WELCOME TO CERN
Giuseppe Lo Presti
IT Department
European Organization for Nuclear Research
“Magic is not happening at CER...
Your Visit to CERN
Agenda
 Presentation (about 45 minutes), including a short movie
 Visit (about 2 hours)
 By bus, to ...
CERN in Numbers
 1954: foundation year, as an European Council
 22 Member States, 3 Associates, 4 Observers, UE + UNESCO...
The Mission of CERN
Push back the frontiers of knowledge
E.g. the secrets of the Big Bang …what was the matter like
withi...
Science Tools
Tools at CERN
 To perform Physics research,
we need:
 Accelerators
 Detectors
25% of the man power
6Visit to CERNGiusep...
Tools at CERN
 …And to build them, we need
a great deal of technology!
 Civil engineering, special
materials, super free...
 The Standard
Model:
 A mathematical
description of
all we observe
What we know…
Visit to CERNGiuseppe Lo Presti 8
What is the Universe made of?
…and what we want to know
Giuseppe Lo Presti 9
Where is mass coming from?
Peter Higgs
Partic...
Huge instrumentation for tiny particles…
 The only way we know to produce new
particles is:
 Take a charged and stable p...
Particle accelerators at CERN
 1957: first proton sincro-
ciclotron, 15.7 m
Giuseppe Lo Presti 11Visit to CERN
 1954-59:...
Particle accelerators at CERN
 1971-73: SPS, Super
Proton Sincrotron,
6.9 km
Giuseppe Lo Presti 12Visit to CERN
 1981-89...
Particle accelerators at CERN
Giuseppe Lo Presti 13Visit to CERN
 1981-89: LEP, Large
Electron-Positron
collider, 27 km
...
The Large Hadron Collider
Lake of Geneva
Airport
14Giuseppe Lo Presti Visit to CERN
The Large Hadron Collider
15
The Large Hadron Collider
~100m
16
LHC: some numbers…
Circumference 26 659 m
Superconductors temperature 1.9 K (-271.3ºC)
Superconductors electrical paramete...
14
The 27 km ring is sensitive to
changes in length in the order
of just 1 mm
Tides
Stray
currents
Storms
LHC
Precision!
1...
The LHC detectors
19Visit to CERN
ATLAS CMS
LHCb
The LHC detectors
20Visit to CERN
ATLAS CMS
LHCb
A task for each one
ALICE
ATLAS
CMS
Higgs Boson
Supersymmetry
Matter – antimatter
Asymmetry
Quark-gluon Plasma
Heavy ion c...
Some samples of what we see…
A huge amount of data
…But is it what we’re looking for?
On top, we make 500+ Million collisions per second to find
a few ...
The LHC data flow
Giuseppe Lo Presti 24
For each
experiment...
Visit to CERN
Giuseppe Lo Presti 25
The LHC data flow
 Run 2: 1 kHz to be recorded by each
experiment
 Event size:
 ~ 1.5 MB “raw” fo...
Giuseppe Lo Presti Visit to CERN
The Grid to process all the data
 Interconnecting Computer Centres world-wide to
share c...
Practical applications: Medicine
27Giuseppe Lo Presti Visit to CERN
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)Positron E...
More practical applications
 Engineering
 The Web, radioactive waste handling,
detectors for customs checks
 Bioinforma...
Enjoy your visit! Questions?
29
Further information
CERN TV: youtube.com/cern
Jobs & stages: cern.ch/jobs
This slide show:...
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Visit at CERN

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What is CERN, fundamental research and recent discoveries, technology and applications

