Context: Historical perspective of medicine for health librarians The 21st century Canadian context LIBR534 - Health infor...
<ul><li>The span of time before recorded history; before invention of writing </li></ul><ul><li>We know a little about hun...
<ul><li>~3000 BC  forward </li></ul><ul><li>Greeks refute claims disease caused by demons/spirits </li></ul><ul><li>scienc...
<ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hippocrates 460-377 BC </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Galen, AD 129-216 </li></ul></ul><...
<ul><li>Fall of Rome precipitates dark ages </li></ul><ul><li>Political & religious turmoil; d iseases “God sent” </li></u...
<ul><li>Renaissance of scientific inquiry & learning </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Human dissection & cadaver studies </li></u...
<ul><li>Rene Descartes ( 1596-1650) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mind-body duality theory </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></...
<ul><li>Laboratory research  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rudolf Virchow (1821-1902) “German school” </li></ul></ul></ul>...
<ul><li>Biomedical models emerge </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Health defined as “absence of disease” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul>...
<ul><ul><ul><li>Sulfa drugs (1930s), penicillin/antibiotics (1940s) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pharmaceutical com...
<ul><li>Quick tour of history of medicine shows:  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>medicine’s roots back in antiquity </li></ul><...
<ul><li>Major medical libraries established in 19th C. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Early libraries grew out of private colle...
<ul><li>Helped establish medical libraries in 19th C </li></ul><ul><li>William OSLER, Canadian physician, on evidence: </l...
<ul><li>John Shaw Billings , MD - His Role </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Led U.S. Surgeon General’s Library - 1865-1883 </...
<ul><li>US National Library of Medicine   </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>National Network of Libraries of Medicine (NNLM) </li>...
<ul><li>No  health library act </li></ul><ul><li>No  national library of medicine </li></ul><ul><li>CISTI (Canadian Instit...
<ul><li>Origins traced back to early 20 th  c. </li></ul><ul><li>1824: Canada’s 1 st  medical school </li></ul><ul><li>Fat...
<ul><li>UBC Health Libraries Network </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>largest network of its kind in Canada  </li></ul></ul></ul>...
<ul><li>National & provincial influences  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Health care reform ongoing in 21 st  century </li></ul...
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LIBR534 History of medicine 2012

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  • Prehistory refers to all the time preceding human existence and the invention of writing.
  • 1200 Thomas Aquinas describes medicine as an art and a science as well as a virtue Epidemics of disease caused certain new methods of inquiry that were instrumental in the later development of scientific medicine e.g., faced with high death rates during bubonic plague in 14 th C., people began to raise empirical questions about disease it became clear the plague was contagious from person to person, and that not all people succumbed
  • &amp;quot;R&amp;quot; is the symbol of the Roman god Jupiter, the patron of medicines. Rx is also an abbreviation of &amp;quot;recipe,&amp;quot; from the Latin recipere , to receive. R appeared on top of all prescriptions, denoting &amp;quot;to take&amp;quot;: directions then followed. Even the English word recipe originally referred to medical prescriptions. Over time the word was also used for cooking--not unusual, as many of the same herbs and spices in cooking were being used in prescriptions at the time! I guess flavored medicine has been a round longer than we think!
  • LIBR534 History of medicine 2012

    1. 1. Context: Historical perspective of medicine for health librarians The 21st century Canadian context LIBR534 - Health information sources & services, Giustini
    2. 2. <ul><li>The span of time before recorded history; before invention of writing </li></ul><ul><li>We know a little about hunter-gatherers who were herbivores </li></ul><ul><li>Study of medicine in this period relies on artefacts, human remains & anthropology </li></ul><ul><li>Trepanning can be proven </li></ul><ul><li>Some other ‘evidence’ in art, mummification </li></ul>LIBR534 - Health information sources & services, Giustini Pre-historic period
    3. 3. <ul><li>~3000 BC forward </li></ul><ul><li>Greeks refute claims disease caused by demons/spirits </li></ul><ul><li>science based on logic, reason, philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Empirical observation </li></ul>LIBR534 - Health information sources & services, Giustini Ancient world
    4. 4. <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hippocrates 460-377 BC </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Galen, AD 129-216 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>LIBR534 - Health information sources & services, Giustini Greek physicians, antiquity
    5. 5. <ul><li>Fall of Rome precipitates dark ages </li></ul><ul><li>Political & religious turmoil; d iseases “God sent” </li></ul><ul><li>Arabic medicine thrives </li></ul><ul><li>Bubonic plague, massive loss of life </li></ul><ul><li>Madness, insanity, leprosy; hospitals in 11 th C. </li></ul>LIBR534 - Health information sources & services, Giustini Dark ages / ~1400 AD
    6. 6. <ul><li>Renaissance of scientific inquiry & learning </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Human dissection & cadaver studies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Paduan anatomy </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Giovanni Morgagni (1682-1771) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blood circulation theory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>William Harvey (1578-1657) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>LIBR534 - Health information sources & services, Giustini Medicine’s rebirth, 1500+
    7. 7. <ul><li>Rene Descartes ( 1596-1650) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mind-body duality theory </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Scientific revolution 16/17 th centuries </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bacon, Copernicus, Galileo, Newton </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Invention of microscopy </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Birth of demography </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>First “clinical trials” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>LIBR534 - Health information sources & services, Giustini Medicine’s renaissance
    8. 8. <ul><li>Laboratory research </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rudolf Virchow (1821-1902) “German school” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>paved way for antisepsis - Joseph Lister (1827-1912) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bacteriology as a scientific discipline </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Robert Koch (1843-1910) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New Science: Darwin, Freud, Einstein </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>LIBR534 - Health information sources & services, Giustini 19 th Century lab
