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LIBR534 History of medical librarianship 2013
 

LIBR534 History of medical librarianship 2013

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  • It seems clear that prehistoric societies believed in both natural and supernatural means of causing and treating disease For serious diseases, for which there was no rational cause, blame was placed on the supernatural— gods , evil spirits and sorcery Trepanning (sometimes trephining ) was a basic surgical operation carried out, predominantly by medicine men, in prehistoric societies across the world, [5] [22] although evidence shows a concentration of the practice in Peru . [5] [20] [23] The most informative archaeological evidence are mummies , remains which have been preserved by freezing or in bogs ; [36] [37] no evidence exists to suggest that prehistoric people mummified for religious reasons, as Ancient Egyptians did. These bodies provide scientists with an idea of the weight, height, diet, age, and bone conditions, [38] which grant vital indications of how developed prehistoric medicine was.
  • Medical information in the Edwin Smith Papyrus [3] may date to a time as early as 3000 BC earliest known surgery was performed in Egypt around 2750 BC. Imhotep in the 3rd dynasty is sometimes credited with being the founder of ancient Egyptian medicine and with being the original author of the Edwin Smith Papyrus Greeks refutre diseases caused by demons/ As was the case elsewhere, the ancient Greeks developed a humoral system where treatments were meant to restore balance to humours in the body. Observation sual diagnosis covers all signs and traits that are visually observable in the patient.  The face, however, is a specialized aspect of visual diagnosis in Greek Medicine, which will get its own page.      Other diagnostic modalities in Greek Medicine also depend chiefly on observation and inspection.  These are principally diagnosis of the tongue, the eyes and the skin
  • Hippocrates ( 460 – 377BC) called the Father of medicine. The cult around him and his teachings resulted in the ghost writing of about 70 medical texts called the Hippocratic corpus. Claudius Galen 129 – 216AD. Turkish. Galen of Pergamon (modern-day Bergama, Turkey). Well-educated, good at self-promotion. Influenced by Hippocrates and the Greeks. He advocated bloodletting or withdrawal of small amounts of blood from patients to cure illnesses. LikeHippocrates, his Rx was based on the "humoral" system and proper balance for health. Bloodletting was the most common medical practice performed by doctors from antiquity to the late 19 th C, a period of almost 2,000 years.
  • Fall of Rome precipitates dark ages Political & religious turmoil; diseases “God sent” Arabic medicine thrives Bubonic plague, massive loss of life Epidemics encouraged new methods of inquiry instrumental in later development of scientific reason; for example, faced with high death rates during bubonic plague in 14 th C., physicians raised empirical questions about disease; it became clear the plague was contagious from person to person due to massive loss of life Not all was lost: Madness, insanity, leprosy; hospitals in 11 th C.
  • Leonardo Da Vinci 1452 – 1519AD. – The great Italian thinker during the renaissance looked at anatomy and came up with the first really detailed anatomical drawings. Influenced the work of Vesalius, Pare and Harvey.   Andreas Vesalius 1514 – 1564. – The first anatomist to challenge Galen, and proved his ideas were not correct. His ideas resulted in one of the great texts in the history of medicine called “The Fabric of the Human Body”, one of the first books to take advantage of the invention of the printing press and advances in art with over 200 illustrations. Used the bodies of executed criminals to prove his theories and believed that this practice was vital to medical progress instead of reading old textbooks. William Harvey 1578 – 1657. British. Discovered the blood was pumped around the body by the heart which had been discovered 500 years earlier in Iraq but had not been known in the west. He discovered there were seven pints of blood in the body & bloodletting didn’t work – indeed it made patients worse, or made them die
  • Descartes dubbed the 'Father of Modern Philosophy', and much subsequent Western philosophy is a response to his writings, which are studied closely to this day. His Meditations on First Philosophy continues to be a standard text at most university philosophy departments He is perhaps best known for the philosophical statement " Cogito ergo sum " ( French : Je pense, donc je suis ; English: I think, therefore I am The scientific revolution is a period associated with the 16th and 17th centuries when new ideas and knowledge laid the foundations for modern science . According to most accounts, the scientific revolution began towards the end of the Renaissance and continued through the late 18th century, the later period known as The Enlightenment . It was sparked by the publication in of two works that changed the course of science: Copernicus ‘ On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres and Vesalius 's On the Fabric of the Human body ).
  • Rudolph Carl Virchow (13 October 1821 – 5 September 1902) was a German doctor , pathologist , known for his advancement of public health . Referred to as "the father of modern pathology Louis Pasteur 1822 –1895) French chemist and microbiologist remembered for breakthroughs in causes and prevention of disease. His discoveries reduced mortality from puerperal fever , and created the first vaccine for rabies and anthrax . His experiments supported the germ theory of disease . He is best known for inventing a method to stop milk and wine from causing sickness, a process known as pasteurization . He is regarded as one of the three main founders of microbiology with Vichow and Robert Koch . R" is the symbol of the Roman god Jupiter, the patron of medicines. Rx is also an abbreviation of "recipe," from the Latin recipere , to receive. R appeared on top of all prescriptions, denoting "to take": directions then followed. Even the English word recipe originally referred to medical prescriptions. Over time the word was also used for cooking--not unusual, as many of the same herbs and spices in cooking were being used in prescriptions at the time! I guess flavored medicine has been a round longer than we think!
  • The biomedical model has been around since mid-nineteenth century as predominant model used by physicians in diagnosing illnesses In this model, health is defined as freedom from disease, pain, or defect, making the human condition "healthy". The focus is on physical processes, such as the pathology , biochemistry and physiology of disease NOT psychosocial factors This model overlooks the fact that diagnosis (that will effect treatment of the patient) should be a result of negotiation between doctor and patient It is however very limiting. By not taking into account society in general, the prevention of disease is omitted. Many diseases affecting first world countries nowadays, such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus are very much dependent on a person's actions and beliefs

