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Health care managers and social media synthesis


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Major literature from our review of health care managers' use of social media.

Major literature from our review of health care managers' use of social media.

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  • 1. Health Care Managers and Social Media Literature Synthesis, 2011 (Read, Giustini) A Social Media Workshop for Health Care Managers (HMCs)Key • Canadian content (CC) • Challenges in IT (IT) – e.g., firewalls, time factors, skill • Driver or trend (D&T) – e.g., mobile devices • Influencer – person(s) or organization(s) (IPO) – person or organizational ‘mover’ • Privacy issues (PI) – HIPAA in the US; FIPPA in Canada (FIPA in BC) • Seminal article (SA) – important article in discourse • New ideas or trends (NTs)Categories1 1. Health Organizations & Their Use of Social Media 2. Health Communication and Collaboration 3. Patient-Centred Use of Social Media 4. Social Media Policy Development 5. Social Media and Site/Tool-Specific Studies 6. Teaching and Social MediaWeb 2.0 & social media research written by or specifically referring to “health care managers” (HCMs) • Abraham (2011) • Bottles (2009) • Cummins (2010) • Currie (2009) • Eytan (2011) • Hackworth (2010) • Holt (2011) • Malvey (2009) • Orsini (2010) • Randeree (2009) • Zeng (2008)1 For related information about social media usage by physicians & med students, see Emerging evidence in web 2.0 medical literature on HLWIKI Canada. Read & Giustini, Health care managers & social media literature review - 1
  • 2. Canadian health organizations & their use of social media • Canadian hospitals on Twitter - - a free list compiled by Innovation Cell of Toronto. • Deloitte. Social Networks in Health Care: the Canadian ExperienceThis blogpost at Genomics Alberta discusses some unique aspects of social media use in healthcare in Canada. • Innovation Cell (Seeman) - Innovation Cell was formed January 29, 2009 by Neil Seeman CEO of the Health Strategy Innovation Cell. It has been fortunate to receive someattention from global industry, social entrepreneurs, global media and patient advocates around the world • SMiCH — Social Media in Canadian Health CareA blog started by Ann Fuller as a vehicle for hospitals in Canada to share resources on social media and exchange ideas and best practices. “In my ownresearch, I had discovered that there were many great resources available on the use of social media for U.S. hospitals, but not a lot for Canadians. OurAmericans counterparts share resources through such blogs as Found in Cache and the Mayo Clinic Center for Social Media . Using social media to improve the quality of patient experience - see part 1, part 2 and e-Toolkit • Social media in health care. "What are the basics on Social Media in healthcare?"This site has been designed by The Health Strategy Innovation Cell and The Change Foundation to help healthcare organizations understand thepossibilities of using Social Media for Quality Improvement (QI). • Top Health & Medical Bloggers 2011This wiki entry is hosted at HLWIKI Canada. • White Coat, Black Art. Social Medicine. Dr. Brian Goldman Read & Giustini, Health care managers & social media literature review - 2
  • 3. This is an excellent CBC podcast about social media in medicine produced by Dr. Goldman. Read & Giustini, Health care managers & social media literature review - 3
  • 4. I) Health Organizations & Their Use of Social Media Article SM Tools SM Strategies & quotes SM Benefits & Drawbacks SM use for Health Care Managers MentionedBurrus D. Social Twitter,  Article (non-health specific)  Facebook helps  New web-based socialnetworks in the Facebook, written in 2010 organizations increase networking tools fosterworkplace: the Wikipedia  Retailers & suppliers can internal networking & innovative teamwork,risk & (includes create versions of Wikipedia collaborative practices customer co-creation of value,opportunity of LinkedIn, to foster education, training collaboration with externalBusiness 2.0. delicious, cloud and enhanced info-sharing partners & interactiveStrategy & computing)  Twitter is a fast way to solve communication betweenLeadership. 2010; problems leaders and employees38(4):50-53.  Social networking is efficiently inexpensive alternative and  Resist losing control of businesses / managers should information flows; some embrace it leaders are reluctant to embark on communications program that may raise the expectations of employeesCurrie, D. Twitter,  Article (health specific)  Upside of democratic  Management needs to get(2009). Public Facebook written in 2009 nature of social media is focused before launching intohealth leaders  Twitter & Facebook allow that scores of people social media “know your audience &using social public health officials to reach (network) can help where you’re going”.  “In the evidence-based world of publicmedia to out to consumers broadcast important health, coming up with trueconvey  CDC and FDA are examples of public health messages, measurements of social media effectiveness poses a challenge, but as theemergencies: doing this (IPO); use online according to users. tools are used more frequently, data isnew tools a community to distribute  downside includes emerging. For example, Wilson said theboon. The important health information security concerns; making Twitter account CDC uses to communicate about emergencies, at Health & learn what issues are imp. sure credible information cdcemergency, had 2,500 followers before39(6): 1-10 across country at any time is not lost in the the H1N1 influenza outbreak. In late June,  Includes tips to mitigate risk conversation the account had 370,000 followers, a huge network of potential communicators to  combined traditional  Cites: APHA’s Social Media heed and help spread public health outreach methods with social Primer & Expert Round Table emergency messages.” media outreach on Social Media and RiskDomingo, M. C.  Article (health specific)   challenges such as privacy and Read & Giustini, Health care managers & social media literature review - 4
  • 5. (2010). written in 2011 data accuracy remainManaging  Surveys show an increasedHealthcare reliance on physician andthrough Social patient social networks, whichNetworks. promise to transformComputer healthcare management43(7): 20-25.Eytan T, Twitter, YouTube  Article (health specific)  efforts to embrace SM  More SM innovation isBenabio J, Golla written in 2011 seen at Mayo Clinic Center inevitable in the futureV, Parikh R,  “Influencer” Ted Eytan also for Social Media  Health organizations andStein S. (2011). defined “Health 2.0”  doctors cite SM as enabler physicians use SM to buildSocial media  In patient-centered models, of purpose in professional trust, promote health andand the health absence from SM networks work to “realign families wellness, and disseminatesystem. Perm J. that are important to patients with science” & tap into knowledgeWinter;15(1):71 may lead to gaps in care why they went into  Article is meant to continue-4. between patients and medical school the conversation about the clinicians  Tweetreach for dermdoc pros & cons of SM  SM has potential risks; both on Twitter  Cites this article: Coffield RL, participation and abstention http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.g Joiner JE. Risky business: are covered ov/pmc/articles/PMC3048 Treating tweeting the 641/figure/i1552-5775-15- symptoms of social media. 1-71-f02/ AHLA Connections. 2010 Mar;14(3):10–4.Holt C. Twitter, Hello  Article (health specific)  immediacy of information  HIMs (Health info managers)Emerging Health written in 2011 released from need to ensure electronic &technologies:  Arguably, educational benefit organizations helps health manual systems adapt toWeb 2.0. Health justifies Twitter updates as practitioners and receiving information fromInformation the surgical procedure organizational providers online collaboration &Management progresses (PI - unsure ‘live’ comply with bioethical communication toolsJournal 2011 tweeting would be principles of veracity  HIMs are integral in optimizing04;40(1):33-35. acceptable in most hospital benefit to patients’ health to ORs) be gained by effectively  Henry Ford Hospital (IPO) managing technology tweets about live surgery & challenges, posed by publishes case information emergent communication Read & Giustini, Health care managers & social media literature review - 5
