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Visit at CERN



What is CERN, fundamental research and recent discoveries, technology and applications

What is CERN, fundamental research and recent discoveries, technology and applications



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Visit at CERN Presentation Transcript

  • 1. WELCOME AT CERN Giuseppe Lo Presti IT Department European Organization for Nuclear Research “Magic is not happening at CERN, magic is being explained at CERN” (Tom Hanks)
  • 2. Your visit at CERN Agenda  Presentation (about 40 minutes)  Movie about the LHC (12 minutes)  Visit (about 2 hours)  By bus, to the experimental areas Practical info  Do ask questions!  You can take pictures or movies anywhere  The Microcosm and Globe exhibitions are open until 5pm  WC at the reception and in the experimental areas 2Visit at CERNGiuseppe Lo Presti
  • 3. CERN in numbers  1954: foundation year, as an European Council  20 Member States, 6 Associates, 5 Observers, UE + UNESCO…  50+ Non-member States collaborate with CERN  2950 staff members work at CERN as personnel, 10 000 researchers come from institutes world-wide  1000 MEUR annual budget (2013)  5 Nobel Prizes (…6 with Englert & Higgs) 3Visit at CERNGiuseppe Lo Presti
  • 4. Our challenge at CERN  Do Basic Research, trying to provide a scientific answer to questions like:  Where do we come from?  What are we made of?  How did we get from the Big Bang to the Universe of today?  Etc… Curiosity is typical of human beings… but we’re not alone! 4Visit at CERNGiuseppe Lo Presti
  • 5. Our challenge at CERN  Promote Science for the pacific collaboration across countries  Half of the particle physicists in the world  More than 100 countries  Teach  Several trainings and programmes for students Giuseppe Lo Presti 5Visit at CERN
  • 6. Science Tools
  • 7. Tools at CERN  To perform Physics research, we need:  Accelerators  Detectors 25% of the man power 7Visit at CERNGiuseppe Lo Presti
  • 8. Tools at CERN  …And to build them, we need a great deal of technology!  Civil engineering, special materials, super freezers, magnets, vacuum, information techology, firemen, ... 75% of the man power! Giuseppe Lo Presti 8 Example: LHC maintenance, 2013/14  5000 people involved, 2000 newcomers  Thousands of kms of cables and pipes  Hundreds of tons of material…
  • 9.  The Standard Model:  A mathematical description of all we observe What we know… Visit at CERNGiuseppe Lo Presti 9
  • 10. What is the Universe made of? …and what we want to know Giuseppe Lo Presti 10 Where is mass coming from? Peter Higgs Particles have all a counterpart called anti-particle Where is antimatter gone? Visit at CERN The first antiparticle, called positron (anti- electron), was predicted by Paul Dirac in 1930 and discovered two years after! 96% of its content is yet completely unknown!
  • 11. Huge instrumentation for tiny particles…  The only way we know to produce new particles is:  Take a charged and stable particle and provide enough energy accelerating it with electric fields  Make it collide with a fixed target or, better, with another particle travelling from the opposite direction  Part of the available energy turns into mass (E = mc2), that is in new particles  Colliding particles helps us recreating the conditions in place at the time of the Big Bang  To accelerate more we need larger and larger accelerators… Giuseppe Lo Presti 11Visit at CERN
  • 12. Particle accelerators at CERN  1957: first proton sincro- ciclotron, 15.7 m Giuseppe Lo Presti 12Visit at CERN  1954-59: PS, Proton Sincrotron, 630 m
  • 13. Particle accelerators at CERN  1971-73: SPS, Super Proton Sincrotron, 6.9 km Giuseppe Lo Presti 13Visit at CERN  1981-89: LEP, Large Electron-Positron collider, 27 km
