The Romantic Period (1798-1832) _§_
I. The Romantic Period:  <ul><li>Generally -1798 with the pub W & C ’ s Lyrical Ballads  </li></ul><ul><li>ended in 1832 -...
II. the historical and cultural background of English Romanticism <ul><li>a. History - provoked by the French Revolution a...
<ul><li>c. England experienced profound economic and social changes:  </li></ul><ul><li>the enclosures  </li></ul><ul><li>...
III. Basic Views: <ul><li>Romanticism  </li></ul><ul><li>Designates literary and philosophical theory  </li></ul><ul><li>T...
IV. Literary Characteristics: <ul><li>An age of poetry and also a great age of prose.  </li></ul><ul><li>Writers employed ...
V. Romanticism: <ul><li>literary trend.  </li></ul><ul><li>prevailed btwn 1798-1832: discontent and opposition to the deve...
<ul><li>Active or Revolutionary Romantic poets expressed the aspiration of the laboring classes  </li></ul><ul><li>Byron a...
VI. Lake Poets: <ul><li>1. Wordsworth, Coleridge, Southey lived in the natural setting of a secluded and “forgotten” rural...
VII. Main Writers:   <ul><li>A.  </li></ul><ul><li>William Blake  (1757-1827) : </li></ul><ul><li>both a poet and engraver...
<ul><li>Songs of Experience </li></ul><ul><li>paints a diff. world: </li></ul><ul><li>misery,poverty,disease, war and repr...
2.His works <ul><li>Innocence=Childhood - central to Blake  </li></ul><ul><li>Main concern in the Songs of Innocence and S...
3. Language <ul><li>plain and direct language.  </li></ul><ul><li>lyric beauty with immense compression of meaning.  </li>...
B. William Wordsworth(1770-1850) <ul><li>William Wordsworth  </li></ul><ul><li>- leading figure of English romantic poetry...
<ul><li>The Prelude </li></ul><ul><li>Poems in Two Volumes </li></ul><ul><li>The Excursion </li></ul><ul><li>The Thorn </l...
2. Language <ul><li>Penetrates to the heart of things  </li></ul><ul><li>gives the reader the very essence of nature.  </l...
<ul><li>voice of searchingly comprehensive humanity  </li></ul><ul><li>inspires his audience to see the world freshly, sym...
C. Samuel Taylor Coleridge(1772-1834) <ul><li>advocated a more spiritual and religious interpretation of life - Kant and S...
1. Main Works: <ul><li>Lyrical Ballads.  </li></ul><ul><li>The Rime of the Ancient Mariner </li></ul><ul><li>Kubla Khan </...
2. His actual achievement <ul><li>achievement into two diverse groups:  </li></ul><ul><li>The diabolic and the conversatio...
<ul><li>conversational poems: </li></ul><ul><li>Kubla Khan,  </li></ul><ul><li>Christabel,  </li></ul><ul><li>The Ancient ...
3. Language <ul><li>recognized lyrical poet and literary critic  </li></ul><ul><li>His poetic themes range from the supern...
D. George Gordon Byron(1788-1824):  <ul><li>born in the nobility.  </li></ul><ul><li>plunged into the struggle for the nat...
1. Main works: <ul><li>Hours of Idleness </li></ul><ul><li>English Bards and Scotch Reviewers </li></ul><ul><li>Cantos: fo...
2. Characteristics <ul><li>persistent attacks on dogma - political, religious, and moral ” .  </li></ul><ul><li>His descri...
<ul><li>in England regarded as the pervert the satanic poet;  </li></ul><ul><li>on the continent - hailed as the champion ...
Prometheus <ul><li>But baffled as thou wert from high,  </li></ul><ul><li>Still in thy patient energy, In the endurance,  ...
E. Percy Bysshe Shelley(1792-1822) <ul><li>born into a wealthy family at Sussex in a family of the conservative landed gen...