  • 6. prior to tweeting event modes, to ethical and legal  requires patient consent / practices disclosure as per HIPAA regulations  ‘tweets’ form part of patient’s Unit Record, as stated in HPP 3 (Data Quality) of Health Records Act 2001  Hello Health uses secure portal to manage & maintain patient contact  fee of $US35, patients email, instant message & video chat with practitioners; alleviates need for appointments for minor complaints  NT new idea  ? Or security risk?Kietzmann, J. Twitter,  Article (non-health specific)  See Social Media  Provides information on howH., Hermkens, Facebook, written in 2011 by SFU functionality & to structure a social mediaK., McCarthy, I. LinkedIn professor implications planP. and Silvestre, 4Cs of social media implementation  “Once a firm has identifiedB. S. 2011. plan appropriate metrics for theSocial media? Cognize reputation of its communitysGet serious!  understand social media social media engagement, the appropriate evaluation tool mustUnderstanding landscape & who main be chosen. This could either bethe functional influencers are based on objective data (e.g.,building blocks  collect competitive number of views or followers) orof social media. intelligence to determine if collective intelligence of theBusiness rivals are active & what crowd (e.g., rating system). ForHorizons, 54 response levels are for their example, social media service(3), 241-251. SM strategy sites such as Social Mention Congruity search and compile user-  develop SM strategies generated content from over 80 congruent with or suited to social media sites. It enables Read & Giustini, Health care managers & social media literature review - 6
  • 7. different social media firms and individuals to monitor functionalities and goals how many times they and others  integrate social media are mentioned, using a number strategy tightly with other of metrics including: strength (the number of times you are marketing strategies where mentioned); sentiment (the ratio one points to the other of mentions that are positive to Curate those that are negative); passion  act as curator of social (how often certain users talk interactions and content about you); and reach (the  develop understanding of number of different users talking how often & when firms about you divided by the total should join conversations & number of times you are who will represent firm mentioned).”  identify employees who can listen and follow chatter online; those who can create emotionally appropriate content Chase  scan environment to understand speed of conversations & other information flows that affect current or future position in the market  revisit assumptions about communitys engagement needs, observe how other platforms are evolving, & gauge competitors’ responseLombardi G,  A website is not a luxury or  The creation of an interactive “Common features and functionsBaum N. Health perk for your practice and of an interactive website include: site is critical including why it2.0: how patients – it is a basic is necessary for doctors tointeractive Web necessity that patients expect Information customized to pa- enhance their digitalsites are from physicians tient’s diagnosis, medications or information so that patients Read & Giustini, Health care managers & social media literature review - 7
  • 8. changing the  Patients expect an interactive other health care needs can interact with their doctorshealthcare site, and to communicate withindustry. J Med the practice and physicians Access to lab and x-ray reportsPract Manage.  Contact with doctor, nurses2011;26(4):242- and staff with questions or4. concerns that are answered in a timely fashion  Request appointments  Download registration forms for expediting first appoint- ments  Browse educational re- sources  Request prescription re- newals  Access to automated ap- pointment reminders  Provides the latest education material on your area(s) of medical interest and exper- tiseLupianez- (  Article (health specific)  How will companies  How will health care providersVillanueva F, m), nurses written in 2009 manage privacy, security and health care professionalsMayer MA, (www.nurseconn  How will initiatives be used by and terms of use of be part of this practice?Torrent J. or patients in everyday life? information? (PI)  “Focus on Web 2.0 and HealthOpportunities patients what are consequences in within the health care system atand challenges (www.patientopi terms of health outcomes? large allowed to clearly identifyof Web 2.0;  how will companies manage the gap between the potential of this phenomenon and the currentwithin the other initiatives privacy, security and terms of features of interactivehealth care based on mix of use of available information communication An profiles (PI) Health care systems could beempirical (www.medhelp. characterised by: a lack of Read & Giustini, Health care managers & social media literature review - 8
  • 9. exploration. org) rate their interactive communicationInformatics for doctors technologies available on theHealth & Social (www.ratemds.c Internet; a lack of health careCare 2009 om), or share professional production of the information on the Internet and a09;34(3):117-12 experiences lack of interaction between these6. about their own professionals and patients on the illnesses Internet. Faced with that www.patientslik situation, there are enormous possibilities in Web 2.0 applications to overcome the different weaknesses detected as long as these kinds of applications are characterised by the interaction process which supported it. But, it is important to bear in mind that those processes are embedded and embodied [3] in the relationship between the social structure of health care systems and the new technological paradigm.”Malvey D, Fiercehealthcare  Article (health specific)  Blogs offer unprecedented  Managers need to helpAlderman B, written in 2009 access to expert employees develop skills ofTodd AD.  Blogs offer audience that information via authors & value in workplaceBlogging and extends beyond workplace. other subject experts, and  Imperative to embrace use ofthe health care Managers have access to enable staying on top of tools such as blogsmanager. range of opinions outside new developments.  Ability to communicate inHealth Care workplace channels &  On blogging “Blogging is a 2- transitional environmentsManag extended peer groups way street for health care must be gained by health(Frederick).  Healthcare blogs are niche managers. Managers can use managers if organizations are blogs to find information quickly2009;28(2):159- blogs, focusing on specific for use in compiling reports or to be competitive64. streams of information. making decisions. But managers  Blogs offer managers way to  As managers identify blogs of can also use blogs as a means of communicate in non-face-to- interest, check them disseminating information, face environments sharing opinions, or soliciting periodically to keep up to new  premier communications & Read & Giustini, Health care managers & social media literature review - 9
  • 10. information & developments feedback. For example, when marketing tool with both  FierceHealthcare IT and the government proposes large customers & employees spending cuts in Medicare Hospital Impact blogs are reimbursement, managers can  Managers can use blogs to funded by ads for meetings, turn to blogs to find out how find information quickly for products, webinars, and other managers are responding. reports or making decisions services relevant to managers Moreover, the blog format is  disseminate information, perfectly suited for health care in health care industry managers, most of whom are share opinions & solicit straight talking and quick to get feedback to the bottom line.”Orsini M. Social Hello Health,  Article (health specific) Reservations: How to get set up?Media: How PatientslikeMe, written in 2010  privacy issues – creation  Interactive provider profilesHome Health Kaiser  Hello Health (2009) is not the of policy to cover issue  include features thatCare Agencies Permanente only health care practice to (PI) interest families andCan Join the http://merrilyors charge into social media  who has control? - no patients; allow them toChorus of  Kaiser Permanente - each shortcut to personal get acquainted withEmpowered orsini-homecare- physician at KP given integrity & transparency philosophy of careVoices. Home marketing/ home page where  Companies want to win  care blogsHealth Care patients get to know respect of consumers have  opportunity toManagement & physicians better NT new to do it the old fashioned demonstrate knowledgePractice 2010 idea  way: through fair dealing and experience04;22(3):213-21  similar to profiles on  provide way to attract7. Facebook, includes image, visitors - people are contact info & personal looking for information, data not promotion  Patients – LikeMe claims to  SM releases help those diagnosed with  links, sections, tagging to life-changing diseases “take attract user attention to control” of health by creating other forms of material community where they can  Video gallery connect with others  “video gallery” draws in visitors; members can comment on videosRanderee E. RevolutionHealth  Article (health specific)  Benefits include patient Article reflects on the challenges andExploring (also Facebook, written in 2009 empowerment, improved benefits of implementing an onlinetechnology Friendster, Flickr,  Paper reviews challenges and patient-provider virtual community YouTube, Blogger, Read & Giustini, Health care managers & social media literature review - 10
