Citation Analysis and Metrics:
an introduction for authors, researchers & academics
Sheryl Adam | Dean Giustini | UBC Libr...
Related workshops:
 Web of Science/Journal Citation Reports
 Scholar, Blogger, Tweeter, Author: Building Your Academic P...
Measuring research impact:
introduction to citation metrics in scholarship
Sheryl Adam | Dean Giustini | UBC Librarians
I. Introduction
II. Overview of issues | tools
III. Practice time for Google scholar | Web of Science
IV. Discussion / Q &...
• Overview of journal impact vs. article impact metrics vs. scholar impact
"citation metrics“
• Pros & cons | how to calcu...
 In the digital age it's increasingly "Get cited or perish"
 Departments track citation counts for individuals/subgroups...
• To examine humanities-social sciences vs. sciences viewpoints
• To consider a broad range of “usage” and “metrics”
• To ...
 See journal impact factors based on "usage" (measured by citations,
primarily to journal articles, but also some book ch...
 Citation, journal & author metrics are part of field called bibliometrics
 Bibliometrics is "discipline of measuring pe...
 Web of Science and Scopus (UBC does not subscribe to Scopus)
 For example, determine researcher’s output of articles fr...
Web of Science and Scopus
• index only a small part of social scientists’ work , a very small part of a humanities scholar...
 Prepare for confirmation, promotion, tenure
 Know who is citing your work; find collaborators
 Exciting to see how oth...
 Journal impact factor (Web of Science , Eigenfactor)
 Individual scholar impact: h-index (Web of Science, also Google S...
 Google Scholar : only source with broad coverage, some limitations
 Web of Science : “Gold Standard”
 Eigenfactor.org ...
• All major & mid-size academic publishers/societies
• Elsevier, Springer, Wiley, Science, Nature, APS, ACS, IEEE, ACM, IO...
• Simple, open way to track citations to author’s articles
• A form of user-generated evaluation
• Determine citation metr...
 All have data errors; in fact, data is less complete & accurate than you'd think
 Web of Science relies on journals but...
 Stray citations are common; different “author initials” lead to confusion
 WoS has poor aggregation of minor variations...
 Google scholar is useful for individuals | CAUTION: some counts are inflated
 Web of Science – InCites are useful for u...
 What else can scholars do to get more citations to their publications?
 Will publishing in an open access journal help ...
Thank you~
Instructors: Sheryl Adam & Dean Giustini
Resources for workshop
• February 19th powerpoints & handout
• Citatio...
Citation Analysis and Metrics
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Citation Analysis and Metrics

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Some powerpoints for our October 2015 session.

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  • Citation Analysis and Metrics

