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LIBR534 2012

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  • (Sjogren’s syndrome) Varicella Zoster = chicken pox virus
  • find a safe, private place for your reference interview use simple everyday “living room” language, e.g. not benign/say ‘not cancer’; not syndrome/say ‘disease or problem’; not insomnia/say ‘cannot sleep’ use phrases such as “I’m sorry” or “This must be difficult” -- “I’ll try to help you” patrons can be encouraged to discuss information with their health providers conversations with physician and healthcare team are “next step” provide a range of materials for your patrons explain why a resource is best suited to answer their question know the limits of your collection and your expertise

Answering health and medical reference questions Answering health and medical reference questions Document Transcript

  • An introduction to consumer health reference services in Canada: high-quality information sources & actual practice questions Dean Giustini, UBC Biomedical Librarian UBC School of Library, Archival and Information Studies UBC School of Population and Public Health Adjunct faculty member An introduction to consumer health reference services – a manual for LIBR534 Health information sources & services , 2013 1
  • Table of Contents This manual focuses on providing background information in order to answer basic to intermediate reference questions in consumer health. By identifying and using high-quality sources of health information, many of the skills learned will transfer to other Canadian library settings including public libraries. In addition, student librarians are introduced to key print and electronic sources and various techniques used to evaluate websites ‘on the fly’. I. Introduction p3 II. General health & medical reference questions 5 • “Anatomy of a question” • Break it down into parts • The range of health information • Frequently-asked questions (FAQs) • Exercises III. Consumer health information 9 IV. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) 13 V. Advanced consumer reference questions - Biomedical research 17 Appendices 19 - 27 • Current media and video • Collection development and selection tools • Some typical reference questions • Websites consulted • Consumer resources available at BC Libraries • Bibliography (extensive!) 28-32 Did you know? You can read about health and medical topics in more depth on the health library wiki: http://hlwiki.ca/ An introduction to consumer health reference services – a manual for LIBR534 Health information sources & services , 2013 2
  • I. Introduction The scope of this manual comprises three major areas of health librarianship: 1) consumer health 2) complementary & alternative (CAM) medicine 3) biomedical research. Answering reference questions in consumer health is one of the most challenging and yet rewarding areas of health librarianship. What way is best to provide library and information services to patients and consumers who need this information? Do you find a range of items and present them to users? Do you perform searches for them? How can you help a patient who is emotional during a reference interview? How will you manage your own emotions during difficult reference situations? These are a few of the issues that we will cover in this manual. Throughout, I point out as many of the major, relevant free and fee-based information sources as possible (where much reliable information is found) which are available in most public, college and university libraries in Canada, and elsewhere. In BC, these tools include the online CPS, Cochrane Library, and government websites. Due to the availability of search engines on the Internet, we will be open to the possibilities of Google scholar and PubMed searching. A number of top health websites such as Health Canada, the Public Health Agency of Canada and the US National Library of Medicine’s MedlinePlus will be covered. When possible (and logical) a range of print and online resources will be used. One topic we will explore is how print and online sources can be evaluated on the fly and how to match patron need to precise sources. For some of the more advanced questions, the idea of evidence-based medicine (EBM) will be introduced. It might come as a surprise to some of you that some resources in the area of EBM are now available in Canada for free. Many resources in EBM for consumers are free. We will have ample opportunity to share strategies and ways of refining how to answer health questions. The role of libraries in providing health information “…when asked legal, medical, or business questions, information services staff should make clear their roles as stated in their library’s specialized information services policies…” ALA Reference and User Services Association (RUSA) http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/rusa/index.cfm The major role of library and information services in Canada is to provide access to reliable information. In medicine, this can translate into providing access to the best medical evidence possible based on clinical trials. Most reference librarians who answer health and medical questions are responsible for evaluating websites and identifying authoritative resources to find information for users. Of course, these groups include patients and their families. In health care, reference services are provided by medical libraries with the aid of retrieval of articles from online databases, current awareness services and even social media (i.e. alerts, RSS feeds and podcasts). Health librarians working with doctors are responsible for finding the best medical evidence and assume important roles as advisors and co-investigators. An introduction to consumer health reference services – a manual for LIBR534 Health information sources & services , 2013 3
  • Traditionally, health librarians have delivered much of their library and information services by solely using their print collections. Now they require expert search skills to access, sort, evaluate, filter and disseminate online information in biomedical databases. Printed catalogues and bibliographies, online catalogs and multimedia databases, along with organizing national interlibrary loan systems have widened the range of resources available in our work. Did you know? Health information in BC is found in public, college & university libraries not to mention pharmaceutical companies, health organizations and hospitals? To begin your exploration of medical terminology, take a look at the dictionaries below. Dorland’s Illustrated medical dictionary. Philadelphia: Saunders. Considered “the dean" of medical dictionaries. Comprehensive and authoritative, it is updated every few years. It is available in most academic, public and health libraries in the dictionary area Understanding medical words. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/medicalwords.html is a tutorial from the National Library of Medicine that teaches the basics of medical vocabulary and how parts of words fit together to make medical terms. Merriam-Webster's medical desk dictionary: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/mplusdictionary.html. Type in your word, review the definition and select terms suggested in the list of related terms. Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health. Philadelphia: Saunders. Designed for use by nurses and allied health professionals, this is on a level accessible to the layperson. Some line drawings. Mosby’s Medical, Nursing, and Allied Health Dictionary. Similar to Miller-Keane but has extensive color illustrations (buy one or the other). Updated every four years. Stedman’s Medical Dictionary. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins. Similar to Dorland’s and essentially equal in authority (health libraries will generally have both but some have one or the other). Published approximately every five years An introduction to consumer health reference services – a manual for LIBR534 Health information sources & services , 2013 4