  • 11. impacts of and MySpace) impact of “Healthcare 2.0” relationships, increasedHealthcare 2.0  RevolutionHealth patient safety, improved “Healthcare 2.0 …has evolved to users findinginitiatives. ( quality of care, more ad-hoc ways to connect …creating Web- connected diaries and blogs … sharing journalsTelemed J E wants to create largest health efficient care delivery, to address various medical conditions outsideHealth. 2009 virtual community better safeguards on of the healthcare providers offices. SupportApr;15(3):255-6 Challenges: health information groups have found a new platform for0.  INFORMATION privacy, and cost savings. organizing while concerned family members use the Web to blog about their experiences, ACCURACY/QUALITY  benefits accrue to seek online consoling, and connect with other consumer/patients families. Bloggers are using their sites to share  With promise of more when analytical tools their findings and educate others with similar information, dangers of conditions, creating sites to report new and decision support incorrect or misleading treatment options and places to go for new are embedded in PHR information arise resources. Web-based services are aggregating software  INFORMATION PRESENTATION data from multiple sources and delivering customized content (in various forms) to users.  how information is Consumer empowerment has been increasing, displayed presents facilitated by more access to resources and the challenges; access to ability to locate information with ease. This access has changed the patient-physician information without relationship; medical decision making is structure, education or affected by the increase in knowledge prior to guidance is not in best the clinical encounter.” interests of patients or physicians  INFORMATION STEWARDSHIP  Each user of patient data is a "steward" for security and privacy and must protect it; privacy continues to surface as new technologies affect users & providers (PI)  Patients using portals must be aware of misuse, unauthorized secondary use and other dangers of Read & Giustini, Health care managers & social media literature review - 11
  • 12. Web-based data  INFORMATION PORTABILITY  Web 2.0 systems should be Internet accessible, interoperable & secure  INFORMATION LITERACY  reflect concerns related to educational issues (patient literacy level, Web site literacy level, technology access skills)  Web 2.0 requires individuals to navigate sites, enter medical jargon, and participate in health exchange mediumRooney K. Facebook,  Article (health specific)  Presence on online social  A divide exists in howConsumer- LinkedIn, written in 2009 networks (e.g., Facebook, healthcare providers anddriven health eHarmony  “…examines the emergence of Linkedln) serves to extend patients define "relationship."care marketing: consumer-driven healthcare the healthcare  For providers, healthcareusing the web marketing NT new idea, organizations agenda – relationships placeto get up close including its operational OFTEN OVERLOOKED emphasis on collectingand personal. J definition, how it has been  The technology- and applying dataHealth Care used in the past, and how it enhanced word-of- effectively through newManage. has evolved... mouth advertising database techniques that2009;54(4):241-  Consumers need dynamic, creates the impression aim to improve health251. interactive web presence to of peer-determined outcomes as well as perceive organization credibility and marketers overall return legitimacy; along lines of achieves an economy on investment eHarmony, patients could be of scale that is elusive Read & Giustini, Health care managers & social media literature review - 12
  • 13. matched with physicians NT to traditional new idea  marketing  Patients state physician  Setbacks: organization preferences, while physicians must portray professional supply info pertaining to image yet appear warm practices such as fees, and personable, maintain specialties & preferred Rx control but allow input as approaches normal part of a  websites home to active blogs relationship; be current that are frequently updated enough to stimulate and generate viewer traffic interest without  Viewed favourably by search consuming time engines; blogging by  HIPAA represents tangible healthcare team softens barrier in implementation antiseptic feel of hospitals, of healthcare marketing corporations, healthcare plans Challenges in IT (IT) industry in generalSkiba, D.J.  Are we preparing nurses to  What research needs to  Sarasohn-Kahns report, The(2009). Nursing partner with patients and be conducted on the Wisdom of Patients: Health CarePractice 2.0: their families in their health impact of social media on Meets Online Social Media,The Wisdom of care? Sure, we pride ourselves nursing practice? describes how regular people use a host of tools (wikis, blogs, user-Crowds. in preparing nurses who serve  Perhaps the bigger generated podcasts/videos, andNursing as patient advocates and we questions are: Are nurse social networking) to inform theirEducation emphasize patient-centered educators aware of these health care decision-makingPerspectives, care, but are we truly tools? Are they preparing (2008). Building on Surowieckis30(3), 191-192. preparing them to actively the next generation of (2005) ideas, she concurs that engage with patients and nurses to use Health 2.0 "when patients managing the their families to support the tools with their patients? same chronic conditions share use of Health 2.0 tools? observations with each other, their collective wisdom can yield clinical insights well beyond the understanding of any single patient or physician." Sarasohn- Kahn reports that the top five reasons for consumers to use social media are: "to see what other consumers say about their Read & Giustini, Health care managers & social media literature review - 13
  • 14. medication or treatment, to research other consumers knowledge and experiences, to learn skills or get education that helps me manage my condition, to get emotional support and to build awareness around a disease or cause" (p. 8).Sarringhaus,  Article (health manager “…Among all the benefits  “…Social media, a resourceM. M. (2011). specific) written in 2011 previously discussed, the most largely untapped in the  Social media can be an healthcare field, presentsThe great significant one is that the cost opportunities and advantagesdivide: Social invaluable tool with which a of a social media recruitment and, if used properly, can healthcare organization can strategy is budget neutral. Inmedias role in innovate healthcare and create a engage workers in a company this dismal economy of competitive advantage forbridging culture, recruit and retain lowering reimbursement rates adopters. Many organizationshealthcares millennials and provide have considered social media but and the uncertain implicationsgenerational consumers with personalized dismissed its advantages as of healthcare reform, every fleeting products of the newshift. Journal experiences organization needs to reduce generation entering theof Healthcare  baby boomers social media costs. With most social media workforce: the millennials.”Management, use is a significant step closer options free to users, such as56(4), to tech-centric lifestyles of Facebook, Twitter, Linkedln,235-235-244 millennials blog hosting sites, and  an appropriate strategy for YouTube, the costs associated any HCO to adopt; good for are mainly those of labor in the the modern workforce, and marketing and human resources dynamic transformation as departments.” baby boomers retire and millennials become fully integrated into healthcare labor forceSquazzo, J. D. YouTube,  Article (health manager  “…Hospitals already using social(2010). Best Facebook, specific) written in 2010 media report benefits in areaspractices for Twitter  Health blogger Ed Bennett such as recruitment, communityapplying social ( relationship building and patient satisfaction. To examine thesemedia in identified 557 U.S. hospitals and other benefits, including besthealthcare. using social networking tools, practices from industries outside Read & Giustini, Health care managers & social media literature review - 14
