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Romantics the romantic period

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  • 1. The Romantic Period (1798-1832) _§_
  • 2. I. The Romantic Period:
    • Generally -1798 with the pub W & C ’ s Lyrical Ballads
    • ended in 1832 - Sir Walter Scott ’ s death
    • passage of the first Reform Bill
    • emphasized the individual
  • 3. II. the historical and cultural background of English Romanticism
    • a. History - provoked by the French Revolution and the English Industrial Revolution.
    • b. Culture - the pub. Of Rousseau as guiding principles for the French Rev.
    • aroused great sympathy and enthusiasm in England
  • 4.
    • c. England experienced profound economic and social changes:
    • the enclosures
    • agricultural mechanization
    • Upper middle class grasped political power to finally dominate English society.
  • 5. III. Basic Views:
    • Romanticism
    • Designates literary and philosophical theory
    • Tends to see the individual as the very center of all life and all experience.
    • Constitutes a change of perspective from attention to the outer world of social civilization to the inner world of the human spirit.
    • literature became the vessel of expression of unique feelings and particular attitudes,
    • Valuing accuracy in ability to portray the individual's experiences.
  • 6. IV. Literary Characteristics:
    • An age of poetry and also a great age of prose.
    • Writers employed the commonplace, nature, and the simple details as their poetic material
    • Gothic novel - a type of romantic fiction that predominated in the late eighteenth century
    • was one phase of the Romantic Movement
    • Its principal elements are violence, horror and the supernatural
    • strong appeal to the emotions.
  • 7. V. Romanticism:
    • literary trend.
    • prevailed btwn 1798-1832: discontent and opposition to the development of capitalism.
    • Some Romantic writers reflected the ethic of those classes ruined by the growing social mobility Passive Romantic poets
    • Wordsworth, Coleridge and Southey
    • Active Romantic: Byron, Shelley (political/social - differences in approach) , Keats (personal, individual awareness)
  • 8.
    • Active or Revolutionary Romantic poets expressed the aspiration of the laboring classes
    • Byron and Shelley and Keats.
  • 9. VI. Lake Poets:
    • 1. Wordsworth, Coleridge, Southey lived in the natural setting of a secluded and “forgotten” rural environment (the lake district)
    • 2. Had early radical inclinations, but later turned conservative and received favors from the Government.
    • 3. criticized the poor urban conditions and exploitation of the defenseless in the growing industrial society.
  • 10. VII. Main Writers:
    • A.
    • William Blake (1757-1827) :
    • both a poet and engraver. Genius/prophet included as first important Romantic poet but eludes true definition.
    • Main works:
    • Poetical Sketches
    • Songs of Innocence/Experience
    • a volume of poems rep. contrary states of human evolution
  • 11.
    • Songs of Experience
    • paints a diff. world:
    • misery,poverty,disease, war and repression with a melancholy tone.
    • Marriage of Heaven and Hell
    • Without Contraries there is no Progression
    • The book of Urizen
    • The Book of Los
    • Milton
  • 12. 2.His works
    • Innocence=Childhood - central to Blake
    • Main concern in the Songs of Innocence and Songs of Experience,
    • the two books have strong social and historical reference (extremely critical with subtle use of lang.)
    • In the Marriage of Heaven and Hell - explores the relationship btwn. Contraries: Attraction/repulsion, reason/energy, love/hate, suggesting they are necessary to human existence.
  • 13. 3. Language
    • plain and direct language.
    • lyric beauty with immense compression of meaning.
    • distrusts the abstract - tends to embody his views with visual images.
    • Symbolism in wide range is also a distinctive feature of his poetry
  • 14. B. William Wordsworth(1770-1850)
    • William Wordsworth
    • - leading figure of English romantic poetry
    • the focal poetic voice of the period.
    • Main Works:
    • Poems about nature
    • Poems about human life (often personal, intimate) .
    • Descriptive Sketches, and Evening Walk
    • Lyrical Ballads (collection)
  • 15.
    • The Prelude
    • Poems in Two Volumes
    • The Excursion
    • The Thorn
    • The sailor ’ s mother
    • Michael
    • The Affliction of Margaret
    • The Old Cumberland Beggar
    • Lucy Poems
    • The Idiot Boy
    • Man, the heart of man, and human life.
    • The Solitary Reaper
    • To a Highland Girl
    • The Ruined Cottage
  • 16. 2. Language
    • Penetrates to the heart of things
    • gives the reader the very essence of nature.
    • common life is the only subject of literary interest.
