How to search the pharmaceutical literature


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A handout to support informatics training for UBC pharmacy residents

Published in: Health & Medicine, Technology

How to search the pharmaceutical literature

  1. 1. UBC Pharmacy Residents FindingDrug Information Efficiently, 2015–Giustini, Ellis page 1 UBC Pharmacy Residents Library Workshop, July 14th , 2015 “Introduction to the UBC Library & Finding Drug Information Efficiently” Dean Giustini (DG) – UBC Biomedical Branch librarian Ursula Ellis (UE) – UBC Reference Librarian, Woodward Library This handbook is for UBC pharmacy residents searching for drug-related information in 2015~ Schedule Topic Resources START 8:00am Introduction(s)  UBC Library website  Summon “discovery” search…  Search UBC library’s CATALOGUE  Indexes& databases  Journals (includinge-journals) 8:30-9:20am Performingliterature reviewsinpharmacy  Ovid interface “the goldstandard”  Medline & EMBASE searches  Explode & Focusfunctions  Sensitivity/specificity 9:20-9:45am Othersearch examples  PubMedsearching  Google Scholar searching  Webof Science (what doesit do?) BREAK  We’ll see howit goes…. 9:45-10:10am Clinical practice guidelines Point ofcare tools  Clinical guidelines  BC Guidelines,CMAInfobase,etc.  Point ofcare decision-makingtools  DynaMed, other 10:30 – 11:20 Books & ebooks  Informationin pharmacy books/ebooks  Usingbooks to answer background questions 11:20 – 11:50 Review  Jeopardy reviewofconcepts 11:50 – 12:00 Wrapup  Questions This handbook is supplemented by slides located at: …then CLICK AT TOP RIGHT “UBC Pharmacy Residents & PharmD Library Resources”
  2. 2. UBC Pharmacy Residents FindingDrug Information Efficiently, 2015–Giustini, Ellis page 2 UBC LIBRARY WEBSITE Pharmacy databases,journals and e-books  UBC Libraryresources -- suchas pharmacy databases,journals ande-booksare subscription-based (i.e. UBClibrarypaysfor access),so youmust authenticateas a UBC userwhenat home or at non- UBC computers.  See also:Pharmacy subjectguide – KeyResources,Help pharmacy How to search  For an overviewof searchingpharmacy-relateddatabases,seepage 7of thishandout  It isaimedat those who already havea basic understandingof searchprinciplesandhow touse indexesanddatabasessuchas EMBASE and PubMed  See ourOvidTutorial or UBC Hospital Library at the Diamond Centre,Vancouverhospital The Universityof BritishColumbiaLibrary operates one hospitallibraryatthe VancouverGeneral Hospital (DiamondCentre,Floor2). The Library licensesebooks,ejournalsanddatabases foryouruse online. The UBC Library has free documentdelivery forarticlesnotheld at UBC. The BMB Library at VGH provides access to computers,printers,copiersand Wifi via‘ubcsecure’ UBCCard The UBCCard (functionsasalibrarycard) can be obtainedfrom UBC’sCardingOffice atthe PointGrey Campus,UBC Bookstore.Forinformationaboutlibrarycards,see Howto Geta Library Card. Access Off-Campus  Useyour Campuswide login(CWL) –  If you are off-campus,youmustauthenticate asa UBC userin orderto getintoour databasesand online journal collections usingyourCWL.  EZProxy promptsyouto loginusingyour CWL whenaccessinga resource.