  • 15. Healthcare including 254 YouTube healthcare, ACHE presented theExecutive, channels, 336 Facebook program "Best Practices for25(3), 34-34-6, pages, 430 Twitter accounts Applying Social Media in38-9. and 70 blogs as of February Healthcare." Funded in part by the Fund for Innovation in 2010. Bennett follows social Healthcare Leadership, it was media trends which involves held in San Antonio last searching for U.S. hospitals November in conjunction with the presence on social networking San Antonio Cluster…” sites (excluding unofficial sites such as those established by patients or hospital staff members personal accounts). The 557 hospitals identified by Bennett make up just 9.58 percent of U.S. hospitals.Zeng X, Bell PD. Clinical Cases  Article (HCM specific) written HCM & web 2.0 – why bother?  health care managers can blogWeb 2.0: what Blog in 2008  some Web 2.0 tools are to distribute managementa health care  policies such as copyright cost-effective for HCMs to highlights to employees ormanager needs disclaimers or information adopt in daily work patientsto know. Health classification should be  workforce & health  use multiple tools to createCare Manag discussed with employees consumers are natural content called "mash-up"(Frederick). before they start any web 2.0 users of Web 2.0 which offer ways to create2008 Jan- publishing activities  social tools, esp. blogs new services withoutMar;27(1):58-7  discusses “the benefits of bring transparency into reinventing wheel0. Web 2.0 in general and the management practces;  EX: HCM can combine reasons why a health care Web 2.0 permeates health publicly available hospital manager should know care and current evaluation data with operations seem more Google API to compare these trends…” transparent and dynamic performance of Setbacks: organization with others in  patient privacy (PI) region  (HIPAA) privacy and security rules may be violated if employees publish materials online about their Read & Giustini, Health care managers & social media literature review - 15
  • 16. experiences with patients  Information accountability:  bloggers who consider themselves as proxy "oversight" agencies combined with consumers who can’t make distinctions between official vs imagined accreditors may lead to confusion or litigation about published information  Intellectual property: HCMs should be familiar with terms in different IP licenses before engaging to avoid conflict; For example, a wiki entry could be misused by others as chapter of bookRead & Giustini, Health care managers & social media literature review - 16
  • 17. II) Health Communication and Collaboration Article SM Tools SM Strategies & quotes SM Benefits & Drawbacks SM use for Health Care Mentioned ManagersAbbott R. RSS & other web  Article written in 2010 by UK  RSS feeds exacerbate overload –  Addresses someDelivering 2.0 tools health librarian additional source required strong concernsquality-  Article is about the Intute  proceed cautiously; be aware of with using socialevaluated website and integrating web 2.0 dangers of following transient mediahealthcare tools technological or social fashions -especiallyinformation in  existing users and attracting new  distinctions between readers and relating to thethe era of Web ones are concomitant aims; writers, and between amateurs dissemination of2.0: design maintaining strength of existing and experts, become more blurred informationimplications for product while adding new in SMIntute. Health benefits – but not drawbacks – ofInformatics social mediaJournal 201003;16(1):5-14.Bacigalupe G. Is Twitter, Blogs,  Article written in 2011  new tools, which are not only  A collaborativethere a role for Facebook, Collaborative  Start a SM presence for health technological but also suggest new method is Family Healthsocial Association organization: culturally different interactions, needed totechnologies in  set up virtual office to can strengthen participation, approach thecollaborative “Social technologies archive documents--to build collaboration, openness, and challenge ofhealthcare? are the ICTs tools that institutional memory and reduce the barriers to the learning, augment the ability ofFamilies people to communicate make available to members – inclusion of patients/consumers integrating, andsystems & and collaborate despite free software or wiki use  Besides the ability of capturing participatinghealth. 2011 obstacles of geography  second goal to strengthen wider audiences, at minimum cost, from the and time. There is stillMar;29(1):1-14. little empirical research communication between and and faster, tools like Twitter may transformation on the impact of social among board and general foster innovative ways for personal of our way of technologies in the case membership – add blog, and professional interactions working. of collaborative health. Twitter, Facebook etc  Examples:  informed Defining social tools with the potential for  SM policy needed for each tool  HCSM #hcsm - discussion focuses patients with developing, sustaining, organization adopts on specific and emergent topics in larger social and strengthening the  Privacy (PI), membership, health care and social media; networks as a collaborative health agenda should prove control of information, questions submitted by result are more useful for practitioners accountability, accuracy and participants in previous days; empowered. Read & Giustini, Health care managers & social media literature review - 17
  • 18. and researchers.” transparency need to be power to set up virtual meeting incorporated into these spaces, tools to implement them, policies and their control are not linked to the prestige of convener  Collaborative Family Health Association members have employed hashtag #CFHA to promote collaborative ideas on official CFHA blogEysenbach G. Digg, Wikis  Article written in 2008 by  second generation of personal  better healthMedicine 2.0: Eysenbach (IPO) health records, which allow systemssocial  Seminal article (SA) patients to access their EHR, share emphasizenetworking,  three main users of parts of it with others, build collaboration,collaboration, Health/Medicine 2.0: communities around certain participation,participation, consumers/patients, health health topics apomediation,apomediation, professionals & researchers  Wikis relevant for participation and openness, asand openness. J  ideal Medicine 2.0 application among health professionals and opposed toMed Internet would connect user groups and scientists – and scholarly traditional,Res foster collaboration between communication function as well hierarchical,2008;10(3):e22. different groups (, engage public  apomediation - health care field closed structures in biomedical research process) from perspective of patients in health and  need to move away from  users and friends in case of medicine hospital-based medicine, focus Digg; users navigate onslaught on promoting health, provide of information afforded by healthcare in peoples own networked digital media; homes, and empower consumers provide credibility cues & to take responsibility for their supply metainformation!  own healthGiustini D. How Wikis  Article written in 2006  New: highly connected digital  An expertweb 2.0 is  1st article on topic in major network of practitioners (medical moderatedchanging medical journal or otherwise), repository of themedicine: is a  use, share, and exchange  knowledge exchange is not knowledge base,medical information on web in a limited or controlled by private in the form of awikipedia the continual loop of analysis and interests medical wiki,next step? BMJ refinement may be the Read & Giustini, Health care managers & social media literature review - 18
  • 19. 333(7582):  the more open and creative answer1283-84. platform becomes - the more  Must have the useful it is for work initiative to  Web 2.0 openness results in create one expectations of transparency & openness when publishingHughes B, Joshi N/A  Article written in 2009  Positives of Health 2.0 to consider:  DemonstratesI, Wareham J.  Highly-cited article in JMIR  (1) the participants involved the positive and(2009). Health  “…The terms Medicine 2.0 and Health (doctors, patients, etc); negative2.0 and 2.0 were found to be very similar and  (2) its impact on both traditional attributes of subsume five major salient themes: (1)medicine 2.0: and collaborative practices in using social the participants involved (doctors,tensions and patients, etc); (2) its impact on both medicine; media incontroversies in traditional and collaborative practices in  (3) its ability to provide medicinethe field. J Med medicine; (3) its ability to provide personalized health care;Internet personalized health care; (4) its ability to  (4) its ability to promote ongoing promote ongoing medical education;Research. 10(3): and (5) its associated method- and tool- medical education; ande23. related issues, such as potential  (5) its associated method- and inaccuracy in enduser-generated tool-related issues, such as content. In comparing definitions of potential inaccuracy in enduser- Medicine 2.0 to eHealth, key distinctions generated content. are made by the collaborative nature of Medicine 2.0 and its emphasis on  Tensions involved with Health 2.0 personalized health care. However, (1) lack of clear Medicine 2.0 other elements such as health or definitions, (2) tension due to loss medical education remain common for of control of information as both categories…” perceived by doctors, (3) safety issues of inaccurate information, (4) ownership and privacy issues with growing body of information created by Medicine 2.0Scanfeld D, Twitter  Article written in 2010  Social media sites provide means  PotentialScanfeld V,  Measures the frequency of the to share health information applications inLarson EL. words antibiotics on Twitter  More study is warranted to explore patient care;Dissemination how networks provide venues to telehealthof health identify misuse orinformation misunderstanding of antibiotics Read & Giustini, Health care managers & social media literature review - 19