<ul><li>Poem: Hymn to Intellectual Beauty </li></ul><ul><li>Mont Blanc </li></ul><ul><li>Julian and Maddalo </li></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>Adonais </li></ul><ul><li>Hellas </li></ul><ul><li>Prose: Defence of Poetry  </li></ul><ul><li>Lyrics: genuine soc...
2. The Poet <ul><li>violent revolutionary ideas under the influence of the free thinkers like Hume and Godwin,  </li></ul>...
<ul><li>Shelley - intense and original lyrical poet  </li></ul><ul><li>Like Blake, he is erudite, imagistically complex, f...
F: John Keats(1795-1821) <ul><li>born poor: became orphaned in childhood </li></ul><ul><li>Main Works:  </li></ul><ul><li>...
2. Language <ul><li>poetry always has a “sensational” quality </li></ul><ul><li>colorful and rich in imagery - expresses t...
G. Jane Austen(1755-1817) <ul><li>She was born in a country clergyman ’ s family. </li></ul>1. Main Works: Sense and Sensi...
2. Personal Characteristics <ul><li>Sustains the ideals of the landed gentry in politics, religion and moral principles;  ...
3. Her Works <ul><li>Austen’s concern is human beings in their personal relationships </li></ul><ul><li>novels have a univ...
<ul><li>Austen writes about humans not in moments of crisis, but in the most trivial incidents of everyday life.  </li></u...
The structure <ul><li>Sharp and witty </li></ul><ul><li>the characterization is memorable,  </li></ul><ul><li>the irony ha...
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Romantics the romantic period

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Romantics the romantic period

  1. 1. The Romantic Period (1798-1832) _§_
  2. 2. I. The Romantic Period: <ul><li>Generally -1798 with the pub W & C ’ s Lyrical Ballads </li></ul><ul><li>ended in 1832 - Sir Walter Scott ’ s death </li></ul><ul><li>passage of the first Reform Bill </li></ul><ul><li>emphasized the individual </li></ul>
  3. 3. II. the historical and cultural background of English Romanticism <ul><li>a. History - provoked by the French Revolution and the English Industrial Revolution. </li></ul><ul><li>b. Culture - the pub. Of Rousseau as guiding principles for the French Rev. </li></ul><ul><li>aroused great sympathy and enthusiasm in England </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>c. England experienced profound economic and social changes: </li></ul><ul><li>the enclosures </li></ul><ul><li>agricultural mechanization </li></ul><ul><li>Upper middle class grasped political power to finally dominate English society. </li></ul>
  5. 5. III. Basic Views: <ul><li>Romanticism </li></ul><ul><li>Designates literary and philosophical theory </li></ul><ul><li>Tends to see the individual as the very center of all life and all experience. </li></ul><ul><li>Constitutes a change of perspective from attention to the outer world of social civilization to the inner world of the human spirit. </li></ul><ul><li>literature became the vessel of expression of unique feelings and particular attitudes, </li></ul><ul><li>Valuing accuracy in ability to portray the individual's experiences. </li></ul>
  6. 6. IV. Literary Characteristics: <ul><li>An age of poetry and also a great age of prose. </li></ul><ul><li>Writers employed the commonplace, nature, and the simple details as their poetic material </li></ul><ul><li>Gothic novel - a type of romantic fiction that predominated in the late eighteenth century </li></ul><ul><li>was one phase of the Romantic Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Its principal elements are violence, horror and the supernatural </li></ul><ul><li>strong appeal to the emotions. </li></ul>