  3. 3. UBC Pharmacy Residents FindingDrug Information Efficiently, 2015–Giustini, Ellis page 3 Online books  Before youbuy any textbooks, checktosee if UBC libraryhasan online version.Manyclassictitles are available inAccessMedicine,Books@Ovid,ClinicalKey,eTherapeutics+, MedicinesComplete More e-books  Many e-Booksare groupedintocollectionsof materials  UBC Libraryprovidesaccesstothousandsof e-books viathe UBClibrary catalogue  Learn more about Summonand e-book searching: AccessMedicine includes:  Harrison’s Principles of internal medicine (Harrison’sonline)  Goodmanand Gilman’s Pharmacologicalbasisof therapeutics,12e  Tintinalli’s Emergency medicine  Lange educational library,includingOlson’s Poisoning &drug overdose Books@Ovid includes:  Briggs' Drugsin Pregnancy and Lactation onBooks@Ovid eTherapeutics+includes:  e-CPS  Therapeutics:online versionof TherapeuticChoices  Lexicomp Interact
  4. 4. UBC Pharmacy Residents FindingDrug Information Efficiently, 2015–Giustini, Ellis page 4 MedicinesComplete In-depthinformationaboutdrug-drug,drug-food,and drug-herb interactions  AHFSDrug Information  Martindale:The Complete DrugReference  Stockley'sDrugInteractions ClinicalKeyincludes: Goldman-Cecil Medicine &Harriet Lane Handbook, The Natural Medicines  an international researchcollaborationthatsynthesizescomplementaryandalternative therapies Other e-books:  Diagnosticand Statistical Manualof MentalDisordersDSM-V (PsychiatryOnline)  Red BookOnline  Online journal articles  Many scholarlyjournalsare available viaUBCLibrary.Whensearchingina biomedical or pharmaceutical database, FINDUBC’seLINK to linkto online versions…  In mostcases,we have an online version;if not,see whetherwe have aPRINT version  If we cannotprovide anarticle,youcan ORDER IT via InterlibraryLoan (ILL) Order page (free toUBC students,facultyandstaff)
  5. 5. UBC Pharmacy Residents FindingDrug Information Efficiently, 2015–Giustini, Ellis page 5 Clinical practice guidelines British Columbia  BCGuidelines- GuidelinesandProtocolsAdvisory Committee (GPAC) o browse conditions,withfocuson whatisrelevantto BC Canada  CMA Infobase:Clinical Practice Guidelines(CPGs) - Canadian MedicalAssociation (CMA) database of evidence-basedCanadianclinical practice guidelines(CPGs).Maintainedbythe CanadianMedical Association,itincludesapproximately1,200 CPGsdevelopedorendorsed by authoritative medical orhealthorganizationsinCanada. North American (andbeyond)  National GuidelineClearinghouse(NGC) o a US-basedpublicresource forevidence-basedclinical practice guidelines UnitedKingdom  NICE National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence  SIGNScottish Intercollegiate GuidelinesNetwork  TRIP Database: Turning Research Into Practice - UKmeta-searching (many sites simultaneously)
  6. 6. UBC Pharmacy Residents FindingDrug Information Efficiently, 2015–Giustini, Ellis page 6 Current awareness There are numerouswaystokeepupto date withcurrentliterature,includingsubscribingtoelectronic bulletinsandnewsletters,settingupRSS feedsfortablesof contentsfromkeyjournals,creatingalertsfor specificdatabase searches,andparticipatinginajournal club.Here are some ideasforyou to explore as youcustomize yourstrategyforkeepingupwithcurrentevidence.  Bulletins, newsletters,etc.  BritishColumbiaPharmacyAssociation,The Tablet  CanadianPharmacistsLetter  College of Pharmacistsof BC  Medical Letter- (memberaccess)  TherapeuticsLetter(UBCTherapeuticsInitiative)  TherapeuticsEducationCollaboration provides podcasts.  Episode 40 dealswithkeepinguptodate withthe medical literature.  UC BerkeleyWellnessLetter (some free,memberaccess)  UBC ContinuingEducationProfessional Development  eNewsupdates  CADTH (CanadianAgencyforDrugsand TechnologyinHealth)  HealthCanadaAdvisories,WarningsandRecalls:See the “Subscribetonews”link  dailynews  Natural MedicinesComprehensive (NMCD) eUpdate  MedEffectfromHealthCanada:Use the MedEffecte-Notice tosignup http://www.hc-  MedWatch FDA SafetyInformationandAdverse EventReportingProgram
  7. 7. UBC Pharmacy Residents FindingDrug Information Efficiently, 2015–Giustini, Ellis page 7 SEARCHING THE PHARMACEUTICAL LITERATURE In evidence-basedpractice,itisessential tokeepup-to-date withnewdrugs inyourfieldandtoanswer patient-relatedquestions effectively.Thishandoutprovidesanoverviewof the core pharmacy-relevant databasesandevidence-basedtools.Itprovides search tips forthose whowantto improve theirbasicto intermediate searchskills. Askthe librarianformore informationif youneedanassessment orassistance. MAJOR INDEXES & DATABASES DESCRIPTION SEARCH TIPS & PEARLS Medline (Ovid) The US National Libraryof Medicine’s (NLM) premierbibliographicdatabase coveringbiomedicine,nursing, pharmacy,dentistry,veterinary medicine,healthcare systemsandthe preclinical sciences. Data produceris NLM. Ovidisa commercial vendor. Containsbibliographiccitationsand abstracts from~5700 biomedical journals. Dailyupdate;1948 – present(but some citesback to early20th century) Search by keyword & subjectheading  Textword searchingfinds keywordsintitlesorabstracts(or specificfields).Keywordsmay retrieve more irrelevantresults than subjectsearches(since keywords mayhave more than one meaning).  