  • 20. through  Promote positive behaviours,social networks: disseminate information, andtwitter and explore how tools can be used toantibiotics. Am gather real-time dataJ Infect Control.2010Apr;38(3):182-8.Yates D, Wikis  Article written in 2010  wikis for open sharing; what are  basic seedingWagner C.  Wikis are important if shaping the potential consequences of structure isFactors behaviour provides a mechanism poor quality of information? needed;affecting for community agility technologyshapers of  Allows (encourages) brings outorganizational participants to adopt shaping norms ofwikis. J Amer role; may increase collaborativeSoc Inform Sci community’s ability to editingTechnol. absorb knowledge, facilitate  benefits at2010;61:543– crossing of thought worlds & multiple levels in554. interpretive barriers & faster organization, transformation cycles promoting community to increase times a wiki is accessed Read & Giustini, Health care managers & social media literature review - 20
  • 21. III) Patient-centred use of Social Media Article SM Tools SM Strategies & quotes SM Benefits SM use for Health Care Mentioned SM Drawbacks ManagersAbraham J et N/A  Article written in 2011 by  Reputation of physicians & orgs  explore theal. Selecting a US health care manager appears to be highly influential capabilities of newProvider: What  Giving consumers a role in  consumers seek ways to narrow media and socialFactors decision making is down selection, especially sources networking sites forInfluence advocated as strategy to that are easy to understand & that building reputationPatients improve efficiency in US they trust  “… physicians andDecision healthcare system  Patients rely less on ads & formal healthcareMaking? J  Background & demographic information in choosing providers; organizations moreHealthcare information of health publicly available information may be generally may want to explore the capabilitiesManage. providers is important difficult to access, interpret and of new media and2011;56(2):99-1  Whether the HC provider is apply social networking sites14. in patient’s health plan?  patients rely on informal sources of for building reputation.  Provider and reputation of information such as family and Whereas these organization and physician friends and physician referral, when technological are all important making decisions about where to get innovations have  Providing information in health care relatively short easily accessible ways is histories, their potential an effective strategy for for becoming major reducing search costs factors affecting provider choice is and attracting patients recognized. They blend to medical practice the current information-delivery capacity of the Internet with the more traditionally interpersonal processes for recommending providers. More research is needed to understand the effectiveness of such communication tools Read & Giustini, Health care managers & social media literature review - 21
  • 22. for influencing consumers provider selection…”Adams SA. Valtaf  Article written in 2010  quality of information being  what aspects ofBlog-based  patients need tools to produced (primarily by lay web end- blogging tools areapplications address information users) using different web 2.0 most important andand health gathering & sharing, applications is an issue of concern why are theyinformation: enabling them to get  ability of the collective to correct effective or not?Two case involved in their care mistakes has been called into  include identifyingstudies that  create tools that are question both generally and and categorizingillustrate easy to use and allow specifically for health-related health-specific blogsimportant for integration of information and typifying whoquestions for different  “…What can we learn from the fact that uses blogs; why andConsumer information/communica patients are taking it upon themselves to how they use them utilize these and other publicly availableHealth tion interfaces  organizations can applications for health purposes? ResearchInformatics  Implicit - refer to weblogs into health-explicit blogging practices among identify target(CHI) research. that consist of links to types patients will increase our understanding of populations thatInt J Med Inf of web material on general how alternative avenues for managing health benefit from such2010 topics but refer to health- information foster healthy practices and applications; explore contribute to patient identities and06;79(6):e89- related issues or practices as understandings of health. Understanding new avenues fore96. part. what tools patients want and how they use reaching user groups  Explicit - refer to blogs that them will also enable health care providers to for promotion and are set-up with a particular capitalize on these easy-to-use applications prevention purposes for patient education, disease prevention and health situation in mind health promotion, or for changing policy and  explicit blogging practices improving services….” among patients increase our understanding of how alternative avenues for managing health information foster healthy practices and contribute to patient identities and understandingBleicher P. OrganizedWisdo  Article written in 2008  OrganizedWisdom delivers high-  Understanding ofHealth 2.0: do it m,  “…Medicine in the United States is quality information about patient how various patient-yourself PatientsLikeMe, one of the few industries in which illnesses and treatments centered social Read & Giustini, Health care managers & social media literature review - 22
  • 23. doctoring. MyMedLab, the consumer of the products and  PatientsLikeMe allows patients to media sites functionApplied Clinical MyFamilyHealth, services has little to no say in the understand how symptoms and setting of prices and delivery ofTrials. 2008; WholsSick services. The painfully treatments compare(17)10:38-42. cumbersome economic  MyMedLab and order from hundreds infrastructure of health care has of lab tests, go to local lab for blood thus far prevented a serious drawing, receive results without overhaul in consumer choice to bring it up to the same level as in physician intervention almost any other industry.  MyFamilyHealth allows members of However, the transformative family to create shared family tree to nature of Health 2.0 may very well be annotated with medical histories, bring choice and the free market valuable knowledge for patient and to the consumer long before the government can or will….” important tool for physicians  WholsSick - anyone who believes they have infectious illness such as influenza or a gastrointestinal virus can enter symptoms and geographic area on Google map  search for geographic clusters of patients with similar symptoms in specified time theoretically giving clues to developing outbreaks of viral illnessBos L, Marsh A, N/A  Article written in 2008  social networking & collaboration  Importance ofCarroll D, Gupta  Written by health execs & make "long tail" of medicine a networks and theS, Rees M. physicians "value"able venture exchange betweenPatient 2.0  Health 2.0 is the transition  patient is personally responsible for patient and clinicianEmpowerment. to personal, participatory own health pathway & personal careProceedings of health care. Everyone is  bi-directional contact betweenthe 2008 invited to see what is patient and clinician is necessaryInternational happening in their own care  networks have an empoweringConference on and in the health care aspect on different level - medicalSemantic Web system in general, to add research& Web Services their ideas, and to make itSWWS08 better every day  Everyone in health care is interested in the value of Read & Giustini, Health care managers & social media literature review - 23