  • Part II – General health & medical reference questions “…the right information for the right person at the right time” Anatomy of a question • Break the question down into its various parts • What facets of the question can you identify? o Greek & Latin prefixes, suffixes o Words, terms o Subject or domain • At what level is the question aimed? o layperson, low literacy, expert level • What format is needed? Is there anything else you can find out from the patron? Frequently-asked questions (FAQs) • simple facts, definitions, abbreviations • diagnosis of a condition • in-depth information about diseases or conditions • “what is” questions; this disease? this test? • Why is my nurse or doctor asking these questions? • medical procedures? Descriptions; tests? • research questions • experimental treatments • drug information • prescription & over-the-counter • alternative medicine; herbal information Did you know? That eighty percent (80%) of Internet users (*59% of all adults*) have searched online for information about at least one of fifteen health topics Pew Internet 2011 http://www.pewinternet.org/ %7E/media/Files/Reports/2011/PIP_Social_Life_of_Health_Info.pdf Library patrons are asking Dr. Google their health questions as well…. Wouldn't you like to learn more about the *best* resources for them? An introduction to consumer health reference services – a manual for LIBR534 Health information sources & services , 2013 5
  • Health and medical reference involves  finding personal health & wellness information  public health & safety  diseases & lab tests  different formats online, in print, for free and “fee”  searching health websites & “Googling” Why ‘good quality’ information is needed in healthcare … “…I trust my doctor, but I’m seeing my medical librarian for a second opinion” The Reference Interview • Respect privacy/confidentiality in person and online • Be prepared for any emotions that might arise • Be aware of the patron’s body language • Be empathic, listen closely • Use open-ended questions Challenges in the health reference interview • medical terminology • reference interviews, e.g. confidentiality, privacy, sensitivity, cultural issues • knowing how much information to get from the patron • not being familiar with the resources • knowing the literacy and “health literacy” level of the person asking Why see a health librarian? • Because it promotes autonomy or self-care • Instills trust in our medical system • Can help to prevent disease and illnesses • Helps to inform treatment decisions • Can improve relationships with health care providers In Canada… “…health librarians face a number of additional challenges in the delivery of reference and information services …the fragmentation of our national bibliography and poor indexing of many of our health publications are two challenges that must be overcome… many libraries across the country do, however, offer workshops on retrieving information including where to look for Canadian studies and data.” Health Library wiki http://hlwiki.slais.ubc.ca/index.php?title=Reference_services An introduction to consumer health reference services – a manual for LIBR534 Health information sources & services , 2013 6
  • Some key online sources for B.C. Libraries Easy literacy & multilingual • BC Health Guide http://www.healthlinkbc.ca Portals and gateways Canadian Virtual Health Library http://cvhl.ca/ • Health Canada (French & English) http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ • Public Health Agency of Canada http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/ • Food and Drug Administration (FDA) http://www.fda.gov/ Consortia • e-HLBC http://ehlbc.ca/ • ELN (B.C.) http://www.eln.bc.ca/dbs/select.php Association websites • Canadian Health Libraries Association (CHLA/ABSC) http://chla-absc.ca • Consumer and Patient Health Information Section http://caphis.mlanet.org/ Condition-specific • Canadian Diabetes Association http://www.diabetes.ca/ • Heart and Stroke Foundation http://www.heartandstroke.bc.ca/ Other notable health websites • BC HealthLink http://www.healthlinkbc.ca • Cancer.gov - http://www.cancer.gov - From the National Cancer Institute. Extensive information about types of cancer, clinical trials, statistics, and more. • ClinicalTrials.gov - http://clinicaltrials.gov - the National Library of Medicine's searchable database of clinical trials in which consumers may wish to participate. • FamilyDoctor.org - http://www.familydoctor.org - American Academy of Family Physicians websitess for the whole family. • Health Canada – http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ Health Canada deals with prevention and health promotion to improve the quality of life. • KidsHealth - http://kidshealth.org/ • Lab Tests Online – http://www.labtestsonline.org • MedlinePlus Labs Tests - http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/laboratorytests.html • Merck Manual of Diagnosis & Therapy - http://www.merck.com/mmpe/index.html • Merck Manual of Geriatrics - http://www.merck.com/mkgr/mmg/contents.jsp • NIH Senior Health - http://nihseniorhealth.gov - the National Institutes of Health's web site for seniors and their care givers. • ToxTown - http://toxtown.nlm.nih.gov/ - the National Library of Medicine's web resource for consumers to understand toxins in their environment. An introduction to consumer health reference services – a manual for LIBR534 Health information sources & services , 2013 7
  • • Yucky Discovery - http://yucky.discovery.com More Tips for the Reference Interview • Find a safe, private place for your reference interview (if needed) • Use simple language, e.g. not benign/say ‘not cancer’ • Don’t say syndrome/say ‘disease or problem’; not insomnia/say ‘cannot sleep’ • Reassure. Use phrases such as “I’m sorry” or “This must be difficult” -- “I’ll try to help” • patrons can be encouraged to discuss information with their health providers • conversations with physician and healthcare team are “next step” • provide a range of materials for your patrons • explain why a resource is best suited to answer their question • know the limits of your collection and your expertise Other considerations • patrons (i.e. consumers, patients and family) can take control of their health • have to make life-altering decisions – information is critical • libraries not as intimidating as health care systems • patrons may be afraid to ask questions (i.e. and may not want to bother you) • access to hospital libraries may be limited in community (i.e. or no library professional available there) • Public librarians are needed to filter information found on the Internet Health librarians: know your community! • Know what online resources are most useful • Participate in consumer health groups locally • Keep your collection in health & medicine up-to-date • Make contact with local medical librarians • Offer training for your users/and your staff Did you know? UBC Library has four medical libraries and that CISTI in Ottawa is Canada’s science, technical and medical library… What is MedlinePlus? http://medlineplus.gov Librarian recommended site • The U.S. National Library of Medicine maintains MedlinePlus to help consumers find health information on over 900 topics. The ADAM Medical Encyclopedia brings health An introduction to consumer health reference services – a manual for LIBR534 Health information sources & services , 2013 8
  • consumers a library of medical images and 4,000 articles about diseases, tests, symptoms, injuries, and surgeries. See also the many Interactive tutorials. An introduction to consumer health reference services – a manual for LIBR534 Health information sources & services , 2013 9