Keywordsearching maybe needed tofind new (orvery specific) topicsinpharmacy or when subjectheadingsare not available oraccurate enough.  Considersynonyms&related terms,variantspellings(American vs.British),wordendings (singularandplural formsof a word).  Subjectsearching or controlled searchingdealswithdifferent spellingsasarticlesonsame topic are often indexedusingthe same subjectheadings.  Subjectsearchinggenerallyyields more precise andrelevant results.  In Medline subjectheadingsare calledMeSH(“Medical Subject Headings”).MeSHtermsare arrangedin a hierarchywith narrowerheadingsunderbroader headings. TIP: For a comprehensivesearch USE both subjectsearchingANDkeywords Explode function(whenusing MeSH)
  8. 8. UBC Pharmacy Residents FindingDrug Information Efficiently, 2015–Giustini, Ellis page 8  Explode expandsasearchto include aheadingand more specificheadingsindentedbelow  Indexersassignthe mostspecific subjectheadingsotoinclude all possible terms,the broaderterm may needtobe exploded. Focus function(whenusing MeSH)  Focuswill limit your searchto citationswhere yourMeSH termsare consideredamajortopic  Articlesare indexedfrombetween15– 20 MeSH butthere may be ~3 MeSH designatedas majortopics Scope notes(whenusingMeSH)  Scope notesprovide definitions aboutMeSH terms forindexing  They provide informationabout whenheadingswere createdand whatheading(s) were previously usedinindexing NOTE: In thisexample,explodingthe MeSHterm “Canada” includesresultsindexedwithmore specificMeSHtermsforeach province and territory. NOTE: Explode andFocuscan be used together. For example,explodingandfocusingthe MeSH term“Canada” will retrieve records where MeSHterm “BritishColumbia”isa majortopic.
  9. 9. UBC Pharmacy Residents FindingDrug Information Efficiently, 2015–Giustini, Ellis page 9  Scope notesare especiallyuseful whenyouhave an array of similar MeSH termsto selectfromand aren’tsure whichto use. Keyword search strategies  Careful keywordsearchingis necessarywhennoMeSH termsare suitable foryour search(concept may be too recentfor a new MeSH to have beencreated)  RememberMeSHindexingis done by librarians.If youuse MeSH termsyou may miss relevantrecordsindexed incorrectly  Usingkeywordsisa wayto make sure your searchis as thoroughas possible  Keywordsearchingcanbe particularlyeffectivewhen searchterms are unique Limits  Use limitstorestrictyoursearchresultsby age,date of publication,language, publicationtype,etc.  For greaterefficiencyapplylimitstoyourfinal searchset,rather than to individual setsas you’re searching Embase (Ovid) International (butEuropeanfocused) biomedical andpharmacological IndexinginEMBASE  In EMBASE, headingsare called NOTE: KEYWORD SEARCHING  To search variantsona keyword, use $(for example,wait$findswaitorwaiting, list$findslistorlists)  Use an asterisk* as a truncationsymbol also  To make keywordsearchesmore relevantin OvidSP,TRYlimitingkeywordsearchesto the title or abstract field,orusingthe adjacencyfunction.Forexample,insearch set4, waitor waitingmustbe within 3 words of anyone of the keywordsinthe parentheses.
  10. 10. UBC Pharmacy Residents FindingDrug Information Efficiently, 2015–Giustini, Ellis page 10 database;extensive indexingof drug information;~5000 journals; comprehensive coverageof pharmacy,pharmacologyand toxicologywithdetailedsubject headingsfordrugs;weeklyupdates; 1980 – present EMTREE terms  In Medline theyare MeSH;there are importantdifferencesto know  EMBASE usesINN namesfor drugs;Medline usesUSAN names;EMTREE provides extensive crossreferencingof drug names;Registrynumbers are routinelyincluded.  Drug and device brand& manufacture namesaddedby indexerswhencitedbysource author infull text.  Referencestoinvestigational or recentlyapproveddrugs iseasier inEMBASE EMTREE subheadings  Subheadingsallow the searcher to refine the searchfurtherby specifyingsome aspectof the EMTREE subjectheading.For example:antibioticagent/ae TIP: Subheadingscanbe useful whenappliedtosubjectsthathave manyarticlesassociated -- but should generally be used with caution NOTE:  The display for subjectheadings in EMBASE shows broader headings,narrower headings and “used for” references  Used for references are synonymous terms that automatically map to that heading  Although the display in EMBASE is different from MEDLINE, explode, focus and subheadings function similarly NOTE: Subheadings (also referredto as “linkterms”) for EMTREE drug subject headings are muchmore specific andvaried than theyare inMedline.