  • 24. the patient  PHR, CHR, EHR and NHR must be based on standards and interoperableBottles K. Twitter, Mobile  Article written in 2009 by  Patients in social network sites talk to  Those who usePatients, phones HCM and social media other patients who have the same Health 2.0 to bridgedoctors and expert; Bottles is (IPO) disease, compare notes on treatment the gap betweenhealth 2.0 tools  Seminal article (SA) options, aggregate the disease patient and providerexport.  Positive notion of using community’s experience, and provide will end up providingPhysician Twitter /cell phones to emotional support better careExecutive organize, interact and share  The learning is veryJournal (10 July patient information different from the2009)  Twitter as an alert sign common single between physicians patient interaction –  Patients assuming must figure out how leadership over their own to do it care  Using mobile phones to stay connected with outpatients and to provide careBoulos MNK, N/A  Article written in 2007 by  Patients and clinicians can securely  health care providersWheeler S. The two names in 2.0 area and simultaneously access these should aim toemerging web  Seminal article (SA) ; cited records across multiple institutions become social2.0 social the most in area and places, facilitating speedy enablers, providingsoftware: an  laypersons and patient information exchange, situations thatenabling suite communities can develop communication and becomeof sociable their own information  collaboration among clinicians, and positively‘addictive’technologies in portals under guidance of between them and their patients, to and indispensable, sohealth and clinical expert(s) to ensure potentially improve clinical outcomes patients canhealth care quality of portals] by and cost reduction gather,learn from,education. adopting social  these technologies for clinicians is and support eachHealth Info Libr bookmarking for also great in supporting their other, improvingJ. discovering, tagging, continuing professional health outcomes2007;24(1):2-23 sharing, rating and development, and in helping them. recommending resources of establish and benefit from virtual Read & Giustini, Health care managers & social media literature review - 24
  • 25. interest in those communities of practice where communities advice and expertise  Web 2.0 technologies as  multi-media clinical elements, can be enablers in health and easily shared among them, and health education should not where they can all learn from each be underestimated, other and keep up to date with the particularly for latest advances in their specialities disadvantaged groups such as the disabled and elderlyFriedman L, Gyr N/A Article written in 2010; well-written  Patients’ "digital life" can become a  most important toH. The for health execs useful adjunct to their in-person understand thechanging Four digital customers: visits with medical staff in a evolving mindset ofpatient in the  Passive and Open to healthcare facility the customer, todigital era: a Guidance understand howtypology for  traditional patient customers’ use ofguiding  Interactive and Engaged media and otherinnovation in  search for medical technologies ishealthcare. Int J information for changing theirInnovat Sci. conditions, treatments, expectations for2010;2(1):39-46 medications, side healthcare.. effects, prognosis,  Patient as partner: expected outcomes, or must meet the needs even information on of above 4 customers providers. = up to health  Do research on health innovators providers, groups & organizations; can add his own experiences; rate and comment on aspects of care; office visits, treatments, wait times, courtesy and communication, negative side effects or positive outcomes.  health apps can analyze Read & Giustini, Health care managers & social media literature review - 25
  • 26. data and give easy access to second opinions, relevant news, and suggested steps for reducing health risk and increasing wellness. Empowered to Act  easy access to expert information so he can be take charge of his own decisions and new health providers are scrambling to help  sign up for personalized information services such as Daily Apple and others to deliver latest research and recommendations for any condition, treatment or medication listed in medical record Connected to Community  find in-person community or online social network in almost any area; members post links to latest research and articles, often as soon as they are published  post their own evaluation of Rx, medications, providers; message boards and chat rooms for topics ofRead & Giustini, Health care managers & social media literature review - 26
  • 27. interest, relaying personal stories, giving and receiving support, encouraging each othersHackworth BA. Facebook,  Article written for HCMs in  HIPPA restrictions as well as the  Social mediaHealth care and Twitter, 2010 (most recent??) security of patient information must networks can assistsocial media PatientslikeMe  Marketing oriented always be considered in the health care providersbuilding  Patientslikeme: network interactions of health care providers promote deeprelationships provides a communication on social media networking sites. relationships, allowvia social channel for doctors,  “…Online collaboration between groups of fast organization,networks. patients, and organizations patients and medical care providers has improve the creation replaced the concept of one-to-one patient toAcademy of to discuss health issues and synthesis of doctor in the exam room conversations.Health Care important to them. Consumers in particular are the one leading knowledge, andManagement  Inspire: provides a platform this movement, especially those with chronic permit betterJournal. for patients, families, conditions. These individuals are looking for filtering of2010;6(1): friends, caregivers, and clinical knowledge in addition to emotional information support. As more people take control of their health professionals to health and health care, they are embracing  way to read the connect and provide social media (Solomon, 2009)…” comments and support for one another. improve  major priorities is that shortcomings of this network maintains the provider the individual  use to develop community’s and its personal, yet members’ privacy and professional security, unlike the relationships general social networks with their such as Facebook and customers. Twitter.  using Twitter, health care providers must develop catchy and clever ways to express the most recent company information  Health care providers can take advantage of Read & Giustini, Health care managers & social media literature review - 27
  • 28. the benefits YouTube offers by posting videos related to the current events and recent news of the company  providers should look further into the employment of social networks which can be less expensive than traditional marketing media.Lagu T, Hannon Thirty-three (33)  Article written in 2010  Physician-rating websites offer  A look intoNS, Rothberg physician-rating  most sites were neither patients a novel way to provide empowering patientsMB, Lindenauer websites user-friendly nor patient- feedback and obtain information in health care –PK. Patients centered. Patients searching about physician performance. viable optionevaluations of for specific physicians find  “…The British National Health Servicehealth care that search mechanisms are (NHS) has encouraged patients to reviewproviders in the cumbersome, advertising is their physicians and hospitals,era of social prevalent, and information suggesting that this new form of public reporting is growing in popularity andnetworking: an about physicians is gaining respect.9,10 In the US, however,analysis of incomplete. physician organizations [including thephysician-rating  these websites have American Medical Association (AMA)]websites. J Gen potential to empower have opposed the development ofIntern Med. patients looking for a physician-rating websites, arguing that2010 physician and to offer a new the identity of patients cannot beSep;25(9):942-6 route for providing confirmed, physicians’ responses will be. physicians with constructive hampered by confidentiality issues, and feedback, use by patients reviews will be excessively negative. has been limited to date and Despite the controversy, little is known about physician-rating websites. The aim reviews are mostly positive of this study was to describe the structure and content of these websites and to assess the extent to which a patient might find them valuable….” Read & Giustini, Health care managers & social media literature review - 28