    1. 1. Citation Analysis and Metrics: an introduction for authors, researchers & academics Sheryl Adam | Dean Giustini | UBC Librarians October 2015
    2. 2. Related workshops:  Web of Science/Journal Citation Reports  Scholar, Blogger, Tweeter, Author: Building Your Academic Profile
    3. 3. Measuring research impact: introduction to citation metrics in scholarship Sheryl Adam | Dean Giustini | UBC Librarians
    4. 4. I. Introduction II. Overview of issues | tools III. Practice time for Google scholar | Web of Science IV. Discussion / Q & A Agenda – 1 hr
    5. 5. • Overview of journal impact vs. article impact metrics vs. scholar impact "citation metrics“ • Pros & cons | how to calculate impact factors for journals (& scholars) • How to manage your indexed publications (or unindexed) • Leave workshop knowing a bit about Web of Science & Google scholar Goals
    6. 6.  In the digital age it's increasingly "Get cited or perish"  Departments track citation counts for individuals/subgroups  Noticeable increase in requests for citation metrics from faculty, especially for tenure and promotion & graduate students  Emphasis on quantitative data & evaluating output to make decisions in academic units  Citation counts used in tenure & funding decisions by institutions Publish or Perish?
    7. 7. • To examine humanities-social sciences vs. sciences viewpoints • To consider a broad range of “usage” and “metrics” • To discuss what shapes success (or lack thereof) • Does “value” shift across disciplines? • connection between impact | quality | importance? • Tools, how they deal with citations, articles-authors & books • Which tools cover books? • Monographs still benchmark in humanities/social science Why look at this issue?
    8. 8.  See journal impact factors based on "usage" (measured by citations, primarily to journal articles, but also some book chapters)  Rank or visualize impact of publications, scholars & journals  Discover new research areas and trends by mapping  See which journals are most important, and publish in those journals Why evaluate ‘impact’?
    9. 9.  Citation, journal & author metrics are part of field called bibliometrics  Bibliometrics is "discipline of measuring performance of a researcher, collection of articles, journal, research discipline or institution“. It involves "application of statistical analyses to study patterns of authorship, publication, and literature use" (Lancaster 1977)  What is being counted? # papers published per individual, institutional aggregated # of citations, cites per paper, cites per journal, cites per book, cites per book chapter …& so on  Other metrics: number of patents, number of graduate students, conference papers, monographs, etc. How is citation analysis done?
    10. 10.  Web of Science and Scopus (UBC does not subscribe to Scopus)  For example, determine researcher’s output of articles from 2005 to present  Book chapters (see other tools) find social scientists’ work  Small part of humanities scholars’ work  Look at journal impact factor (IF) in Journal Citation Reports  Determine "research impact"/ figure out H-index  Google scholar can be used Research impact in STEM
    11. 11. Web of Science and Scopus • index only a small part of social scientists’ work , a very small part of a humanities scholar’s output of journal articles: and a limited number of books To determine HSS research impact, you need to use tools that find citations in books and to books, including GoogleBooks, HathiTrust and other tools . For example, in Google Books, the book to journal citations ratio, roughly: Philosophy 4:1 |Sociology, Fine Arts 3:1 | Psychology 1.5:1 | Physics .001:1 Example(s): Jon Beasley-Murray; W. Peter Ward Research impact in Hum-SocSci
    12. 12.  Prepare for confirmation, promotion, tenure  Know who is citing your work; find collaborators  Exciting to see how others use your research  Get ego boost when someone reads your paper  Generate new ideas or reframe existing Why do you need impact?
    13. 13.  Journal impact factor (Web of Science , Eigenfactor)  Individual scholar impact: h-index (Web of Science, also Google Scholar) Individual scholar impact: i10-index (Google Scholar)  Individual article impact: Citation count (Web of Science; Google Scholar)  InCites - individual and institutional data  Article acceptance rate - low acceptance rate = high status journal? Traditional Impact Measures
    14. 14.  Google Scholar : only source with broad coverage, some limitations  Web of Science : “Gold Standard”  Eigenfactor.org : non – commercial alternative to Web of Science  Discipline specific citation sources, e.g. Citeseer (computer science), RePEc (Economics) More info about discipline-specific sources at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Google_Books and http://hlwiki.slais.ubc.ca/index.php/Citation_metrics_%E2%80%93_Where_to_find_them%3F Where is citation data?
    15. 15. • All major & mid-size academic publishers/societies • Elsevier, Springer, Wiley, Science, Nature, APS, ACS, IEEE, ACM, IOP, OUP, Sage, JSTOR, Taylor & Francis, Highwire, LWW… • Most smaller publishers & journals • All major public A&Is (open search tools) • PubMed, INIST, ADS, DTIC, ERIC, AGRIS, WHO… • Google Books, US/CAN/EU/WO Patents • Repositories: arXiv, PubMed, RePec, SSRN Google scholar covers?
    16. 16. • Simple, open way to track citations to author’s articles • A form of user-generated evaluation • Determine citation metrics • Do it for most articles in most journals • Create automatically maintained profile • Public profiles appear in any GS search results display • Takes ~10 mins to set up feature (need a Google mail account) • Automatically finds all (most?) papers by an academic • Sometimes, even ones forgotten (or, hidden) Google scholar citations feature
    17. 17.  All have data errors; in fact, data is less complete & accurate than you'd think  Web of Science relies on journals but some areas (e.g., philosophy) incomplete  Impact metric formulas are based on science citation patterns  most articles cited within a few years of publication  HSS disciplines are cited over longer periods, e.g., relevant longer  Years to zero cites: Biomed= 7-8 | Soc=12.5 | History, Philosophy=39 years  Disciplines are divided in ways that don’t make sense to scholars  Canadian journals are missing from lists; critical to publish about Canada, etc.  Gaming the system; manipulated by journal editors; self-citations Critique of impact factors
    18. 18.  Stray citations are common; different “author initials” lead to confusion  WoS has poor aggregation of minor variations of same titles  80% of citations to “Baden-Fuller” entered as "Badenfuller“  80-90% of citations to “van Raan” entered as “Vanraan”  Both receive 100-150 citations to correct name even though their names were correctly referenced (incorrectly entered by WoS)  Require formal request to WoS to merge variations with master record  Language bias: WoS has limited coverage of non-English sources (note origins in science) e.g. For example, journals in CAIRN not included Critique of impact factors
    19. 19.  Google scholar is useful for individuals | CAUTION: some counts are inflated  Web of Science – InCites are useful for universities (UBC does not have Scopus)  H-index is convenient summary of quantity & impact (productivity & citedness)  H-index of 7 = 7 papers have at least 7 citations each  total # citations is a fair way to assess individual impact  adjust for co-authorship & age (citations in recent years count more)  focus on citations “per paper” may discourage new scholars  adjust by years (cites/year) age of papers (AWCR; age-weighted citation rate) and # of authors (AWCRpA) Sources & use of data for impact
    20. 20.  What else can scholars do to get more citations to their publications?  Will publishing in an open access journal help to improve my citation counts?  Do you promote your research? Are you aware of the major communication channels in your field? If not, why not?  Speak to a subject specialist librarian Q & A
    21. 21. Thank you~ Instructors: Sheryl Adam & Dean Giustini Resources for workshop • February 19th powerpoints & handout • Citation metrics – Where to find them? • Workshop: Graduate Student Workshop Series Citation Metrics See also Altmetrics | Author impact metrics | Bibliometrics | Citation management | Utopia Documents | Web of Science vs. Scopus | Webometrics
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