  • Part III - Consumer health information (CHI) What is CHI? “…information designed to help individuals understand their health and [the ability to] make health-related decisions for themselves and their families… this speaks to the need to develop the “health literacy” in your community.” Patrick and Koss, Consumer health information: white paper Vision for a health literate Canada “…all people in Canada have the capacity, opportunities and support they need to obtain & use health information effectively, to act as informed partners in the care of themselves, their families and communities & to manage interactions in a variety of settings that affect health & well-being…” The Canadian Council on Learning (CCL) 2009 http://www.ccl-cca.ca/CCL/Topic/HealthandLearning What is health literacy? According to the Medical Library Association, health literacy is the ability to: • Recognize health information needs • Identify sources & use them to retrieve information • Analyze, understand and use patient information to make health decisions • Medical Library Association http://www.mlanet.org/resources/healthlit/define.html also: “…the degree to which people have the capacity to obtain, process and understand health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions…” • Healthy People 2010 http://www.healthypeople.gov/document/HTML/Volume1/11HealthCom.htm In Canada, ‘health literacy’ has been defined as: “…the degree to which people are able to access, understand, appraise and communicate information to engage with the demands of different health contexts in order to promote and maintain good health across the life-course” • Kwan, Frankish and Rootman, 2006 An introduction to consumer health reference services – a manual for LIBR534 Health information sources & services , 2013 10
  • Who is most likely to have health literacy issues? • People of all backgrounds, especially those with chronic health problems • Most adults read at 6th grade level, 45% below that level • Older people, immigrants and low income families are more likely to have trouble reading and understanding health information Other challenges  More than 800 studies have found that health-related materials in patient education exceed the reading levels of the average adult (Rudd, 2007)  One study of health websites in Canada, the U.K. and Australia found that content was written at higher levels than recommended by literacy organizations; lowest level observed was grade 11 (Petch, 2004) Information Rx project Information Rx is a health literacy intervention created by the American College of Physicians and National Library of Medicine (ACP/NLM). Health providers use Information prescription pads to refer patients to reliable health information. The goal is to reduce the number of poor quality Internet searches brought to physicians. It saves valuable time, empowers patients and enhances the quality and outcome of interactions between patients and providers. For those who do not have access to a computer or need help searching the Internet, libraries offer patients and families free access and help finding health information. For more information about Information Rx and to order promotional materials go to http://www.informationrx.org. For example, go to www.mlanet.org/resources/healthlit/hil_project.html. For information about Information Rx and promotional materials go to http://foundation.acponline.org/hl/inforx.htm How can libraries support their communities and promote health literacy? • Free access to the Internet • Patient information packets • Consumer health collection • Native language resources • Virtual chat / email assistance An introduction to consumer health reference services – a manual for LIBR534 Health information sources & services , 2013 11
  • What is Ask Me 3? The Ask Me 3 is an American campaign administered by the U.S. National Patient Safety Foundation; it encourages patients to ask health providers at least three questions during their medical appointments. The program encourages health providers to answer questions and ensure they are fully understood by the patient. (There is no similar program in Canada.) The questions are: 1) What is my main problem? 2) What do I need to do? 3) Why is it important for me to do this? For more information and to order campaign materials to include in a health literacy information packet or toolkit visit: http://www.npsf.org/for-healthcare- professionals/programs/ask-me-3/ask-me-3-resources/ An introduction to consumer health reference services – a manual for LIBR534 Health information sources & services , 2013 12
  • Have you heard about the Canadian Virtual Health Library? The CVHL / BVCS introduces equitable access to high-quality health information for Canadian health professionals, to improve health outcomes and patient safety for all Canadians. This initiative of the Canadian Health Libraries Association (CHLA) seeks to coordinate access to core health information delivery to Canada’s health professionals and researchers efficiently and more cost-effectively. Made possible through a grant from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), and the effort of many volunteers, we have built this site to help you find the health information as it becomes readily available. Patients and families who want to get involved in improving access to information and new treatments can join the Cochrane Consumer Network http://www.cochrane.org/consumers/about.htm An introduction to consumer health reference services – a manual for LIBR534 Health information sources & services , 2013 13
  • Part IV – Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) What is CAM? Definitions of … Alternative medicine: “…instead of conventional medicine” Conventional medicine “…practiced by medical doctors and allied health professionals such as nurses, pharmacists, physical therapists and psychologists” Complementary medicine: “…in addition to conventional medicine” Integrative medicine: “…combines conventional and CAM treatments in a ‘whole person’ approach that has been shown to be safe and effective” http://nccam.nih.gov/research/camonpubmed/ An introduction to consumer health reference services – a manual for LIBR534 Health information sources & services , 2013 14
  • Part IV - Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is an area beset by differing opinions (and even controversy) but is nonetheless a huge part of health care delivery in the United States and Canada. According to an article in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, CAM medicines are used by "more than 80% of the world's population and are becoming an increasing component of the US health care system, with more than 70% of the population using CAM at least once and annual spending reaching as much as $34 billion." CAM is prominent in the work of reference librarians in many types of libraries. The five (5) domains of CAM According to the U.S. National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM), CAM is classified into five domains (examples used are NOT exhaustive): 1. Whole medical systems - Ayurveda, Homeopathic Medicine, Naturopathic Medicine and Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) 2. Mind-body medicine - meditation, prayer and mental healing as well as creative therapies using artistic outlets (e.g. dance) 3. Biologically-based practices - herbs, foods, vitamins and dietary supplements 4. Manipulative and body-based practices - chiropractic, osteopathic manipulation, Rolfing and massage 5. Energy medicine - Biofield therapies (Qi Gong [chi kung], Reiki, Therapeutic Touch) or Bioelectromagnetic therapies (pulsed & magnetic fields) CAM in Canada Natural health products are federally-regulated in Canada. The health products regulated are vitamins and minerals, herbal remedies, homeopathic medicines, traditional medicines (e.g. traditional Chinese medicines) and other products like amino acids and essential fatty acids. • Health Canada - Natural Health Products Directorate is responsible for ensuring natural health products are safe for use in Canada. Its role is "...to ensure that Canadians have access to natural health products that are safe, effective and of high quality while respecting freedom of choice and philosophical and cultural diversity." The NHP Regulations cover site licensing, manufacturing practices, adverse reaction reporting, clinical trials and labelling. • The Canadian Interdisciplinary Network for CAM Research (IN-CAM) was established by Drs. Heather Boon at the University of Toronto Faculty of Pharmacy and Maria Verhoef, University of Calgary. • Office of Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine (OCCAM) promotes research into the safe, effective evidence-based use of CAM in cancer treatment • HomeoNet promotes collaboration between homeopaths and researchers • Pediatric Complementary and Alternative Medicine Network (PedCAM) promotes safe and effective use of CAM in children and youth An introduction to consumer health reference services – a manual for LIBR534 Health information sources & services , 2013 15