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Visit at CERN

  1. 1. WELCOME TO CERN Giuseppe Lo Presti IT Department European Organization for Nuclear Research “Magic is not happening at CERN, magic is being explained at CERN” (Tom Hanks)
  2. 2. Your Visit to CERN Agenda  Presentation (about 45 minutes), including a short movie  Visit (about 2 hours)  By bus, to the experimental areas Practical info  Do ask questions!  You can take pictures or movies anywhere  The Microcosm and Globe exhibitions are open until 5pm  WC at the reception and in the experimental areas 2Visit to CERNGiuseppe Lo Presti
  3. 3. CERN in Numbers  1954: foundation year, as an European Council  22 Member States, 3 Associates, 4 Observers, UE + UNESCO…  50+ Non-member States collaborate with CERN  2300 staff members work at CERN as personnel, 12 000 researchers come from institutes world-wide  1000 MEUR annual budget (2015)  5 Nobel Prizes (…6 with Englert & Higgs) 3Visit to CERNGiuseppe Lo Presti
  4. 4. The Mission of CERN Push back the frontiers of knowledge E.g. the secrets of the Big Bang …what was the matter like within the first moments of the Universe’s existence? Develop new technologies for accelerators and detectors Information technology - the Web and the GRID Medicine - diagnosis and therapy Train scientists and engineers of tomorrow Unite people from different countries and cultures 4Visit to CERNGiuseppe Lo Presti
  5. 5. Science Tools
  6. 6. Tools at CERN  To perform Physics research, we need:  Accelerators  Detectors 25% of the man power 6Visit to CERNGiuseppe Lo Presti
  7. 7. Tools at CERN  …And to build them, we need a great deal of technology!  Civil engineering, special materials, super freezers, magnets, vacuum, information techology, firemen, ... 75% of the man power! Giuseppe Lo Presti 7 Example: LHC maintenance, 2013/14  5000 people involved, 2000 newcomers  Thousands of kms of cables and pipes  Hundreds of tons of material…
  8. 8.  The Standard Model:  A mathematical description of all we observe What we know… Visit to CERNGiuseppe Lo Presti 8
  9. 9. What is the Universe made of? …and what we want to know Giuseppe Lo Presti 9 Where is mass coming from? Peter Higgs Particles have all a counterpart called anti-particle Where is antimatter gone? Visit to CERN The first antiparticle, called positron (anti- electron), was predicted by Paul Dirac in 1930 and discovered two years after! 96% of its content is yet completely unknown!
  10. 10. Huge instrumentation for tiny particles…  The only way we know to produce new particles is:  Take a charged and stable particle and provide enough energy accelerating it with electric fields  Make it collide with a fixed target or, better, with another particle travelling from the opposite direction  Part of the available energy turns into mass (E = mc2), that is in new particles  Colliding particles helps us recreating the conditions in place at the time of the Big Bang  To accelerate more we need larger and larger accelerators… Giuseppe Lo Presti 10Visit to CERN
  11. 11. Particle accelerators at CERN  1957: first proton sincro- ciclotron, 15.7 m Giuseppe Lo Presti 11Visit to CERN  1954-59: PS, Proton Sincrotron, 630 m
  12. 12. Particle accelerators at CERN  1971-73: SPS, Super Proton Sincrotron, 6.9 km Giuseppe Lo Presti 12Visit to CERN  1981-89: LEP, Large Electron-Positron collider, 27 km
  13. 13. Particle accelerators at CERN Giuseppe Lo Presti 13Visit to CERN  1981-89: LEP, Large Electron-Positron collider, 27 km  1994-2008: LHC, Large Hadron Collider  1971-73: SPS, Super Proton Sincrotron, 6.9 km
  14. 14. The Large Hadron Collider Lake of Geneva Airport 14Giuseppe Lo Presti Visit to CERN
  15. 15. The Large Hadron Collider 15
  16. 16. The Large Hadron Collider ~100m 16
  17. 17. LHC: some numbers… Circumference 26 659 m Superconductors temperature 1.9 K (-271.3ºC) Superconductors electrical parameters 11.7 KA, < 10 nΩ per junction Number of magnets 9593, out of which 1232 dipoles Energy stored by the magnets 10 GJ Nominal energy, protons 6.5 TeV Nominal energy, Pb 522 TeV Magnetic field intensity, dipoles 8.33 T Distance between two bunches ~15 m (50 ns), ~7 m from 2015 Nominal luminosity (beam intensity) 1034 cm–2 s–1 Number of bunches in the beam (p) ~1400, 2808 from 2015 Number of protons per bunch 1,5 x 1011 Weight of all protons in the beam 0.5 ng Total nominal energy of the beam 460 MJ (a TGV at 140 km/h) Number of orbits per second 11 245 Bunch crossing rate 40 MHz (>30 collisions/bunch) Giuseppe Lo Presti 17Visit to CERN
  18. 18. 14 The 27 km ring is sensitive to changes in length in the order of just 1 mm Tides Stray currents Storms LHC Precision! 18 Far away tsunamis
  19. 19. The LHC detectors 19Visit to CERN ATLAS CMS LHCb
  20. 20. The LHC detectors 20Visit to CERN ATLAS CMS LHCb
  21. 21. A task for each one ALICE ATLAS CMS Higgs Boson Supersymmetry Matter – antimatter Asymmetry Quark-gluon Plasma Heavy ion collisions A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS Compact Muon Solenoid LHC beauty A Large Ion Collider Experiment 21Visit to CERNGiuseppe Lo Presti
  22. 22. Some samples of what we see…
  23. 23. A huge amount of data …But is it what we’re looking for? On top, we make 500+ Million collisions per second to find a few Higgs particles per day! Giuseppe Lo Presti 23Visit to CERN And the enormous background noise forces us to collect data for a long time, before having statistically significant measurements This is how a typical collision looks like… But we are looking for this signal!
  24. 24. The LHC data flow Giuseppe Lo Presti 24 For each experiment... Visit to CERN
  25. 25. Giuseppe Lo Presti 25 The LHC data flow  Run 2: 1 kHz to be recorded by each experiment  Event size:  ~ 1.5 MB “raw” for ATLAS or CMS, ~ 4-5 MB after online reconstruction  ~ 80 MB for ALICE with Pb-Pb collisions  Typical LHC data flows: 1.5 GB/sec for each experiment, 8 GB/s ALICE. And LHC is not alone…  Total data in one month (July 2016): 10 PB (1015 Bytes) of data  11+ Km of CDs  20+ years of Blu-ray HD movies!
  26. 26. Giuseppe Lo Presti Visit to CERN The Grid to process all the data  Interconnecting Computer Centres world-wide to share computing, storage, and network resources  CERN is the main hub  Not only for Physics! 26
  27. 27. Practical applications: Medicine 27Giuseppe Lo Presti Visit to CERN Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Hadron therapy
  28. 28. More practical applications  Engineering  The Web, radioactive waste handling, detectors for customs checks  Bioinformatics  Human genome and proteome  Nanotechnology  Design of new materials at molecular scale  Environment  Simulations and weather forecasts, Earth studies, natural disasters handling, … Giuseppe Lo Presti 28Visit to CERN Tim Berners-Lee Japan coastline, March 2010 Tsunami, UNOSAT Imagery
  29. 29. Enjoy your visit! Questions? 29 Further information CERN TV: youtube.com/cern Jobs & stages: cern.ch/jobs This slide show: cern.ch/go/c8WW The CERN Control Centre on March 30th, 2010, first LHC Physics day with colliding beams at 3.5 TeV Visit to CERNGiuseppe Lo Presti

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