  7. 7. V. Romanticism: <ul><li>literary trend. </li></ul><ul><li>prevailed btwn 1798-1832: discontent and opposition to the development of capitalism. </li></ul><ul><li>Some Romantic writers reflected the ethic of those classes ruined by the growing social mobility Passive Romantic poets </li></ul><ul><li>Wordsworth, Coleridge and Southey </li></ul><ul><li>Active Romantic: Byron, Shelley (political/social - differences in approach) , Keats (personal, individual awareness) </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Active or Revolutionary Romantic poets expressed the aspiration of the laboring classes </li></ul><ul><li>Byron and Shelley and Keats. </li></ul>
  9. 9. VI. Lake Poets: <ul><li>1. Wordsworth, Coleridge, Southey lived in the natural setting of a secluded and “forgotten” rural environment (the lake district) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Had early radical inclinations, but later turned conservative and received favors from the Government. </li></ul><ul><li>3. criticized the poor urban conditions and exploitation of the defenseless in the growing industrial society. </li></ul>
  10. 10. VII. Main Writers: <ul><li>A. </li></ul><ul><li>William Blake (1757-1827) : </li></ul><ul><li>both a poet and engraver. Genius/prophet included as first important Romantic poet but eludes true definition. </li></ul><ul><li>Main works: </li></ul><ul><li>Poetical Sketches </li></ul><ul><li>Songs of Innocence/Experience </li></ul><ul><li>a volume of poems rep. contrary states of human evolution </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Songs of Experience </li></ul><ul><li>paints a diff. world: </li></ul><ul><li>misery,poverty,disease, war and repression with a melancholy tone. </li></ul><ul><li>Marriage of Heaven and Hell </li></ul><ul><li>Without Contraries there is no Progression </li></ul><ul><li>The book of Urizen </li></ul><ul><li>The Book of Los </li></ul><ul><li>Milton </li></ul>
  12. 12. 2.His works <ul><li>Innocence=Childhood - central to Blake </li></ul><ul><li>Main concern in the Songs of Innocence and Songs of Experience, </li></ul><ul><li>the two books have strong social and historical reference (extremely critical with subtle use of lang.) </li></ul><ul><li>In the Marriage of Heaven and Hell - explores the relationship btwn. Contraries: Attraction/repulsion, reason/energy, love/hate, suggesting they are necessary to human existence. </li></ul>
  13. 13. 3. Language <ul><li>plain and direct language. </li></ul><ul><li>lyric beauty with immense compression of meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>distrusts the abstract - tends to embody his views with visual images. </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolism in wide range is also a distinctive feature of his poetry </li></ul>
  14. 14. B. William Wordsworth(1770-1850) <ul><li>William Wordsworth </li></ul><ul><li>- leading figure of English romantic poetry </li></ul><ul><li>the focal poetic voice of the period. </li></ul><ul><li>Main Works: </li></ul><ul><li>Poems about nature </li></ul><ul><li>Poems about human life (often personal, intimate) . </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptive Sketches, and Evening Walk </li></ul><ul><li>Lyrical Ballads (collection) </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>The Prelude </li></ul><ul><li>Poems in Two Volumes </li></ul><ul><li>The Excursion </li></ul><ul><li>The Thorn </li></ul><ul><li>The sailor ’ s mother </li></ul><ul><li>Michael </li></ul><ul><li>The Affliction of Margaret </li></ul><ul><li>The Old Cumberland Beggar </li></ul><ul><li>Lucy Poems </li></ul><ul><li>The Idiot Boy </li></ul><ul><li>Man, the heart of man, and human life. </li></ul><ul><li>The Solitary Reaper </li></ul><ul><li>To a Highland Girl </li></ul><ul><li>The Ruined Cottage </li></ul>