  • CAM in British Columbia • Health Professions Act (2004 amend.): regulations governing the designation of health professions and their regulatory bodies in BC. List of currently covered professions (see References section) • Example: Naturopathic physicians are regulated by the College of Naturopathic Physicians of British Columbia (CNPBC) which is "...committed to providing safe and ethical standards of professional practice amongst naturopathic physicians of British Columbia. The CNPBC acts in the public interest to ensure the highest quality of naturopathic care." InspireHealth is a Vancouver-based non-profit organization whose mission is to provide integrated cancer care for patients and families. InspireHealth is supported by the BC Ministry of Health and other organizations and emphasizes informed decision-making for patients and a more active, personal involvement in healing. Comprised of medical doctors and CAM practitioners, InspireHealth is the first organization of its kind in Canada. CAM regulation in the United States Since 1994, natural products (dietary supplements) have been regulated by the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA). DSHEA creates provisions for: dietary supplements and ingredients; safety; guidelines for information displayed where supplements are sold; how claims of efficacy are communicated; labeling; and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) authority over Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs). Recently, the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER) issued guidance for the industry entitled "Complementary and Alternative Medicine Products and their Regulation by the Food and Drug Administration." According to the FDA, this document represents current thinking on this topic while not limiting the FDA’s jurisdiction. There is uneven regulation of CAM practitioners in the United States with some disciplines licensed and others not; those that are regulated are controlled at the state level. In California, acupuncture (and Oriental Medicine) is regulated by the California Acupuncture Board through "licensure, education standards, and enforcement." CAM education in North America Various treatments are taught in schools or by organizations that teach those techniques (e.g. The Boucher Institute of Naturopathic Medicine in New Westminster, BC or The California College of Ayurveda in Grass Valley, California) and 2) medical schools that teach the integration of CAM modalities and philosophies. Canada has its own initiatives such as the Complementary and Alternative Medicine Issues in Undergraduate Medical Education (CAM in UME) Project. Its goal is "...to facilitate high quality and balanced teaching of CAM related issues in undergraduate medical education (UME)." An introduction to consumer health reference services – a manual for LIBR534 Health information sources & services , 2013 16
  • Medical students receive training during the formative years of their education but there is a lack of time devoted to CAM some schools. Many Canadians use CAM so it is important that physicians are informed. A series of articles on CAM educational initiatives in the United States was published the October 2007 issue of Academic Medicine. The series focuses on the NCCAM Education Program where "...the education program grantees discuss the challenges faced and lessons learned in CAM for conventional health care professionals." CAM requires a strong research base to support it. There is a developing body of evidence created by organizations like NCCAM and the International Society for Complementary Medicine Research (ISCMR) to name a few. Journals such as Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (eCAM) and The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine give researchers a forum to publish their findings. It is important that this continues as the main criticism of CAM is its lack of evidence. Located in New Westminster, BC, the Boucher Institute of Naturopathic Medicine is Western Canada's only CNME-accredited naturopathic medical school http://binm.org/ An introduction to consumer health reference services – a manual for LIBR534 Health information sources & services , 2013 17
  • Part V - Advanced consumer reference questions - Biomedical research Research questions are common in health and medical libraries. The term biomedicine includes research conducted in medicine, veterinary medicine and the life and biosciences such as biology, anatomy and pathology. Research in medicine makes it possible to discover new drugs and ways of understanding what causes illness. In fact, research lays the foundation for all treatments and starts with clinical trials. One of the pivotal movements in biomedicine in the last two decades is evidence-based medicine. What is evidence based medicine? Simply put, the evidence-based medicine movement “…is about the process of evaluating all evidence on a given clinical topic” and not only the evidence found in the major high impact journals. The term "evidence-based medicine" appeared in the literature in 1992 in a paper by Gordon Guyatt. Although the evaluation of medical procedures and interventions has existed for many years, it was not until the late 20th century that an evidence-based movement caught fire. The Scottish epidemiologist, Professor Archie Cochrane, promoted EBM principles in his 1972 book Effectiveness and Efficiency: Random Reflections on Health Services. Cochrane's efforts and advocacy have promoted the principles of synthesizing the evidence and applying it to patients. His name is now applied to the centres of evidence-based research called Cochrane Centres and the international Cochrane Collaboration. The methodologies used to determine "best evidence" were established in Canada at McMaster University and led by Professors David Sackett and Gordon Guyatt. Key medical databases & search engines • electronic Health Library of BC - http://ehlbc.ca/databases/ • The Cochrane Library http://thecochranelibrary.com • Medline OR PubMed - http://pubmed.gov • Google scholar - http://scholar.google.com • WorldCat – http://worldcat.org Part V - Health-specific search engines • Hakia – http://hakia.com • Healthline – http://healthline.com • iMedisearch - http://www.imedisearch.com • Medstory – http://medstory.com An introduction to consumer health reference services – a manual for LIBR534 Health information sources & services , 2013 18
  • Part VI - Current traditional news media In 2013, social networking sites for health consumers have reached a critical mass. Sites such as Patientslikeme http://www.patientslikeme.com/ & Wikipatient http://wikidoc.org/index.php/WikiPatient allow health consumers to come together to share their experiences. Inspire http://www.inspire.com/ is a site that provides health consumers with a range of health and wellness groups for practical and emotional support. Sites like Revolution Health http://www.revolutionhealth.com have a range of online communities for a variety of medical conditions. Care Pages http://www.carepages.com allows health consumers to create websites and to share the love of blogging within a community. While the quality of some information generated by consumers on sites such as Wikipedia and other health wikis should be evaluated, there is some evidence to suggest that user generated information is getting better and more accurate all the time. Some recent studies (see bibliography) show that some health consumers trust each other more than their own doctors; one survey found that 40% of respondents said they resorted to looking for medical information on the internet because their doctors would not take the time to answer their questions. As we have seen with the rise of search engines such as Google, and a whole range of health search engines, there are numerous ways of finding a lot of information on the web. If you are interested in exploring some of websites known as Health 2.0 see my entry in the wiki entitled Top Social Media Websites in Medicine or sites listed here: http://medical20index.com/ . http://wikidoc.org/index.php/WikiPatient An introduction to consumer health reference services – a manual for LIBR534 Health information sources & services , 2013 19