  • 14. Particle accelerators at CERN Giuseppe Lo Presti 14Visit at CERN  1981-89: LEP, Large Electron-Positron collider, 27 km  1994-2008: LHC, Large Hadron Collider  1971-73: SPS, Super Proton Sincrotron, 6.9 km
  • 15. The Large Hadron Collider Geneva Lake SPS 15
  • 16. The Large Hadron Collider Geneva Lake SPS 16
  • 17. The Large Hadron Collider ~100m 17
  • 18. LHC: some numbers… Circumference 26 659 m Superconductors temperature 1.9 K (-271.3ºC) Superconductors electrical parameters 11.7 KA, < 10 nΩ per junction Number of magnets 9593, out of which 1232 dipoles Energy stored by the magnets 10 GJ Nominal energy, protons 4 TeV, 7 TeV starting from 2015 Nominal energy, Pb 2.76 TeV/u (TeV per nucleon) Magnetic field intensity, dipoles 8.33 T Distance between two bunches ~15 m (50 ns), ~7 m from 2015 Nominal luminosity (beam intensity) 1034 cm–2 s–1 Number of bunches in the beam (p) ~1400, 2808 from 2015 Number of protons per bunch 1,5 x 1011 Weight of all protons in the beam 0.5 ng Total nominal energy of the beam 360 MJ (a fast train at 150 km/h) Number of orbits per second 11 245 Bunch crossing rate 20 MHz (>30 collisions/bunch) Giuseppe Lo Presti 18Visit at CERN
  • 19. 14 The 27 km ring is sensitive to changes in length in the order of just 1 mm Tides Stray currents Storms LHC Precision! Far away tsunamis 19
  • 20. The LHC detectors 20Visit at CERN ATLAS CMS LHCb
  • 21. The LHC detectors 21Visit at CERN ATLAS CMS LHCb
  • 22. A task for each one ALICE ATLAS CMS Higgs Boson Supersymmetry Matter – antimatter Asymmetry Quark-gluon Plasma Heavy ion collisions A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS Compact Muon Solenoid LHC beauty A Large Ion Collider Experiment 22Visit at CERNGiuseppe Lo Presti
  • 23. Some samples of what we see…
  • 24. A huge amount of data …But is it what we’re looking for? On top, we make 500+ Million collisions per second to find a few Higgs particles per day! Giuseppe Lo Presti 24Visit at CERN And the enormous background noise forces us to collect data for a long time, before having statistically significant measurements This is how a typical collision looks like… But we are looking for this signal!
  • 25. The LHC data flow Giuseppe Lo Presti 25 For each experiment... Visit at CERN
  • 26. Giuseppe Lo Presti 26 The LHC data flow  400 Hz to be recorded by each experiment  Event size:  ~ 1 MB “raw” for ATLAS or CMS, ~ 4 MB after online reconstruction  ~ 80 MB for ALICE with Pb-Pb collisions  Typical LHC data flow, all included: 3+ GB/sec. And LHC is not alone…  Total data in one year (2012)  1014 events, 27 PB (1015 B) of data  More than 30 Km of CDs!  100+ years of HD movies – and the world filmography hasn’t reached 100 years yet… Concorde (15 Km) Balloon or CDs filled by LHC in one year! (30 Km) Monte Bianco (4.8 Km)
  • 27. Giuseppe Lo Presti Visit at CERN The Grid to process all the data  Interconnecting Computer Centres world-wide to share computing, storage, and network resources  CERN is the main hub  Not only for Physics! 27
  • 28. Practical applications: Medicine 28Giuseppe Lo Presti Visit at CERN Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Hadron therapy
  • 29. More practical applications  Engineering  The Web, radioactive waste handling, detectors for customs checks  Bioinformatics  Human genome and proteome  Nanotechnology  Design of new materials at molecular scale  Environment  Simulations and weather forecasts, Earth studies, natural disasters handling, … Giuseppe Lo Presti 29Visit at CERN Tim Berners-Lee Japan coastline, March 2010 Tsunami, UNOSAT Imagery
  • 30. Enjoy your visit! Questions? 30 Further information CERN TV: youtube.com/cern Jobs & stages: cern.ch/jobs This slide show: cern.ch/go/c8WW The CERN Control Centre on March 30th, 2010, first LHC Physics day with colliding beams at 3.5 TeV Visit at CERNGiuseppe Lo Presti