Cochrane Canada Plenary 2011, Palepu


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Dr. Anita Palepu talking about the importance of open access to medical evidence and some of the issues that prevent access

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  • Too often, good research evidence is undermined by poor quality reporting. The EQUATOR Network is an international initiative that seeks to improve reliability and value of medical research literature by promoting transparent and accurate reporting of research studies.
  • Reporting guidelines are statements that provide advice on how to report research methods and findings. Usually in the form of a checklist, flow diagram or explicit text, they specify a minimum set of items required for a clear and transparent account of what was done and what was found in a research study, reflecting in particular issues that might introduce bias into the research. Most widely recognised guidelines are based on the available evidence and reflect consensus opinion of experts in a particular field, including research methodologists and journal editors. Reporting guidelines complement advice on scientific writing, which concentrates on the basic writing principles and styles of research reports and publications, and journals' instructions to authors.
  • Within the last decade, much of the paradigm around scholarly publishing changed because of the rise of the web; and easy access to information of various kinds; proprietary control continues, however – Dean
  • Ideas breed More access to information- more ideas which are a source of wealth in the information age Richard Smith, The Trouble with Medical Publishing
  • One of the key issues for us was what type of Creative Commons license we would adopt - Anita
  • Who benefits when a medical journal is completely open and free to access? – Dean
  • These principles are critical for a credible evidence base
  • Cochrane Canada Plenary 2011, Palepu

    1. 1. An editor’s perspective of the importance of credible evidence being open and available Improving credibility in journal publishing: Anita Palepu, MD, MPH Editor and Founder of Open Medicine Scientist, CHEOS Professor of Medicine, UBC
    2. 2. <ul><li>Editor, Open Medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Associate Editor, General Medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Annals of Internal Medicine </li></ul>Disclosures Cochrane Canada Symposium Plenary | 17 February 2011, Vancouver BC
    3. 3. <ul><li>EQUATOR-Network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Importance of standardizing how we present health research to ensure high quality reporting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Open Access </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Powerful societal movement to remove barriers to scholarly information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Opportunities to innovate and partner </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of wiki to update systematic and scoping reviews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social media and broader dissemination </li></ul></ul>Roadmap
    4. 5. <ul><li>To improve the quality of reporting of health research </li></ul><ul><li>CONSORT Statement - for randomized controlled trials </li></ul><ul><li>PRISMA - for systematic reviews and meta-analysis </li></ul><ul><li>STROBE - for observational studies in epidemiology </li></ul><ul><li>STARD - for diagnostic accuracy studies </li></ul><ul><li>MOOSE - for meta-analysis of observational studies </li></ul>Reporting Guidelines
    5. 6. Current Model of Publishing
    6. 7. <ul><li>Medical knowledge is privately owned and available in a timely way only to those who can pay </li></ul><ul><li>Authors lose ownership of their work when sign over copyright to the publisher </li></ul><ul><li>Billions of dollars of taxpayer research funding research seen by small fraction of the intended audience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost of annual subscription to Brain Research is ~$24,000 </li></ul></ul>Current model restricts access
    7. 10. The journal crisis
    8. 11. <ul><li>High profile drug trial can earn up to $1m in reprint sales </li></ul><ul><li>Market leader Elsevier earned adjusted operating profits of $693m/yr euros in 2009, margins of 35% on core journal business </li></ul><ul><li>Medical publishing the fastest growing sub-sector of media industry for past 19 years </li></ul>Restricted access drives big profits
    9. 12. <ul><li>Impedes global research </li></ul><ul><li>Contributes to knowledge gap in developing countries </li></ul><ul><li>Hampers capacity building and collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Clinicians, patients and health policymakers can’t make decisions based on all the available information </li></ul>Restricted access does harm
    10. 13. <ul><li>In 21 st century, we are information-rich </li></ul><ul><li>Easier to access ‘medical evidence’ & exchange information, communicate </li></ul><ul><li>Less expensive to publish online </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fast, or instantaneous </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Global reach </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Includes developing countries, global health issues </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Web 2.0 requires two-way ‘social’ interaction, feedback mechanisms </li></ul>The web changed everything
    11. 14. <ul><li>A business model </li></ul><ul><li>Free access </li></ul><ul><li>A replacement for peer review </li></ul><ul><li>Low impact </li></ul>What open access is not
    12. 15. <ul><li>Removes barriers to access: </li></ul><ul><li>Free, immediate access online </li></ul><ul><li>Removes barriers to usage </li></ul><ul><li>Unrestricted distribution and re-use </li></ul><ul><li>Author retains ownership and rights to attribution </li></ul><ul><li>Manuscripts are deposited in a public online archive (usually full-text and xml [ tagged html ]) </li></ul><ul><li>Bethesda Principles, April 2003 </li></ul>What is open access
    13. 16. <ul><li>“ If you have an apple and I have an apple and we exchange these apples then you and I will have each one apple. But if you have an idea and I have an idea and we exchange these ideas, then each of us have two ideas.” </li></ul><ul><li>George Bernard Shaw </li></ul>Free, unrestricted access
    14. 18. PLoS Image
    15. 19. Re-mix
    16. 20. <ul><li>Taxpayers (patients), policy makers, government </li></ul><ul><li>Clinicians, researchers </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers & students, libraries, librarians </li></ul><ul><li>Learning organizations, universities </li></ul><ul><li>Developing nations </li></ul>Who benefits from OA?
    17. 21. <ul><li>Updating systematic review – using wikis </li></ul><ul><li>Leveraging social media to better disseminate </li></ul><ul><li>Enhancing interactivity </li></ul><ul><li>Disseminating Cochrane content through open access journals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Summaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commentaries and Editorials </li></ul></ul>Opportunities to innovate and partner
    18. 22. Open Medicine wiki SR
    19. 23. Open Medicine wiki SR
    20. 24. Open Medicine wiki SR
    21. 25. <ul><li>Integrity – Important clinical questions are answered using valid methods (Registration and Ethical conduct) </li></ul><ul><li>Transparency – These results are reported using the best available reporting guidelines to ensure reproducibility </li></ul><ul><li>Accountability – These findings are made open access to ensure widest dissemination to users and opportunities for data mining and derivative work </li></ul>Credible Evidence Base