  • Appendix I - Collection development The types of health information collected by libraries Despite an increasingly open and extensive corpus of electronic information on the web, librarians across Canada continue to provide basic print-based services and collections in their libraries. These services include reference services in-house and virtually, tours, health programs and, increasingly, assistance with searching for health information online. Internet instruction in Canadian libraries has greatly expanded due to the explosion of web-based information and the range of language formats now available. The selection and maintenance of print and electronic book and journal collections are two of the most important activities for librarians. Some important issues that librarians collecting health information must deal with are: • What is my annual collections budget? • What is most-needed in my immediate community of users • What is the overall scope of the existing health and medical collections • How do I balance the need for print and online resources • How will free information be balanced against fee-based resources • How will I determine different content in print versus online versions • How do I deal with duplication of identical sources, multiple vendors, online access and authentication, adaptability of database interfaces As physical libraries change from housing print to more digital content, librarians must find ways to perform outreach to their users. One of the primary challenges for librarians is the proliferation of medical knowledge and evidence due to advances in biomedical research. Changes in information cycles are often linked to how physicians are trained, how they practice and carry out their research; ultimately, this has an impact on the maintenance of knowledge in different medical disciplines and consequently how health librarians build collections. Evaluation criteria for collection development • Needs of primary clientele; clinical or research medicine • Relevance of subject to users; Canadian content? • Cost-effectiveness: cost of edition? digitized? Free on the web? • Reading and literacy level • Reputation and authority of authors, producers; publishers, editions • Confidence in publisher or producer • Currency and validity of information and updates • Access and network capacity: access preferably using passwords An introduction to consumer health reference services – a manual for LIBR534 Health information sources & services , 2013 20
  • • Uniqueness and completeness of information • Added-value and advantages over other formats • Technical ease and accessibility • Legal issues including licensing requirement and restrictions • Copyright • Archival issues - availability, cost, limitations, storage, etc. • Availability and quality of documentation • Vendor's reliability in customer support, quality of training programs • Usage and/or limit access can be monitored Selection aids and tools Librarians rely on certain selection tools and trends in order to build timely, relevant collections for their users. These mechanisms include but are not limited to: • Tracking current topics in the community (i.e. H1N1, infectious diseases) • Recent questions asked at the reference desk, online, virtual reference, etc. • Reviews of books in journals and newspapers • Approval books and slips • Publisher catalogues • Recommendations from patrons and other library professionals • Standard lists, e.g., Doody's, CLA • CAPHIS, Consumer and Patient Health Information Section (Medical Library Association) http://caphis.mlanet.org/ • Stock lists from major vendors • Interlibrary loan requests • Consumer health books – a core collection that can be purchased for about $2000 dollars CDN. http://chis.wikidot.com/chi-core • Canadian distributors and newsletters, e.g., Login Brothers Canada http://login.ca An introduction to consumer health reference services – a manual for LIBR534 Health information sources & services , 2013 21
  • Appendix II Health & medicine reference questions Reference sources assignment 1) How do physicians define arthritis? I’m well-educated and don’t know much about it. 2) Can you find me some information on Acuprin®? (drug trade name) What’s it used for? 3) How many servings of fruit should a 42 year old male have per day? Is there a Canada- wide standard? 4) I’m looking for a doctor in Calgary named Neil Hagen. Can you tell me a bit about him, where he went to medical school and what his medical specialty is? 5) I need a definition for diabetes mellitus. Can you recommend a good print dictionary for a teenager studying health at school? 6) I need a definition for and origin of Down’s syndrome for a university biology project. 7) My dad had a heart attack recently but speaks Cantonese. Can you help me find information for him in his mother tongue? 8) Is the HPV vaccine safe? I am worried about side-effects for my teenage daughter. I am a physiotherapist by training. 9) Can you find information for my son about ‘heart murmur’? He’s developmentally- delayed but reads at a grade V level. 10) My mom needs an overview of ‘bursitis’ including pictures. She’s 75 years old. 11) In Canada, is bottled water safer than tap water? I’d like some scientific studies. 12) Is it safe to buy prescription medicines online? Does the Canadian government provide advice about this topic? 13) What are some of the side effects of taking anabolic steroids? I need something written at a college level. I also need information on testing for traces of the drug in the blood. An introduction to consumer health reference services – a manual for LIBR534 Health information sources & services , 2013 22
  • 14) My father is having a knee replacement. Do you have any videos on this topic because he can’t read English very well? 15) What does basal cell carcinoma look like? I’d like some free photos for a university project. 16) Do cell phones and wifi cause cancer? What kinds of scientific studies are available? 17) What is high blood pressure? Do I have it? Please help me figure this out. I’m from Russia and have just started to learn English. 18) What is considered to be a healthy diet for an 18 year old male athlete? I’m 18, and I’m doing this for myself. 19) What are the real health benefits of yoga? I hear it can lower heart-rate. I’m a 25 year old female with a good education. 20) How often should I have my cholesterol levels checked? I’m worried about it. I’m turning 50 this year and I should go to the doctor. Are there any home-tests available? 21) I am trying to lose weight. What is the safe amount to lose per week? Should I see a dietician? Complementary and alternative (CAM) health 22) My mother is always praying to stay healthy. Is there any proof that praying improves health? 23) Does gingko really prevent dementia? I’d like some clinical studies if possible. 24) Do you have any books or videos on Qi Gong? 25) I have glaucoma; can I take ginkgo instead of my prescription? 26) The doctor says I have osteoporosis. Can I take a supplement? 27) Will acupuncture help heal Achilles tendonitis? 28) My daughter has “autism spectrum” disorder. Can I provide a special diet for her? An introduction to consumer health reference services – a manual for LIBR534 Health information sources & services , 2013 23