  11. 11. UBC Pharmacy Residents FindingDrug Information Efficiently, 2015–Giustini, Ellis page 11 US National Libraryof Medicine’s (NLM) freelyavailable searchtool to biomedical literature. Medline (i.e. the indexed portion) forms largest part of PubMed. Pubmed includes OLDMEDLINE , in-process and non-indexed citations. Automatic term mapping  Keywords entered into a search box are matched (in this order) against MeSH translation table, Journals table, Full Authortable andAuthorIndex,Full Investigator(Collaborator) table and an Investigator (Collaborator) index.  When a match is found for term or phrase in a translation table the mappingprocessiscomplete and does not continue to next translation table...  If a match is found in this translation table, the term will be searched as MeSH (that includes the MeSH term and any specific terms indented under that term in the MeSH hierarchy), and in all fields. TIP: See how Pubmed translates your search,click Details tab Automatic term mapping(translation) isgood in Pubmed but not 100%. Drug trade names do not map well, for example, motrin maps to “ibuprofen” but advil failsto map to its non-proprietary name Where term mapping is weak, try the MeSH databaseor examine relevant records for clues about the most relevant MeSH term available
  12. 12. UBC Pharmacy Residents FindingDrug Information Efficiently, 2015–Giustini, Ellis page 12 Other Biomedical Databases Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews(CDSR)) on Ovid ProducedbyCochrane, international,non-profit and independent organization producingand disseminatingsystematic reviewsof interventions Contains2 typesof publications:completed systematicreviews& protocolsforfuture reviews Searching inCDSR and DARE  Use UBC Library’slistof Indexes& Databases   Can searchindividually,orwithother databasesthatcomprise EBM Reviews.  NO subjectheadingsearching –keyword only . Searching inCDSR and DARE  Available throughUBCLibrary’slistof Indexes&Databases  Database ofAbstracts of Reviewof Effectiveness(DARE) on Ovid A filteredsource containing critical assessmentsof systematicreviews publishedinthe literature. Producedbythe UK’s National HealthServices’ Centre forReviewsand Dissemination. Webof Science Multidisciplinarydatabase that coverage a broad range of subjects,including physical sciences,medical sciences,lifesciences, appliedsciences, agriculture,humanitiesand social sciences,law, business. 1900 – present.Weekly update. Searching inWebof Science  Searchingmostlykeyworddriven  Excellentsource of citedreference searching(i.e.Whocitedparticular paper?)  Good forfindinglandmarkarticles
  13. 13. UBC Pharmacy Residents FindingDrug Information Efficiently, 2015–Giustini, Ellis page 13 Major biomedical research databases at a glance Database Name Dates Covered Updating Sources Geographic Scope & Language Coverage Abstracts SubjectScope IndexingNotes Medline via Ovid or 1946 – present Updated daily ~25 million citations intotal 5,700 journals (~1,600 indexedcover- to-cover) 85 countries (47% titles originate inUS) 37 languages 74% English 61% of records addedfrom 1975 have abstracts; none from66-74; back to 1949; Index medicus back to 1879 Premierint’l biomedical database;60% + of papersin clinical medicine withslight Americanbias - MeSH subject headings - ~26,000 thesaurusterms - 83 topical subheadings - usesUSAN termsfor drugs - no added indexingfor medical devices or drug manufacturer names EmbaseOvid 1974 – present Updated weekly ~24 million citations 5,600 journals (~1,000 cover- to-cover) 90-100 countries(40% contentoverlap withMedline) 34 languages 80% English 64% records accompaniedby abstracts (backfiles available for 1947-1973 at International. Publishedby Elsevier. Comparable to Medline but more preclinical citations Pharmaceutical litcoverage is excellent. Europeanand Asiancontent - EMTREE subject headings ~60000 thesaurusterms, detaileddrug name indexing 78 drug-focused subheadings - usesINN names and CASregistry numbers EBM Reviews Cochrane Library Ovid 1991 – Present Updated quarterly ~375,000 records; 10,000 added annually ACP, Cochrane Collaboration, Cochrane groups& UK NHS Dare Most have abstracts; some fulltext systematic reviews Central tool in EBM; systematic reviewsof treatments; narrative reviews and definitive controlledtrials - Keyword, phrase searchable - Some records includedfrom Medline CINAHL– Cumulated index to nursing and allied health literature (on EBSCO) 1981 – present ~2 million citations Updated bi- 2900+ journals, disserations, books,theses, alternative therapies 18 foreign languagessince 1994 Most citations have abstracts - nursingand alliedhealth literature from 1981; includes Cochrane citations;55% contentisunique not inMedline or Embase - 12,000+ CINAHL headings - 68 topical subheadings - American Nurses Association journalsare fully indexed;includes
  14. 14. UBC Pharmacy Residents FindingDrug Information Efficiently, 2015–Giustini, Ellis page 14 monthly legal cases, research instruments, peer-reviewed and consumer materials Abbreviations: ACP – AmericanCollege of Physicians CAS – Chemical AbstractsService EBM – Evidence-basedmedicine INN - International NonproprietaryNames ISI - Institute forScientificInformation OA – Openaccess USANs- US adoptednames