    • The joys and sorrows of the common people are his themes.
    • His sympathy always goes to the suffering poor.
  • 17.
    • voice of searchingly comprehensive humanity
    • inspires his audience to see the world freshly, sympathetically and naturally. 'emotion recollected in tranquillity' - WW
    • most important contribution he not only started a new conception of the poetic voice leading to modern contemporary poetic variety,
    • Invented the poetic Ergon (both role & light) the poetry of the growing inner self (Aristotle – ergon -telos/gr.)
    • changed the course of English poetry by using ordinary speech of the language and advocating a return to nature
  • 18. C. Samuel Taylor Coleridge(1772-1834)
    • advocated a more spiritual and religious interpretation of life - Kant and Schelling.
    • believed that art is the only permanent revelation of the nature of reality.
  • 19. 1. Main Works:
    • Lyrical Ballads.
    • The Rime of the Ancient Mariner
    • Kubla Khan
    • Christabel
    • This Lime-Tree Bower My Prison
    • Frost at Midnight
    • The Nightingale
    • Dejection, an Ode
    • Tragic Drama: Remorse
    • Biographia Literaria
  • 20. 2. His actual achievement
    • achievement into two diverse groups:
    • The diabolic and the conversational.
    • The demonic group includes his three masterpieces:
    • The Rime of the Ancient Mariner
    • Christabel
    • Kubla Khan
    • Mysticism and deviance with strong use of imagination are distinctive features
  • 21.
    • conversational poems:
    • Kubla Khan,
    • Christabel,
    • The Ancient Mariner,
    • This Lime-Tree Bower My Prison,
    • Frost at Midnight
  • 22. 3. Language
    • recognized lyrical poet and literary critic
    • His poetic themes range from the supernatural to the domestic.
    • His treatises, lectures, and compelling conversational powers made his one of the most influential English literary critics and philosophers of the 19th century.
  • 23. D. George Gordon Byron(1788-1824):
    • born in the nobility.
    • plunged into the struggle for the national independence of Greece.
    • his poetry is one of experience.
    • His heroes are more or less surrogates of himself.
  • 24. 1. Main works:
    • Hours of Idleness
    • English Bards and Scotch Reviewers
    • Cantos: four cantos of Childe Harold ’ s Pilgrimage (brought Byron fame, forced W Scott to change genre)
    • Oriental Tales
    • Don Juan
    • Narrative poem: The Prisoner of Chillon
    • The Island
    • Drama: Manfred
    • Cain
    • Political satires: Vision of Judgment
  • 25. 2. Characteristics
    • persistent attacks on dogma - political, religious, and moral ” .
    • His descriptions are direct - vivid objects before the reader.
    • a stream (closely Homeric in tone) sometimes smooth, sometimes rapid and sometimes rushing down in cataracts --- a mixture of philosophy and slang - of everything
  • 26.
    • in England regarded as the pervert the satanic poet;
    • on the continent - hailed as the champion of liberty, poet of the people.
    • enriched European poetry with and new creative spirit of ideas, images, artistic forms and innovations.
  • 27. Prometheus
    • But baffled as thou wert from high,
    • Still in thy patient energy, In the endurance,
    • and repulse Of thine impenetrable Spirit,
    • Which Earth and Heaven could not convulse,
    • A mighty lesson we inherit:
    • Thou art a symbol and a sign
    • To Mortals of their fate and force;
    • Like thee, Man is in part divine,
    • A troubled stream from a pure source;
    • And Man in portions can foresee
    • His own funereal destiny;
    • His wretchedness, and his resistance,
    • And his sad unallied existence:
    • To which his Spirit may oppose Itself —
    • and equal to all woes,
    • And a firm will, and a deep sense,
    • Which even in torture can descry
    • Its own concenter'd recompense,
    • Triumphant where it dares defy,
    • And making Death a Victory.
    • George Gordon, Lord Byron
    • TITAN! to whose immortal eyes
    • The sufferings of mortality,
    • Seen in their sad reality,
    • Were not as things that gods despise;
    • What was thy pity's recompense?
    • A silent suffering, and intense;
    • The rock, the vulture, and the chain,
    • All that the proud can feel of pain,
    • The agony they do not show,
    • The suffocating sense of woe,
    • Which speaks but in its loneliness,
    • And then is jealous lest the sky
    • Should have a listener, nor will sigh
    • Until its voice is echoless.  
    • Titan! to thee the strife was given
    • Between the suffering and the will,
    • Which torture where they cannot kill;
    • And the inexorable Heaven,
    • … .