  • 29) What is coronary heart disease; can it be prevented? Is heart disease inherited? 30) I am feeling very stressed these days. Can Reiki help me to relax? Biomedical questions 31) What is body mass index? Does a high BMI cause disease? 32) What is the name of the legislation that led to the creation of the National Library of Medicine in the United States? Does Canada have a similar law? 33) Is there any real medical evidence that acupuncture is beneficial? 34) Can you help me find some research about “Munchausen’s syndrome by proxy”? 35) How do I find some research on LASIK surgery? Is it safe? I don’t mind testimonials but a range of ‘evidence’ would be nice. 36) My friend has Stage IV lung cancer. Can she enroll in a clinical trial? 37) My sister in Richmond has diabetes. Are there online support groups she can join? 38) How much of a problem is peanut allergy in elementary school children in BC? 39) What do we know about the long-term effects of anti-depressants & anti-anxiety drugs? 40) What does the evidence show is the most effective diet for losing weight? 41) What types of diseases are carriers of BRCA1 susceptible to? 42) Are there any authoritative research studies about Internet addiction? 43) What does Health Canada do versus the Public Health Agency of Canada? 44) Who approves new drugs in the United States? What is the approval process? 45) Why can’t I get a subscription for Vioxx in Canada? An introduction to consumer health reference services – a manual for LIBR534 Health information sources & services , 2013 24
  • Appendix III – Website evaluation What to look for in an informative health website • Authority, transparency • Consider the source— who is responsible for website? its content? • Focus on information quality—is the information reviewed? how often? • Be a skeptic! check any information on the web in two+ sources • Look for evidence—rely on medical research, not opinion • Check for currency—check dates on documents • Beware of bias, jargon, technical language • Protect your privacy—is your information kept confidential? • Consult with your health professional Website evaluation & rating tools • Discern http://www.discern.org.uk • Health Ratings http://healthratings.org • HON Code of Conduct - http://www.hon.ch/HONcode/Conduct.html This site explains the principles of an ethical and high-quality health Web site as stated by the Health on the Net (HON) Foundation. • Internet Detective - online tutorial designed for university students. The site leads you through exercises to learn how to assess information on the web. http://www.vts.intute.ac.uk/detective/ • MedlinePlus Guide to Healthy Web Surfing - http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/healthywebsurfing.html • NLM Evaluating Internet Health Information (Online Tutorial) • http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/webeval/webeval.html • Patient 101: How to Find Reliable Information • http://www.jointcommission.org/GeneralPublic/patient_101.htm An introduction to consumer health reference services – a manual for LIBR534 Health information sources & services , 2013 25
  • Appendix IV – Websites consulted I. General health information Dictionaries • Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary – (check for print copies at UBC library) http://toby.library.ubc.ca/subjects/subjpage2.cfm?id=854 • MedlinePlus - http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/mplusdictionary.html o NLM Medical Words Tutorial http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/medicalwords.html • Oxford Companion to Medicine - http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/BROWSE.html?subject=s14&book=t185 • Stedman's - http://toby.library.ubc.ca/subjects/subjpage2.cfm?id=854 Directories • [B.C.] Medical directory (Find a physician) - https://www.cpsbc.ca/ • Canadian medical directory (print only) • Red Book Online - http://redbookonline.bc211.ca/bc/goHome?langInd=E Diseases & syndromes • MedlinePlus, National Library of Medicine - http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ • Stedman's Medical eponyms (GoogleBooks) • Who Named It? Eponyms/Biography Online - http://www.whonamedit.com/ II. Medical textbooks • Gray's Anatomy, Classic 1918 ed. (free) - http://www.bartleby.com/107/ • Grant's Atlas of Anatomy - GoogleBooks • Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment - GoogleBooks • Free Books For Doctors - http://www.freebooks4doctors.com/ • MedicalStudent.com - http://www.medicalstudent.com/ • Merck Manual of Diagnosis & Therapy - http://www.merck.com/mmpe/index.html • Merck Manual of Geriatrics - http://www.merck.com/mkgr/mmg/contents.jsp • Merck Manual of Medical Information (easier to understand) http://www.merck.com/mmhe/index.html • Merck Veterinary Manual - http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp III. Drugs • E-CPS - Compendium of pharmaceuticals (Canada) - http://resources.library.ubc.ca/873/ • DailyMed http://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov & Drug Information - http://druginfo.nlm.nih.gov • E-Therapeutics (UBC Library or VPL) http://resources.library.ubc.ca/1147 • MedplinePlus - Drugs, supplements & herbal http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginformation.html An introduction to consumer health reference services – a manual for LIBR534 Health information sources & services , 2013 26
  • Lab tests • LabTestsOnline - http://www.labtestsonline.org/ • Medical Tests UCSF Children's Hospital - http://www.ucsfchildrenshospital.org/tests/index.html • MedlinePlus Laboratory Tests - http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/laboratorytests.html IV. Medical research • Medline OR PubMed - http://pubmed.gov • Google scholar - http://scholar.google.com • Scirus - http://scirus.com • eHealth Library of BC - http://ehlbc.ca/databases/ Public health • Canada's Food Guide - http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/food-guide-aliment/index-eng.php • Health Canada - http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ • Household Products Database - http://householdproducts.nlm.nih.gov/ • Public Health Agency of Canada - http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/index-eng.php • Healthfinder, US Government - http://www.healthfinder.gov/ • Mayo Clinic.com - http://www.mayoclinic.com/ Associations • Canadian Organization for Rare Disorders http://raredisorders.ca/ V. Health statistics • BC Cancer Statistics - http://www.bccancer.bc.ca/HPI/CancerStatistics/default.htm • BC Chronic Disease Management statistics - http://www.health.gov.bc.ca/library/publications/cdm.html • BC Medical Services Plan (MSP) facts and statistics - http://www.health.gov.bc.ca/msp/facstat.html • BC Statistics site - http://www.bcstats.gov.bc.ca/ • Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI) - http://cihi.ca • Guide to Health Statistics in Canada – http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/82-573-g/index-eng.htm • National Center for Health Statistics (US) - http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/ • World Health Organization (WHO) Statistical Information System - http://www.who.int/whosis/en/ An introduction to consumer health reference services – a manual for LIBR534 Health information sources & services , 2013 27
  • Appendix V 1. Ebsco introduction to searching eHLBC licensed resources: http://ehlbc.ca/resources-databases/licensed-resources ELN licensed resources: http://www.eln.bc.ca/dbs/select.php Tutorials: http://support.ebsco.com/training/tutorials.php Health Databases - General • Health & Wellness Resource Center (Gale) http://www.gale.cengage.com/pdf/facts/hwrc.pdf - 900 health/medical journals/newsletters, more than 75% full-text - health-related articles from 3,000 general interest publication - Gale reference titles and other reference books • Health Reference Center – Academic (Gale) Access: http://resources.library.ubc.ca/309 About: http://www.gale.cengage.com/pdf/facts/hrcacad.pdf - 2,000 full-text sources and hundreds of videos - Gale reference titles and other reference books - 2,500 topical overviews from Clinical Reference Systems • Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition (EBSCO) Tutorials: http://support.ebsco.com/training/tutorials.php - 822 serials indexed and abstracted; 542 full-text - 441 peer-reviewed, full-text journals Health Databases - Complementary and Alternative Medicine • AltHealthWatch (EBSCO) http://www.ebscohost.com/academic/alt-healthwatch more than 180 full-text journals • Health & Wellness Alternative Health Module (Gale) 50 serials indexed and abstracted http://www.gale.com/servlet/ItemDetailServlet? region=9&imprint=000&titleCode=GAL58&type=4&id=174859 An introduction to consumer health reference services – a manual for LIBR534 Health information sources & services , 2013 28