  16. 16. 2. Language <ul><li>Penetrates to the heart of things </li></ul><ul><li>gives the reader the very essence of nature. </li></ul><ul><li>common life is the only subject of literary interest. </li></ul><ul><li>The joys and sorrows of the common people are his themes. </li></ul><ul><li>His sympathy always goes to the suffering poor. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>voice of searchingly comprehensive humanity </li></ul><ul><li>inspires his audience to see the world freshly, sympathetically and naturally. 'emotion recollected in tranquillity' - WW </li></ul><ul><li>most important contribution he not only started a new conception of the poetic voice leading to modern contemporary poetic variety, </li></ul><ul><li>Invented the poetic Ergon (both role & light) the poetry of the growing inner self (Aristotle – ergon -telos/gr.) </li></ul><ul><li>changed the course of English poetry by using ordinary speech of the language and advocating a return to nature </li></ul>
  18. 18. C. Samuel Taylor Coleridge(1772-1834) <ul><li>advocated a more spiritual and religious interpretation of life - Kant and Schelling. </li></ul><ul><li>believed that art is the only permanent revelation of the nature of reality. </li></ul>
  19. 19. 1. Main Works: <ul><li>Lyrical Ballads. </li></ul><ul><li>The Rime of the Ancient Mariner </li></ul><ul><li>Kubla Khan </li></ul><ul><li>Christabel </li></ul><ul><li>This Lime-Tree Bower My Prison </li></ul><ul><li>Frost at Midnight </li></ul><ul><li>The Nightingale </li></ul><ul><li>Dejection, an Ode </li></ul><ul><li>Tragic Drama: Remorse </li></ul><ul><li>Biographia Literaria </li></ul>
  20. 20. 2. His actual achievement <ul><li>achievement into two diverse groups: </li></ul><ul><li>The diabolic and the conversational. </li></ul><ul><li>The demonic group includes his three masterpieces: </li></ul><ul><li>The Rime of the Ancient Mariner </li></ul><ul><li>Christabel </li></ul><ul><li>Kubla Khan </li></ul><ul><li>Mysticism and deviance with strong use of imagination are distinctive features </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>conversational poems: </li></ul><ul><li>Kubla Khan, </li></ul><ul><li>Christabel, </li></ul><ul><li>The Ancient Mariner, </li></ul><ul><li>This Lime-Tree Bower My Prison, </li></ul><ul><li>Frost at Midnight </li></ul>
  22. 22. 3. Language <ul><li>recognized lyrical poet and literary critic </li></ul><ul><li>His poetic themes range from the supernatural to the domestic. </li></ul><ul><li>His treatises, lectures, and compelling conversational powers made his one of the most influential English literary critics and philosophers of the 19th century. </li></ul>
  23. 23. D. George Gordon Byron(1788-1824): <ul><li>born in the nobility. </li></ul><ul><li>plunged into the struggle for the national independence of Greece. </li></ul><ul><li>his poetry is one of experience. </li></ul><ul><li>His heroes are more or less surrogates of himself. </li></ul>
  24. 24. 1. Main works: <ul><li>Hours of Idleness </li></ul><ul><li>English Bards and Scotch Reviewers </li></ul><ul><li>Cantos: four cantos of Childe Harold ’ s Pilgrimage (brought Byron fame, forced W Scott to change genre) </li></ul><ul><li>Oriental Tales </li></ul><ul><li>Don Juan </li></ul><ul><li>Narrative poem: The Prisoner of Chillon </li></ul><ul><li>The Island </li></ul><ul><li>Drama: Manfred </li></ul><ul><li>Cain </li></ul><ul><li>Political satires: Vision of Judgment </li></ul>
  25. 25. 2. Characteristics <ul><li>persistent attacks on dogma - political, religious, and moral ” . </li></ul><ul><li>His descriptions are direct - vivid objects before the reader. </li></ul><ul><li>a stream (closely Homeric in tone) sometimes smooth, sometimes rapid and sometimes rushing down in cataracts --- a mixture of philosophy and slang - of everything </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>in England regarded as the pervert the satanic poet; </li></ul><ul><li>on the continent - hailed as the champion of liberty, poet of the people. </li></ul><ul><li>enriched European poetry with and new creative spirit of ideas, images, artistic forms and innovations. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Prometheus <ul><li>But baffled as thou wert from high, </li></ul><ul><li>Still in thy patient energy, In the endurance, </li></ul><ul><li>and repulse Of thine impenetrable Spirit, </li></ul><ul><li>Which Earth and Heaven could not convulse, </li></ul><ul><li>A mighty lesson we inherit: </li></ul><ul><li>Thou art a symbol and a sign </li></ul><ul><li>To Mortals of their fate and force; </li></ul><ul><li>Like thee, Man is in part divine, </li></ul><ul><li>A troubled stream from a pure source; </li></ul><ul><li>And Man in portions can foresee </li></ul><ul><li>His own funereal destiny; </li></ul><ul><li>His wretchedness, and his resistance, </li></ul><ul><li>And his sad unallied existence: </li></ul><ul><li>To which his Spirit may oppose Itself — </li></ul><ul><li>and equal to all woes, </li></ul><ul><li>And a firm will, and a deep sense, </li></ul><ul><li>Which even in torture can descry </li></ul><ul><li>Its own concenter'd recompense, </li></ul><ul><li>Triumphant where it dares defy, </li></ul><ul><li>And making Death a Victory. </li></ul><ul><li>George Gordon, Lord Byron </li></ul><ul><li>TITAN! to whose immortal eyes </li></ul><ul><li>The sufferings of mortality, </li></ul><ul><li>Seen in their sad reality, </li></ul><ul><li>Were not as things that gods despise; </li></ul><ul><li>What was thy pity's recompense? </li></ul><ul><li>A silent suffering, and intense; </li></ul><ul><li>The rock, the vulture, and the chain, </li></ul><ul><li>All that the proud can feel of pain, </li></ul><ul><li>The agony they do not show, </li></ul><ul><li>The suffocating sense of woe, </li></ul><ul><li>Which speaks but in its loneliness, </li></ul><ul><li>And then is jealous lest the sky </li></ul><ul><li>Should have a listener, nor will sigh </li></ul><ul><li>Until its voice is echoless.   </li></ul><ul><li>Titan! to thee the strife was given </li></ul><ul><li>Between the suffering and the will, </li></ul><ul><li>Which torture where they cannot kill; </li></ul><ul><li>And the inexorable Heaven, </li></ul><ul><li>… . </li></ul><ul><li>Thy Godlike crime was to be kind, </li></ul><ul><li>To render with thy precepts less </li></ul><ul><li>The sum of human wretchedness, </li></ul><ul><li>And strengthen Man with his own mind; </li></ul>
  28. 28. E. Percy Bysshe Shelley(1792-1822) <ul><li>born into a wealthy family at Sussex in a family of the conservative landed gentry. </li></ul><ul><li>Main works: </li></ul><ul><li>The Necessity of Atheism </li></ul><ul><li>Queen Mab: a Philosophical Poem </li></ul><ul><li>Alastor, or The Spirit of Solitude </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Poem: Hymn to Intellectual Beauty </li></ul><ul><li>Mont Blanc </li></ul><ul><li>Julian and Maddalo </li></ul><ul><li>The Revolt of Islam </li></ul><ul><li>the Cenci </li></ul><ul><li>Prometheus Unbound, </li></ul><ul><li>Four — act drama: Prometheus Unbound. The play is an exultant work in praise of humankind ’ s potential </li></ul><ul><li>Shelley recognized it as “ the most perfect of my products. ” </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Adonais </li></ul><ul><li>Hellas </li></ul><ul><li>Prose: Defence of Poetry </li></ul><ul><li>Lyrics: genuine society, “ Ode to Liberty ” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Old to Naples ” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Sonnet: England in 1819 ” </li></ul><ul><li>The Cloud </li></ul><ul><li>To a Shylark </li></ul><ul><li>Ode to the West Wind </li></ul><ul><li>Political lyrics: Men of England </li></ul><ul><li>Elegy: Adonais - elegy for John Keats ’ s early death </li></ul>