    • Thy Godlike crime was to be kind,
    • To render with thy precepts less
    • The sum of human wretchedness,
    • And strengthen Man with his own mind;
  • 28. E. Percy Bysshe Shelley(1792-1822)
    • born into a wealthy family at Sussex in a family of the conservative landed gentry.
    • Main works:
    • The Necessity of Atheism
    • Queen Mab: a Philosophical Poem
    • Alastor, or The Spirit of Solitude
  • 29.
    • Poem: Hymn to Intellectual Beauty
    • Mont Blanc
    • Julian and Maddalo
    • The Revolt of Islam
    • the Cenci
    • Prometheus Unbound,
    • Four — act drama: Prometheus Unbound. The play is an exultant work in praise of humankind ’ s potential
    • Shelley recognized it as “ the most perfect of my products. ”
  • 30.
    • Adonais
    • Hellas
    • Prose: Defence of Poetry
    • Lyrics: genuine society, “ Ode to Liberty ”
    • “ Old to Naples ”
    • “ Sonnet: England in 1819 ”
    • The Cloud
    • To a Shylark
    • Ode to the West Wind
    • Political lyrics: Men of England
    • Elegy: Adonais - elegy for John Keats ’ s early death
  • 31. 2. The Poet
    • violent revolutionary ideas under the influence of the free thinkers like Hume and Godwin,
    • held a life long aversion to cruelty, injustice, authority, institutional religion and the formal shams of respectable society
    • condemned war, tyranny and exploitation.
    • expressed his love for freedom and hatred toward tyranny in
    • “ Ode to Liberty ” ,
    • “ Old to Naples ”
    • “ Sonnet: England in 1819 ”
  • 32.
    • Shelley - intense and original lyrical poet
    • Like Blake, he is erudite, imagistically complex, full of classical and mythological allusions.
    • His style abounds in personification and metaphor and other figures of speech which describe vividly what we see and feel.
    • Or express what passionately moves us.
  • 33. F: John Keats(1795-1821)
    • born poor: became orphaned in childhood
    • Main Works:
    • Poems:
    • On First Looking into Chapman ’ s Homer
    • “ Sleep and Poetry ”
    • Endymion
    • Lamia, Isabella, The Eve of St. Agnes, and Other Poems including:
    • Ode on a Grecian Urn,
    • Ode on Melancholy,
    • Ode to a Nightingale
    • Ode to Psyche
    • Lyrics: To Autumn
    • Unfinished: Hyperion
  • 34. 2. Language
    • poetry always has a “sensational” quality
    • colorful and rich in imagery - expresses the acuteness of his senses.
    • Sight, sound, scent, taste and feeling are all taken in to give an entire understanding of an experience.
    • has the power of entering the feelings of others. — either human or animal.
    • poetry characterized by exact and closely knit construction, sensual descriptions, and by force of imagination, gives transcendental values to the physical beauty of the world.
  • 35. G. Jane Austen(1755-1817)
    • She was born in a country clergyman ’ s family.
    1. Main Works: Sense and Sensibility Pride and Prejudice (the most popular) Northanger Abbey Mansfield Park Emma Persuasion The Watsons Fragment of a Novel Plan of a Novel
  • 36. 2. Personal Characteristics
    • Sustains the ideals of the landed gentry in politics, religion and moral principles;
    • her works show her firm belief in the predominance of reason over passion, the sense of responsibility, good manners and clear — sighted judgment over the Romantic tendencies of emotion and individuality
  • 37. 3. Her Works
    • Austen’s concern is human beings in their personal relationships
    • novels have a universal significance. It is her conviction that a man ’ s relationship to his wife and children is as important a part of his life as his concerns about his beliefs and career.
    • if one wants to know about a man ’ s talents, one should see him at work, but if one wants to know about his nature and temper, one should see him at home.
  • 38.
    • Austen writes about humans not in moments of crisis, but in the most trivial incidents of everyday life.
    • She writes within a very narrow sphere - subject matter, character range
    • A . The social setting, and plots are all restricted to the provincial life of the late 18th century England.
    • B . Stories concerning three or four landed gentry families with their daily routine life.
  • 39. The structure
    • Sharp and witty
    • the characterization is memorable,
    • the irony has a unmatched lively shrewdness
    • works - delightful and profound
    • Acute observation and meticulous details -present the quiet, day-to-day country life of the English upper-middle-class.
    • entertaining slice of British society at that time