  • 29. Pulman A. A Blogs  Article written in 2010  Social networking tools offer the  Social media use forpatient centred  need to design a framework potential of supported learning, for patients who requireframework for encompassing the use of example networking with peers, long term careimproving LTC Web 2.0 technology for the families and friends or sharing  Cites:quality of life benefit of patients with LTCs problems, processes and outcomes http://eprints.bournemothrough Web  a framework devised with the worldwide community technology. from the patient’s  capacity for a social identity PAPERS-Blogging.pdfHealth perspective, which approach to enrich academicInformatics encapsulates the use of understanding in these areas andJournal 2010 Web 2.0 technology for how it could help to play a key role in03;16(1):15-23. the benefit of patients shaping health-related policy and who might want to practice. support, mitigate or  Social learning theory focuses on the improve their own learning that occurs within a social quality of life. context  Disadvantages:  lack of face-to-face contact between health professional and patient, leading to confusion, unnecessary worry, and even misdiagnosis  can be a high ratio of false or irrelevant data compared to useful information in online self- help groups, as there is an absence of group rules and guidelines and few controls to prevent people from posting erroneous or off-topic informationSarasohn-Kahn,  Article written in 2008 by  A demand for transparency will drive  A consumer-drivenJ. (2008). The health manager consultant evolution of social media in health; health marketplaceWisdom of  Seminal article an array of tools are increasingly inspires innovation inPatients: Health  The Internet has evolved to mobile; personal health data storage applications thatCare Meets “Web 2.0” to allow people is coming in commercial products like integrate clinical,Online Social not tech savvy to generate Microsoft Health Vault, Google financial, and ratings Read & Giustini, Health care managers & social media literature review - 29
  • 30. Media, and share content; collective Health, and others informationCalifornia wisdom harnessed by social  media yields insights beyond A%20LIBRARY%20Files/PDF/H/PDFFoundation. knowledge of single patients %20HealthCareSocialMedia.pdf or physicians  Cites Health 2.0 feature in Economist  “Health 2.0” is new 2007 movement that challenges notion health care happens 19054?story_id=9719054 between single patients and a doctor in an exam room Read & Giustini, Health care managers & social media literature review - 30
  • 31. IV) Social Media Policy Development Article SM Tools SM Strategies & quotes SM Benefits & Drawbacks SM & Health Care Managers MentionedBurke TR, N/A  Article written by a health lawyer  Social networking controls  providers have anGoldstein G. A in 2010 are likely to change and vary affirmative legallegal primer for  Social media policies educate staff between social media obligation to safeguardsocial media. about practices/ content platforms in the future protected patientMark Health  Consequences for violations  ‘…health care providers can information fromServ. 2010  Guidelines about appropriate use take a simple step to disclosure to thirdSummer;30(3):30 of social media by staff and alleviate these ambiguities parties without-1. employees; set procedure for by adopting a social media authorization enforcement of violations policy”  prudent for providers to remind public of their social media pages that any content posted will be seen by public - simple disclosure may sufficeCain J. Social Twitter,  Article written in 2011 by  In social media, harassment  Reputation issuesmedia in health Facebook, pharmacy educator and “big may extend beyond posting  Controversial orcare: The case Youtube, blogs name” in pharmacy 2.0 derogatory comments about negative dialoguefor  Advocates for policies race, religion, national on Twitter,organizational  Global study of ~34,000 employers origin, etc. YouTube,policy and from October 2009 revealed ~25% Facebook, or blogsemployee had formal policy on social media & has potential toeducation. the workplace reflect poorly onAmerican Journal  Privacy issues organizations ifof Health-System  (HIPAA) - communication re: viewers associatePharmacy 2011 personally identifiable patient individual with6;68(11):1036-10 information must be secure organization40. and transmitted to permissible   Productivity issues parties only  many organizations  organizations now require restrict access to disclaimers on employee e-mail SM sites on Read & Giustini, Health care managers & social media literature review - 31
  • 32. messages stating information is company networks private; do not share OR to prevent forward interference;  Training and education issues however, network  Corporate policy should not be blockades do not sole means of addressing issues prevent employees of social media use from using mobiles  Providing employees with to access SM knowledge of the issues and risks associated with social media use places the burden of responsible use on themKane GC, PatientslikemeI  Article written in 2009  social media promotes: Mandate for SM Team beforeFichman RG, et nspire; Sermo;  online communities vary widely in deep relationships, faster implementational. Community CareSeek purpose and membership – can be organization, creation and  Develop formal SMrelations 2.0. (nursing) supportive or hostile depending on synthesis of knowledge, and policy; monitorHarvard Bus Rev. forum better filtering of info external & internal2009;87:45-50.  importance of collaboration with online communities communities is part of shared  engage online passion for knowledge communities & act as first responders Read & Giustini, Health care managers & social media literature review - 32
  • 33. V) Social Media and Site/Tool-Specific Studies Article SM Tools SM Strategies & quotes SM Benefits & Drawbacks SM use for Health Mentioned Care ManagersBarras C. Vena-platform  Article written in 2009  Less concerned about privacy (PI) in Study indicatingInnovation: Is wireless inhaler  Testing whether patients and terms of having their health records patients willingnessthe future of medics can interact via this online to participate and riskhealthcare platform  "Theres been a sociological shift privacy – this article isonline? New  concept websites that go with from not sharing any information to to be read withScientist July our inhaler to show how you sharing everything – your location caution as privacy2009. could use the data to benefit the and what youre doing every hour of should be considered patient," he says. the day," as a legal precaution  The sites receive signals from  interacting with health professionals regardless medical devices and award online outweighs the privacy risks points for every compliant dose (PI) of medicine. Friends with similar conditions could then informally compete against each other to improve compliance.Chou WY, Hunt N/A  Article written in 2009  user interest shifts from information Study of SM focusingYM, Beckjord  examined utilization of chronic targeting consumer knowledge to on a specific conditionEB, Moser RP, fatigue syndrome (CFS) website information for health care - CFSHesse BW. at Centers for Disease Control professionalsSocial media and Prevention (CDC).  utilization of the CFS website reflectsuse in the  evaluated CFS website utilization, a high level of interest in the illnessUnited States: outcomes of a CDC CFS public by visitors to the siteimplications for awareness campaign, and user  "Information for Healthcarehealth behavior related to public Professionals" segment showed thecommunication. awareness campaign materials greatest percentage increase in pageJ Med Internet and CFS continuing medical viewsRes. 2009 Nov education courses.  website was an effective means to27;11(4):e48. provide health information about CFS and serves as an important public health tool for community outreach. Read & Giustini, Health care managers & social media literature review - 33