LIBR534 History of medical librarianship 2013 LIBR534 History of medical librarianship 2013 Presentation Transcript

  • UBC’s iSchool LIBR534 - Health information sources & services, Giustini Andreas Vesalius (1514 — 1564), Flemish anatomist, physician and author of 1543 book on human anatomy September 2013 The historical roots of health librarianship
  • • Before recorded history & before invention of writing • We know about hunter-gatherers who were herbivores • Study of medicine relies on artifacts, human remains & anthropology • i.e., Trepanation can be proven • Some other ‘evidence’ in art, mummification Pre-historic period
  • • ~3000 BC forward • Greeks refute claims disease caused by demons/spirits • science based on logic, reason, philosophy • Empirical observation Ancient world
  • • Hippocrates 460-377 BC • Galen, AD 129-216 Greek physicians, antiquity
  • • Fall of Rome precipitates dark ages • Political & religious turmoil; diseases “God sent” • Arabic medicine thrives • Bubonic plague, massive loss of life • Madness, insanity, leprosy; hospitals in 11th C. Dark ages / ~1400 AD
  • Renaissance of scientific inquiry & learning • Human dissection & cadaver studies – Paduan anatomy – Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564) – Giovanni Morgagni (1682-1771) • Blood circulation theory – William Harvey (1578-1657) Medicine’s rebirth, 1500+
  • • Rene Descartes (1596-1650) » Mind-body duality theory • Scientific revolution 16/17th centuries » Bacon, Copernicus, Galileo, Newton » Invention of microscopy » Birth of demography » First “clinical trials” Medicine’s renaissance
  • Laboratory research • Rudolf Virchow (1821-1902) “German school” • Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) • paved way for antisepsis - Joseph Lister (1827-1912) • Bacteriology as a scientific discipline • Robert Koch (1843-1910) • New Science: Darwin, Freud, Einstein 19th Century lab medicine
  • • Biomedical models emerge • Health defined as “absence of disease” • Disease caused by pathogens • Behavioural sciences; health interdisciplinarity • Post-Freudian integration • Economics of providing health care • Rise of information – its role in providing care • Evidence-based practices in late 20th century 20th c. biomedical model
  • Sulfa drugs (1930s), penicillin/antibiotics (1940s) •Pharmaceutical companies & profits •Patient want the magic pill •Resistance & superbugs Technological advances & specialization in 21st C. •But in early 21st C., medical systems seen to be failing 20th c. rise of pharmaceuticals
  • Quick tour of history of medicine shows: • medicine’s roots back in antiquity • accelerated growth in knowledge from renaissance • history of medicine closely linked with science • science and medicine are interdependent • medical knowledge built on previous evidence Review
  • • Major medical libraries established in 19th C. • Early libraries grew out of private collections Hospitals established in US & Canada • Health libraries followed • Flexner report 1910 1875 medical libraries
  • • Helped establish medical libraries • William OSLER, Canadian physician, on evidence: • “We doctors have always been a simple, trusting folk! Did we not believe Galen implicitly for fifteen hundred years and Hippocrates for more than two thousand years?” • [Speech given to Ontario Medical Association, Toronto, June 3, 1909]. Canada Lancet. 1909; 42:899- 912 Influence of physicians on libraries
  • • John Shaw Billings, MD - His Role – Led U.S. Surgeon General’s Library - 1865-1883 • Medical Library Association founded in 1898 – MLA founding members: Margaret Charlton (Canadian medical librarian), William Osler & George Gould (American physician) – Largest medical library association in the world – Offers a credential for medical librarians called AHIP America & medicine Margaret Ridley Charlton (1858-1931)
  • US National Library of Medicine • National Network of Libraries of Medicine (NN – Established by legislation in 1956 – Today, NLM coordinates a wide array of information services for libraries worldwide... Medical library movement, 20th c.
  • • No health library act • No national library of medicine • CISTI (Canadian Institute for Science & Technical Information) officially 1966/1974 • Since 1970, CISTI worked closely with health librarians • In 2010, some CISTI services were outsourced Canadian medical libraries
  • • Origins traced back to early 20th c. • 1824: Canada’s 1st medical school • Father of Canadian medicare (?) Canada Health Act (1984) – National standards of care; publicly-financed, privately delivered – Merged hospital & medical insurance as one statute – No extra-billing; no user fees Canadian health care Canada’s five (5) health act principles: 1. universality 2. accessibility 3. portability 4. public administration 5. comprehensive
  • • UBC Health Libraries • largest “network” of its kind in Canada • serves UBC health community at multiple locations • HLABC (Health Libraries Assoc. of BC) • ~100 members • College of Registered Nurses of BC (CRNBC), BC Cancer Agency, BC College of Physicians & Surgeons Library (CPSBC) • Government ministries & public libraries • Both library technicians & librarians Medical libraries – British Columbia
  • • National & provincial influences • Health care reform ongoing in 21st century • Triggered by Romanow Commission • Provincial & local context(s) • Expansion of medical, nursing, pharmacy programs Summary
  • LIBR534 - Health information sources & services, Giustini Immerse yourself in the culture of medicine