    9. 9. <ul><li>Biomedical models emerge </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Health defined as “absence of disease” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disease caused by pathogens </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioural sciences; health interdisciplinarity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Post-Freudian integration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Economics of providing health care </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rise of information – its role in providing care </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evidence-based practices in late 20 th century </li></ul></ul></ul>LIBR534 - Health information sources & services, Giustini 20 th century medicine
    10. 10. <ul><ul><ul><li>Sulfa drugs (1930s), penicillin/antibiotics (1940s) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pharmaceutical companies & profits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Patient want the magic pill </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Resistance & superbugs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Technological advances & specialization in 21 st C. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But in early 21 st C., medical systems seen to be failing </li></ul></ul></ul>LIBR534 - Health information sources & services, Giustini 20 th century rise of pharma
    11. 11. <ul><li>Quick tour of history of medicine shows: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>medicine’s roots back in antiquity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>accelerated growth in knowledge from renaissance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>history of medicine closely linked with science </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>science and medicine are interdependent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>medical knowledge built on previous evidence </li></ul></ul></ul>LIBR534 - Health information sources & services, Giustini Review
    12. 12. <ul><li>Major medical libraries established in 19th C. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Early libraries grew out of private collections </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hospitals established in US & Canada </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Health libraries followed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flexner report 1910 </li></ul></ul></ul>LIBR534 - Health information sources & services, Giustini 1875 medical libraries
    13. 13. <ul><li>Helped establish medical libraries in 19th C </li></ul><ul><li>William OSLER, Canadian physician, on evidence: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ We doctors have always been a simple, trusting folk! Did we not believe Galen implicitly for fifteen hundred years and Hippocrates for more than two thousand years?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>[Speech given to Ontario Medical Association, Toronto, June 3, 1909]. Canada Lancet . 1909; 42:899-912 </li></ul></ul></ul>LIBR534 - Health information sources & services, Giustini Physicians & libraries
    14. 14. <ul><li>John Shaw Billings , MD - His Role </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Led U.S. Surgeon General’s Library - 1865-1883 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Medical Library Association founded 1898 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MLA founding executive: Margaret Charlton (Canadian medical librarian), William Osler & George Gould (American physician) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Largest medical library association in the world </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Offers a credential for medical librarians called AHIP </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>LIBR534 - Health information sources & services, Giustini America & medicine Margaret Ridley Charlton (1858-1931)
    15. 15. <ul><li>US National Library of Medicine </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>National Network of Libraries of Medicine (NNLM) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Established by legislation in 1956 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Today, NLM coordinates a wide array of information services for libraries worldwide... </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>LIBR534 - Health information sources & services, Giustini Medical library movement, 20 th c.
    16. 16. <ul><li>No health library act </li></ul><ul><li>No national library of medicine </li></ul><ul><li>CISTI (Canadian Institute for Science & Technical Information) officially 1966/1974 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Since 1970, CISTI worked closely with health librarians </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In 2010, some CISTI services were outsourced </li></ul></ul></ul>LIBR534 - Health information sources & services, Giustini Canada, medical libraries
    17. 17. <ul><li>Origins traced back to early 20 th c. </li></ul><ul><li>1824: Canada’s 1 st medical school </li></ul><ul><li>Father of Canadian medicare is … who? </li></ul><ul><li>Canada Health Act (1984) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>National standards of care; p ublicly-financed, privately delivered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Merged hospital & medical insurance as one statute </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No extra-billing; no user fees </li></ul></ul>LIBR534 - Health information sources & services, Giustini Canadian health care <ul><li>Canada’s five (5) health act principles: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>universality </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>accessibility </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>portability </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>public administration </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>comprehensive </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    18. 18. <ul><li>UBC Health Libraries Network </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>largest network of its kind in Canada </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>serves UBC health community at multiple locations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>HLABC (Health Libraries Assoc. of BC) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>~100 members </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>College of Registered Nurses of BC (CRNBC), BC Cancer Agency, BC College of Physicians & Surgeons Library (CPSBC) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Government ministries & public libraries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Both library technicians & librarians </li></ul></ul></ul>LIBR534 - Health information sources & services, Giustini Medical libraries – British Columbia
    19. 19. <ul><li>National & provincial influences </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Health care reform ongoing in 21 st century </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Triggered by Romanow Commission 2002 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expansion of medical, nursing, pharmacy programs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provincial premiers in Victoria January 2012 </li></ul></ul></ul>LIBR534 - Health information sources & services, Giustini Summary
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