  • 34. Cummins J. Few Twitter, Youtube,  Article written in 2010  Twitter, YouTube, and Facebook are  OrganizationsHospitals Use Facebook  70% report they have three or most popular social media for that have aSocial Media fewer people monitoring SM. hospitals, and most effective in formal plan toEffectively, Says  only small numbers reporting driving traffic to web sites manage theirStudy. Health that they have been successful social mediaLeaders Media. improving community relations interactions2010. (16.7%), customer service (8.7%), are more employee engagement (8.7%), likely to be and crisis management (4.5%). successfulPearson Social Facebook, Youtube,  Non health-article written in  videos/podcasts most popular with  Study ofMedia Survey. LinkedIn, Skype 2010 social networking sites and blogs important ofOnline  80% of educators have at least following blogs forMarketing & one social media platform  value seen in using SM to teach teaching – atResearch. 2010  used primarily in the humanities ◦ extend classroom, talk to time not used and the social sciences students in their language (SM) as much in  academic communication medicine focused on a few sms – facebook, youtube, linkedin, skype primarily Senadheera V, Twitter, Facebook, Non-health article written in 2011  Twitter  Provides infoWarren M, MySpace, Youtube Honeycomb SM Block Explained: ◦ two banks have found tool to on howLeitch S. A study  The identity functional block engage users who need anotherinto how represents how users describe immediate answers to day-to-day institution isAustralian themselves and the extent to concerns using socialBanks use Social which they agree to reveal their  Facebook media in aMedia. Pacific identities ◦ unsanctioned pages give no differentAsia Conference  conversations consider the opportunity to Facebook professionalon Information extent to which they followers or engage in discussion; environmentSystems. May communicate with others when community pages do not add to31, 2011. using the given social media banks’ social media presence or service. strategy  Sharing functional block  Myspace represents the extent to which ◦ With 80% of its users based in users distribute, accept and United States, Australian banks Read & Giustini, Health care managers & social media literature review - 34
  • 35. recieve content. have not seen any utility in using  The extent of visibility of a user MySpace as part of social media to others using the same service strategy is represented by the presence  YouTube functional block and the ◦ most widely used social media  relationships block represents tool among Australian banks in the extent to which users can this study ; video clips posted on relate to other users. Facebook pages or links to video  In the context of social media, clips using Tweets; multiple reputation represents the extent channels & viewers from many to which a particular user can be sources trusted to engage in online  honeycomb framework has its ‟social interactions‟ and is limitations represented by the reputation ◦ Indicating strength of functional block functionalities is subjective;  groups block represents the considers technological value of extent to which users can form individual; functionality communities. possessed by each social media serviceTan H, Ng JHK. Google  Article written in 2006  N/A  As internetGoogling for a  Controversial article accessdiagnosis—use  Internet based study using becomesof Google as a Google to search for diagnoses; more readilydiagnostic aid: researchers were blind to the available ininternet based correct diagnoses. outpatientstudy. BMJ  Percentage of correct diagnoses clinics and2006;333:1143- from Google searches (compared hospital5. with the diagnoses as published wards, the in the New England Journal of web is rapidly Medicine). becoming an  Google searches revealed the important correct diagnosis in 15 (58%, 95% clinical tool for confidence interval 38% to 77%) doctors. The cases. use of web based searching may Read & Giustini, Health care managers & social media literature review - 35
  • 36. help doctors to diagnose difficult cases.Thaker SI, Facebook, Twitter,  Article written in 2011  Hospitals that were statistically  Study ofNowacki AS, Youtube  February and March 2010 - significantly more likely to use social hospital socialMehta NB, conducted structured review of media were large, urban, or part of a media useEdwards AR. sites of 1800 hospitals randomly health system; were run by “…to identify how manyHow U.S. sampled from 6436 hospitals in nonprofit, nongovernment U.S. hospitals use socialHospitals Use American Hospital Association organizations; were involved in media, what types ofSocial Media. annual 08 survey graduate medical education; or hospitals they are, andAnn Intern Med ◦ Stratified hospitals by key primarily treated children what content hospitals2011 characteristics and  Hospitals used social media to target disseminate through this05/17;154(10): oversampled for children’s a general audience (97%), provide medium.707-708. hospitals content about the entire organization Methods: In February  Considered hospital is using SM (93%), announce news and events and March 2010, we when site indicates an (91%), further public relations (89%), conducted a structured institutionally maintained and promote health (90%). review of Web sites of account with Facebook, Twitter, 1800 hospitals randomly or YouTube sampled from the 6436  Twenty-one percent of hospitals hospitals in the Ameri- use social media. can Hospital Association 2008 Annual Survey. We stratified these hospitals by key organizational characteristics and over- sampled for childrens hospitals. “Usher W. Types Email, Skype, ,  Article written in 2011  These “overlapping qualities bring  Study indicatesof Social Media iPhone, Facebook  Health enabling qualities of SM; about number of Health Outcome types of SM used by health(Web 2.0) Used 1) Multimodality, 2) commonalities such as 1) increases in professionalsby Australian Networkability, 3) Temporal self-efficacy, 2) ability to  Lists healthAllied Health Flexibility, and 4) Message communicate & control information professionalsProfessionals to Tailoring Capabilities either synchronously or views (pros/ cons of SM); positiveDeliver Early  935 respondents - 9.5% indicated asynchronously, 3) ability to Read & Giustini, Health care managers & social media literature review - 36
  • 37. Twenty-First- that they used social media for manipulate text, and 4) ability to qualities of theCentury their work, 19.1% of them did narrow/segment information for an tools “Future e-healthPractice not use it for work but used it for audience, group or individual initiatives shouldPromotion and their personal needs, and 71.3%  many avoid SM due to a lack of include developmentHealth Care. of them did not use social media practice models; perception of of Web 2.0…Soc Work at all vulnerability and issues of privacy; development and implementation ofHealth Care  Among the 15 listed social media  lack of SM usage in health care due courses, designed to2011 applications, e-mail (62.9%), to quality associated with unreliable familiarize and up-skill04;50(4):305-32 Skype (22.5%), iPhone (20.8%), nature of info AHPs re: usage and9. and Facebook (15%) were rated implementation of as the most frequently used Web 2.0 for health care delivery would be social media applications for one avenue (as delivering health care to patients displayed in Tables 1 during the last 12 months (2009) and 2). As this is the  willingness to undertake web 2.0 first Australian study that has examined education: 55.8% of the 670 AHPs Web 2.0 respondents indicated YES while technologies, further 15.8% of them indicated NO research and cross- cultural studies should be undertaken to investigate collaborative avenues between researchers and health societies for the design and implementation of the identified Web 2.0 educational modules and practical application platforms. Read & Giustini, Health care managers & social media literature review - 37
  • 38. VI) Teaching and Social Media Article SM Tools SM Strategies & quotes SM Benefits & Drawbacks SM use for Health Care Mentioned ManagersBoulos MNK, Blogs, wikis,  Article written in 2006!~  Blogs/wikis/podcasts are Observations of teachingMaramba I, podcasts  Seminal article (SA) relatively easy to implement using SMWheeler S.  What are the best ways to within health professions’Wikis, blogs and integrate this material into e- educational environmentpodcasts: a new learning for all mentioned?  Enhances student, clinician andgeneration of  Importance of privacy, and patient learning and deepensWeb-based closely monitored moderation learner engagement andtools for virtual of these tools collaboration within digitalcollaborative learning environmentsclinical practiceand education.BMC Med Educ.2006 Aug15;6:41.Kane GC, Wikis  Article written in 2009  Challenges facing wiki-based Observations of teachingFichman RG.  wikis, have begun to influence content for teaching: using SMThe business and knowledge  wikis harness bettershoemakers sharing practices in many knowledge for use butchildren: Using organizations introduce variances inwikis for consistency of contentinformation  without incentives tosystems contribute, difficult toteaching. MIS continue generating contentQuarterly. as initial enthusiasm wears2009;33(1) off1{17.  content from wikis and Web 2.0 sources target audiences other than that of an academic class Read & Giustini, Health care managers & social media literature review - 38