LIBR534 History of medical librarianship 2014

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  • 1. Introduction to the history of medicine (with an eye to sources of information) Andreas Vesalius (1514 — 1564), Flemish anatomist, physician and author of 1543 book on human anatomy De Humani Corporis Fabrica by Andreas Vesalius http://archive.nlm.nih.gov/proj/ttp/flash/vesalius/vesalius.html UBC’s iSchool LIBR534 - Health information sources & services, Giustini (2014)
  • 2. The historical roots of health librarianship “…the history of medical libraries is related to the actual history of medicine” Birchette, 1973
  • 3. The historical roots of health librarianship “…the profession of medicine has been a concern …since the beginning of time….the physician, the medicine man, the healer, has always been looked upon with great respect through the centuries…. the medical library has played an important role in the great advances in medical knowledge. [Medical libraries] are the link between the past and the present…” Birchette, 1973 Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harvey_Cushing/John_Hay_Whitney_Medical_Library
  • 4. In his book, Roy Porter, medical historian, says: “ “ (Porter, pg. 30)
  • 5. Let’s start at prehistory… • Prehistory (before recorded history) • Before the invention of writing • Humans were hunter-gatherers, and herbivores • Our study of medicine requires artifacts, human remains & anthropology • i.e., Trepanation can be proven • Some other ‘evidence’ in art, mummification
  • 6. The ancient world • ~3000 BC forward • Greeks refute claims disease caused by demons/spirits • science based on logic, reason, philosophy • Empirical observation
  • 7. Greek physicians in antiquity • Hippocrates 460-377 BC • The “Father of Medicine”
  • 8. Galen, AD 129 – 216 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2ECjakT-5cw
  • 9. Dark ages / ~1400 AD • Fall of Rome precipitates dark ages • Political & religious turmoil; diseases “God sent” • Arabic medicine thrives • Bubonic plague, massive loss of life • Madness, insanity, leprosy; hospitals in 11th C.
  • 10. Avicenna, the Persian polymath https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E8pwGDhppr0
  • 11. Medicine’s rebirth, 1500+ Renaissance of scientific inquiry & learning • Human dissection & cadaver studies – Paduan anatomy – Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564) – Giovanni Morgagni (1682-1771) • Blood circulation theory – William Harvey (1578-1657)
  • 12. The Renaissance • Rene Descartes (1596-1650) » Mind-body duality theory • Scientific revolution 16/17th centuries • Bacon, Copernicus, Galileo, Newton • Invention of microscopy • Birth of demography • First “clinical trials”
  • 13. 19th century lab medicine Laboratory research • Rudolf Virchow (1821-1902) “German school” • Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) • paved way for antisepsis - Joseph Lister (1827-1912) • Bacteriology as a scientific discipline • Robert Koch (1843-1910) • New Science: Darwin, Freud, Einstein
  • 14. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qxx14RCxblg
  • 15. 20th c. biomedical model • Biomedical models emerge • Health defined as “absence of disease” • Disease caused by pathogens • Behavioural sciences • Health interdisciplinarity • Post-Freudian integration • Economics of providing health care • Rise of value of information • Evidence-based practice in 1990s
  • 16. The 20th century rise of drugs Sulfa drugs (1930s), penicillin/antibiotics (1940s) • Pharmaceutical companies & profits • Patient want the magic pill • Resistance & superbugs Technological advances & specialization in 21st C. • But in early 21st C., medical systems seen to be failing
  • 17. This tour of medical history reveals … • Medicine’s roots are in antiquity • Accelerated growth in knowledge from renaissance • History of medicine closely linked with science • Science and medicine are interdependent • Medical knowledge built on previous evidence • What Roy Porter calls “the medical record”
  • 18. 1875 medical libraries • Many major medical libraries were established in 19th C. • Early libraries grew out of private collections Hospitals established in US & Canada • Health libraries followed • Flexner report 1910
  • 19. Influence of physicians on libraries • Physicians helped to establish several medical libraries • William OSLER, Canadian physician, on evidence: “We doctors have always been a simple, trusting folk! Did we not believe Galen implicitly for fifteen hundred years and Hippocrates for more than two thousand years?” • [Speech given to Ontario Medical Association, Toronto, June 3, 1909]. Canada Lancet. 1909; 42:899-912
  • 20. McGill’s Osler Library https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jm817y Zeros https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jm817yZeros
  • 21. America & medicine • John Shaw Billings, MD - His Role – Led U.S. Surgeon General’s Library - 1865-1883 • Medical Library Association founded in 1898 – Founding members: Margaret Charlton (Canadian medical librarian), William Osler, George Gould (American physician) – Largest medical library association in the world – Offers a credential for medical librarians called AHIP Margaret Ridley Charlton (1858-1931)
  • 22. Medical library movement, 20th century US National Library of Medicine • National Network of Libraries of Medicine (NNLM) – Established by legislation in 1956 – Today, NLM coordinates information services for libraries worldwide...
  • 23. Medical libraries in Canada • No health library act in Canada • No national library of medicine • CISTI (Canadian Institute for Science & Technical Information) officially 1966/1974 • Since 1970, CISTI works closely with health librarians • In 2010, CISTI services were outsourced • In 2014, services are unavailable http://www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/eng/ http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/health-canada-library-changes-leave-scientists-scrambling-1.2499217
  • 24. Medical libraries – British Columbia • UBC health libraries • Still largest “network” of its kind in Canada • Serves UBC health community at multiple locations • HLABC (Health Libraries Assoc. of BC) • ~100 members • College of Registered Nurses of BC (CRNBC), BC Cancer Agency, BC College of Physicians & Surgeons Library (CPSBC) • Government ministries & public libraries • Both library technicians & librarians
  • 25. Summary National & provincial influences • Health care reform ongoing in 21st century • Triggered by Romanow Commission • Provincial & local context(s) • Expansion of medical, nursing, pharmacy programs
  • 26. Health care in Canada • Origins can be traced back to the early 20th c. • 1824: Canada’s 1st medical school • Father of Canadian medicare, Tommy Douglas Canada Health Act (1984) – National standards of care; publicly-financed, privately delivered – Merged hospital & medical insurance as one statute – No extra-billing; no user fees Canada’s five (5) health act principles: 1. universality 2. accessibility 3. portability 4. public administration 5. comprehensive
  • 27. Immerse yourself in the culture of medicine LIBR534 - Health information sources & services, Giustini