  31. 31. 2. The Poet <ul><li>violent revolutionary ideas under the influence of the free thinkers like Hume and Godwin, </li></ul><ul><li>held a life long aversion to cruelty, injustice, authority, institutional religion and the formal shams of respectable society </li></ul><ul><li>condemned war, tyranny and exploitation. </li></ul><ul><li>expressed his love for freedom and hatred toward tyranny in </li></ul><ul><li>“ Ode to Liberty ” , </li></ul><ul><li>“ Old to Naples ” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Sonnet: England in 1819 ” </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>Shelley - intense and original lyrical poet </li></ul><ul><li>Like Blake, he is erudite, imagistically complex, full of classical and mythological allusions. </li></ul><ul><li>His style abounds in personification and metaphor and other figures of speech which describe vividly what we see and feel. </li></ul><ul><li>Or express what passionately moves us. </li></ul>
  33. 33. F: John Keats(1795-1821) <ul><li>born poor: became orphaned in childhood </li></ul><ul><li>Main Works: </li></ul><ul><li>Poems: </li></ul><ul><li>On First Looking into Chapman ’ s Homer </li></ul><ul><li>“ Sleep and Poetry ” </li></ul><ul><li>Endymion </li></ul><ul><li>Lamia, Isabella, The Eve of St. Agnes, and Other Poems including: </li></ul><ul><li>Ode on a Grecian Urn, </li></ul><ul><li>Ode on Melancholy, </li></ul><ul><li>Ode to a Nightingale </li></ul><ul><li>Ode to Psyche </li></ul><ul><li>Lyrics: To Autumn </li></ul><ul><li>Unfinished: Hyperion </li></ul>
  34. 34. 2. Language <ul><li>poetry always has a “sensational” quality </li></ul><ul><li>colorful and rich in imagery - expresses the acuteness of his senses. </li></ul><ul><li>Sight, sound, scent, taste and feeling are all taken in to give an entire understanding of an experience. </li></ul><ul><li>has the power of entering the feelings of others. — either human or animal. </li></ul><ul><li>poetry characterized by exact and closely knit construction, sensual descriptions, and by force of imagination, gives transcendental values to the physical beauty of the world. </li></ul>
  35. 35. G. Jane Austen(1755-1817) <ul><li>She was born in a country clergyman ’ s family. </li></ul>1. Main Works: Sense and Sensibility Pride and Prejudice (the most popular) Northanger Abbey Mansfield Park Emma Persuasion The Watsons Fragment of a Novel Plan of a Novel
  36. 36. 2. Personal Characteristics <ul><li>Sustains the ideals of the landed gentry in politics, religion and moral principles; </li></ul><ul><li>her works show her firm belief in the predominance of reason over passion, the sense of responsibility, good manners and clear — sighted judgment over the Romantic tendencies of emotion and individuality </li></ul>
  37. 37. 3. Her Works <ul><li>Austen’s concern is human beings in their personal relationships </li></ul><ul><li>novels have a universal significance. It is her conviction that a man ’ s relationship to his wife and children is as important a part of his life as his concerns about his beliefs and career. </li></ul><ul><li>if one wants to know about a man ’ s talents, one should see him at work, but if one wants to know about his nature and temper, one should see him at home. </li></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>Austen writes about humans not in moments of crisis, but in the most trivial incidents of everyday life. </li></ul><ul><li>She writes within a very narrow sphere - subject matter, character range </li></ul><ul><li>A . The social setting, and plots are all restricted to the provincial life of the late 18th century England. </li></ul><ul><li>B . Stories concerning three or four landed gentry families with their daily routine life. </li></ul>
  39. 39. The structure <ul><li>Sharp and witty </li></ul><ul><li>the characterization is memorable, </li></ul><ul><li>the irony has a unmatched lively shrewdness </li></ul><ul><li>works - delightful and profound </li></ul><ul><li>Acute observation and meticulous details -present the quiet, day-to-day country life of the English upper-middle-class. </li></ul><ul><li>entertaining slice of British society at that time </li></ul>
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