reflects # of people to whom you are connectedhomophily - (i.e., "love of the same") is a tendency of individuals to associate and bond withsimilar others; its presence is revealed in several network studiesnode - a node in a network can be tied to another node; a group of nodes are members in asocial network. Nodes to which an individual connects are social contacts of that individual http://hlwiki.slais.ubc.ca/index.php/Social_network_analysis