  • Consumer Health Bibliography • Baker, Lynda M., Manbeck, Virginia. Consumer health information for public librarians. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, Inc., 2001. • Bang, D., Muir, M., Denny, K. Consumer health information services: how are they delivered across Canada? Bibliotheca Medica Canadiana 2000;22(1):14-20. • Bannick, CR. RX for medical libraries. Library Journal November 15, 2005:32-34. • Barclay, Donald. The Medical Library Association consumer health reference service handbook. New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers, 2001. http://www.mlanet.org/order/chrsh.html • Bibel, B. Best consumer health books of 2007. Library Journal, 2/1/2008. http://www.libraryjournal.com/article/CA6523448.html?q=bibel • Bibel, B. Finding consumer health information in other languages. Journal of Consumer Health on the Internet 2003;7(4):17-24. • Boden, C. Overcoming the linguistic divide: a barrier to consumer health information. JCHLA September 2009; 30(3): 75-80. • Boorkman, J , Huber, J. Roper, F. comp. and ed. 5h ed. Introduction to reference sources in the health sciences, New York: Neal-Schuman, 2008. • Borman, CB, McKenzie, PM. Trying to help without getting in their faces [Public library staff descriptions of providing consumer health information]. Reference & User Services Quarterly 2005; 45(2):133-146. • Burkell, J. What are the chances? Evaluating risk and benefit information in consumer health materials? 2004 JMLA 92(2);200-208. • Burkell, J, Campbell, DJ. “What does this mean?" How Web-based consumer health information fails to support information seeking in the pursuit of informed consent for screening test decisions. JMLA 2005 Jul;93(3):363-73. • Burnham, E. Health information literacy: a library case study. Library Trends 2005:53(3):422-433. • Calabretta, N. Growing a web page: the evolution of a consumer health resource. J Consumer Health on the Internet 2003;7(3): 15-34. • Canadian internet use survey at home, by sex and medical or health-related information search, every 2 years (Table 358-0131) Ottawa, ON: Statistics Can. http://bit.ly/2C8WxD • Carter, NJ, Wallace, RL. Collaborating with public libraries, public health departments, and rural hospitals to provide consumer health information services. Journal of Consumer Health on the Internet 2007;11(4):1-14. • Casini, B., Kenyon, A. The public librarian’s guide to providing consumer health information. Chicago: Public Library Association, 2002. • Chandra, A, Rutsohn. P, Carlisle, MB. Utilization of the Internet by rural West Virginia consumers. Journal of Consumer Health on the Internet 2004;8(2):49-59. • Charbonneau, DH, Healy, AM. Collaborating with community partners to provide health information in Arabic. Journal of Consumer Health on the Internet 2006;10(2):1-16. • Champ-Blackwell, S, Weldon, S. Free online consumer health classes. Journal of Consumer Health on the Internet 2005;9(3):37-42. • Chu, A, Huber, J, Mastel-Smith, B, Cesario, S. "Partnering with Seniors for Better Health": computer use and Internet health information retrieval among older adults in a low socioeconomic community. JMLA 2009;97(1):12-20. An introduction to consumer health reference services – a manual for LIBR534 Health information sources & services , 2013 29
  • • Coggan, JM. AARP: evaluating health information on the Internet. Journal of Consumer Health on the Internet 2003;7(4) 61-66. • Crespo, J. Training the health information seeker: quality issues in health information web sites. Library Trends 2004:53(2):360-373. • Crumley, ET. Exploring the roles of librarians and health professionals in complementary and alternative medicine. J Med Lib Assoc. 2006 January; 94(1): 81–89. • Detlefsen, EG. Where am I to go? Use of the Internet for consumer health information by two vulnerable communities. Library Trends 2004:53(2):283-300. • Durkin, C. Consumer health: a guide to Internet information resources. Chicago,IL, 2001. • Dutta-Bergman, MJ. Developing a profile of consumer intention to seek out additional information beyond a doctor: the role of communicative and motivation variables. Health Commun. 2005;17(1):1-16. • Eysenbach, G. Consumer health informatics. BMJ 21 June 2000;320(7251 ):1713-1716. http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/320/7251/1713 • Eysenbach, G. Evidence-based patient choice and consumer health Informatics in the Internet age. Journal of Medical Internet Research. Apr-Jun 2001;3(2):E19. • Felsky, M. The legal liability of information professionals. Can J Info Sci 1989;14(3):1-15. • Fisher, J. The Beehive and firsthand: an evaluation of two easy-to-read sites. Journal of Consumer Health on the Internet 2004;8(3):85-92. • FitzSimmons, M. Health Reference Center–Academic: An evaluation. Journal of Consumer Health on the Internet 2003;7(3) 59-68. • Flake, D., ed. Consumer health information in action: profiles of 12 innovative libraries. In: Rees, AM. Consumer health information source book. 7th ed. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing. 2003:231-274. • Flemming, T., Sullivant, J. Consumer health materials for lesbians, gay men, bisexual and transgendered people. Public Library Quarterly 2000;18(3/4):95-107. • Foot, S, Etheredge, L. Strategies to improve consumer health information services. Res Agenda Brief. 2002 Jan;(10):1-10. • Gillaspy, ML. Factors affecting the provision of consumer health information in public libraries: the last five years. Library Trends 2005:53(3):480-495. • Gobel G, Andreatta S, Masser J, Pfeiffer KP. A MeSH based intelligent search intermediary for consumer health information systems. Int J of Medical Information. Dec 2001;64(2-3):241-251. • Grosman, MJ. A cancer library and health resource center: resource for the community. Public Library Quarterly 2000;18(3/4):29-37. • Halsted, DD et al. Consumer health information for Asians (CHIA): a collaborative project. Journal of the Medical Library Association 2002; 90(4):400-405. • Hammond, P. Consumer health librarian. Reference Services Review 2005; 33(1):38-43. • Harris, L, Giustini, D. Information services for cancer patients and family members in Alberta. Bibliotheca Medica Canadiana. 1998;19(4):158-160. • Harris, R, Wathen, N & Chan, D. Public library responses to a consumer health inquiry in a public health crisis: the SARS Experience in Ontario. Reference & User Services Quarterly 2005; 45(2):147-154. • Hasman, L, Chiarella, D. Developing a pain management resource wiki for cancer patients and their caregivers. J Consumer Health on the Internet 2008;12(4):317-326. An introduction to consumer health reference services – a manual for LIBR534 Health information sources & services , 2013 30
  • • Health information in public libraries in the Netherlands. http://www.bibalex.org/wsisalex/korenprewsis2005rev.pdf • Healthy People 2010 www.healthypeople.gov/Document/HTML/Volume1/11HealthCom.htm • Heiderich, FL, Auflick, PA. AZHealthInfo: a database that complements Arizona's new "go local" directory of services and enhances online access to local health information. Journal of Consumer Health on the Internet 2007;11(1):1-13. • Helfner, C. Brigham and Women's Hospital's consumer health database searching seminar series: the first year. J Consumer Health on the Internet 2006;10(2):25-35. • Hess, J, Whelan, JS. Making health literacy real: adult literacy and medical students teach each other. J Med Libr Assoc. 2009 July; 97(3): 221-224. • Hollander, S. Providing health information to the general public: a survey of current practices in academic health sciences libraries. BMLA 2000; 88(1):62-9. • Huber, JT, Snyder, M. Facilitating access to consumer health information: a collaborative approach employing applied research. Med Ref Serv Q. 2002 Summer;21(2):39-46. • Huber, JT, Varman, B. Project St. Hope: an AIDS community information outreach project. Journal of Consumer Health on the Internet 2008;12(4):327-336. • Kakuk, D. Multi-type librarian workshops: a consumer health outreach project. Journal of Consumer Health on the Internet 2003;7(3): 1-14. • Kane LT, McConnaughy RP, Wilson SP. Answers to the health questions people ask in libraries. New YorK Neal-Schuman Publishers, 2008. ISBN-13: 978-155570-642-5 • Kars, M. Laptops with wireless Internet access for patients and families. Journal of Consumer Health on the Internet 2008;12(4):309-316. • Kars M, Baker LM, Wilson, F. eds. The MLA guide to health literacy at the library. New York: Neal-Schuman, 2008. ISBN-13: 978-55570-625-8 • Kennedy, MG, Kiken, L, Shipman, JP. Addressing underutilization of consumer health information resource centers: a formative study. JMLA 2008; 96(1):42-49. • Kenyon A, Casini BP. The public librarian’s guide to providing consumer health information. Chicago: Public Library Association; 2002. • Kenyon, A. Philly health info: the College of Physicians of Philadelphia’s regional community health information project. Library Trends 2005:53(3):457-463. • Keselman, A. Consumer health information seeking as hypothesis testing. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2008;15:484-495. • Ketchum AM. Consumer health information websites: a survey of design elements. JMLA 2005 93(4):496-501. • Kouame G. Consumer health information from both sides of the reference desk. Library Trends 2005:53(3):464-479. • Kovacs D. Electronic collection development for consumer health information. Journal of Consumer Health on the Internet 2003;7(4):31-52. • Kovacs D. Why develop web-based health information workshops for consumers? Library Trends 2004:53(2):348-359. • Kronick JS. Is it a medical breakthrough: consumer health news sources you can rely on. Journal of Consumer Health on the Internet 2006;10(1):17-31. • Kwan B, Rootman I, Frankish CJ. Health literacy - what does it mean? How can it be measured? CPHA 97th Conference, May 2006 Vancouver, BC. An introduction to consumer health reference services – a manual for LIBR534 Health information sources & services , 2013 31
  • • Leaffer T. The digital health-care revolution: empowering health consumers; anywhere and anytime access to a world of medical information is helping consumers to take better charge of their health. The Futurist 2006 40(3):53-57. • Leisey M. The Journey Project: a case study in providing health information to mitigate health disparities. JMLA 2009;97(1):30-33. Leisey M. Viewpoints from a social work information specialist in context: thoughts for consumer health librarians. J of Consumer Health on the Internet 2008; 11(4):15-22. • Levy L. Designing and using a consumer health web page: CHIP, the Consumer Health Information Project. J of Consumer Health on the Internet 2004;8(3): 1-16. • Lewis D. et al. Consumer health informatics: informing consumers and improving health care. New York: Springer Media, 2005. • Luedecke K. Planetree services partner with public libraries. MLA News May 2004:16. • Mayer S, Hogan Smith, K, Rios, G. Consumer health information services 2.0. Journal of Consumer Health on the Internet 2008;12(3): 187-199. • Medical Library Association “Top 10” Most Useful Consumer Health Websites http://www.mlanet.org/resources/medspeak/topten.html • Miller K. Health reality check: from assumptions and planning to the realities of implementation. Journal of Consumer Health on the Internet 2006;10(1):1-16. • Miller N. MedlinePlus: the National Library of Medicine brings quality information to health consumers. Library Trends 2004:53(2)375-387.: • Moulton SE. Reference response to a consumer health query. Journal of Consumer Health on the Internet 2008;12(3):237-249. • Murray S. Health literacy in Canada: highlighting library initiatives. (book chapter) The MLA Guide to Health Literacy at the Library. New York: Neal-Schuman, 2008. • Murray S. Consumer health information services in public libraries in Canada and the US. JCHLA 2008;29(4): 141-143. • Murray S. Consumer health information is only a click away. 2008; Access 14(2):44-45. • Murray S, Giustini D. The web and electronic information (EI) in Canadian consumer health libraries: perceptions of twenty public, hospital and special libraries. Bibliotheca Medica Canadiana 1999;20(3)128-131. • Murray, S. Top 10 Canadian consumer health web sites. 2006; Access; 13(1):37-39. • Oelschlegel, S. Health information disparities? the relationship between age, poverty, and rate of calls to a consumer health information service. J Med Libr Assoc 2009 July; 97(3): 225-227. • Picerno, PV. Health and medical Information on and off the Internet: what part can and do public libraries play? Journal of Consumer Health on the Internet 2005;9(4):11-25. • Plovnick, RM, Zeng, QT. Reformulation of consumer health queries with professional terminology: a pilot study. J Med Internet Res. 2004 Sep 3;6(3):e27. • Press, NO. Providing health information to community members where they are: characteristics of the culturally competent librarian. Library Trends 2005:53(3):397-410. • Pretlow, C. A study of consumer health links on medical school library home pages. Journal of Consumer Health on the Internet 2004;8(2):15-28. • Rees, AM. Complementary & alternative medicine source book. Phoenix, AZ: Oryx, 2001. • Rees, AM. Managing consumer health information services. Phoenix, AZ: Oryx, 1991. • Sandstrom, HT. Watch your language. Library Trends 2004:53(2):329-335. An introduction to consumer health reference services – a manual for LIBR534 Health information sources & services , 2013 32
  • • Schilling, K. The development of a public-private partnership to improve HIV/AIDS consumers’ access to quality health information. J Consumer Health on the Internet 2004;8(3): 17-33. • Scola-Streckenbach, S. Experience-based information: the role of web-based patient networks in consumer health information services. J Consumer Health on the Internet 2008;12(3):216-236. • Spatz, M. Answering consumer health questions. New York: Neal-Schuman, 2008. • Spatz, M. Building community bridges for health: consumer health librarians as health advocates. Library Trends 2005:53(3):453-456. • Spatz, M. Providing consumer health information in the rural setting: Planetree Health resource Center’s approach. BMLA 2000; 88(2):382-388. • Steelman, SC. Planning, design, equipment, and software: blueprint for building a consumer health web site. Journal of Consumer Health on the Internet 2003;7(1):17-31. • Volk, R.M. Expert searching in consumer health: an important role for librarians in the age of Internet and the Web. JMLA 2007;95(2);203-207. • Volk, R.M. The Medical Library Association guide to cancer information: authoritative, patient-friendly, print and electronic resources. New York, NY: Neal-Schuman, 2007. • Wathen, CN, Wyatt, S, Harris, R. Mediating health information: the go-betweens in a changing socio-technical landscape. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008. • Werner, SE. Creating a more informed health care consumer: how one medical library participates in Mini Medical School. J Consumer Health on the Internet 2005:9(4):27-33. • Wessel, C, Wozar, J, Epstein, B. The role of the academic medical center library in training public librarians. JMLA 2003;91(3);352-360. • White, PJ. Evidence-based medicine for consumers: a role for the Cochrane Collaboration. JMLA 90(2): 218-222. • Workman, E. Overcoming language barriers when providing health information: why we should care and what we can do. J of Consumer Health on the Internet 2003;7(2):23-34. • Zamaria, C. Canada Online! Internet, media and emerging technologies: Uses, attitudes, trends and international comparisons 2008. Toronto: Canadian Internet Project. An introduction to consumer health reference services – a manual for LIBR534 Health information sources & services , 2013 33