In a group of other objects it offers the context that illustrates the heroes in Ancient Greece in the framework of a temporary exhibition
It belongs to a group of similar objects used to describe this vase type for educational and scientific purposes
Objects share their history with other objects Found – Collected - Inherited – Donated – Bought – Collected - Exhibited (permanent, termporary) Objects share features with other objects: Subject – Type – Use - Date Martin Doerr: “ A museum object is more like an illustration or witness of the past , than information in its own right. Cultural historical research means understanding “possible pasts”, the facts, events, material, social and psychological influences and motivations. It lives from understanding contexts by pulling together bits and pieces of related facts from disparate resources, which can typically not be classified under subjects in an obvious way. It lives from taking into account all known facts .”
Connecting people to collections from museums, libraries, archives, and cultural and scientific organisations Offering ways to help users find the wealth of content that is available from cultural institutions assess the relevance and select a range of content
UK Research SUpport Library Programme operated from 1999 to 2002. AIms: Support academic researchers by improving the disclosure and discovery of research collections and by enhancing the collaborative management of those collections RSLP funded resarch to develop: An entity-relation model for collections and related resources, A Dublin-Core-based metadata schema based on that data model
One common data model (2004) Benefits for Ministries, local government: Monitoring funding results, advancement of programmes and the whole of the digital heritage, Promotion of the achievements at national and international level, Planning of complementary and coordinated digitisation initiatives Benefits for Cultural institutions : Visibility, outreach to wider audiences, Increase of access to online services, Sinergies, networking and interactions, Increase of the quality of digitisation projects Many institutions take care of having their descriptions updated Benefits for users: Direct and simple access to a critical mass of cultural content and information : From every CH sector Produced by cultural and scientific organisations of any kind and size Clear and understandable Context information Reuse Users ask for information and candidate collections to be described
Resulting in: Low interest by major cross-domain initiatives (eg Europeana) – so far Slow down of ongoing initiatives But: practice does go on! Eg Collection Description Focus just enhanced its web service
on the use of collection-level description in concert with item-level metadata to improve quality of search and discovery across an aggregation of metadata describing resources  on the development of a logic-based framework for classifying collection/item metadata relationships and achieve inferencing on the semantic integration via CIDOC/CRM, through crosswalks with the Dublin Core Collections Application Profile (Lourdi – Papatheodorou 2008; Lourdi – Papatheodorou – Doerr 2009)  Muriel Foulonneau, Timothy W. Cole, Thomas G. Habing, Sarah L. Shreeves, Using Collection Descriptions to Enhance an Aggregation of Harvested Item-Level Metadata, Proceedings of the 5th ACM/IEEE-CS joint conference on Digital libraries
Originally developed for libraries (but can be used for other types of organisation), ISIL (International Standard Identifier for Libraries and Related Organizations)
An ISIL identifies an organisation, or one of its subordinate units, which is responsible for an action or service n a bibliographic environment. It can be used to identify the originator of a resource COllection.identifier string my identifyn the entire collection or a sub-collection
The URI should be derived in a simple way from the collection identifier
The URI should be derived in a simple way from the collection identifier URI can be managed through a resolving service, and become persistent
Collection Description and its Potential, Giuliana De Francesco CIDOC 2011
Collection-level description Describing the collection as a whole• Common practice• Disclosing implicit knowledge• Practical: “It is practical and economic to manage bulk archaeological and natural science material at this level”• Aid to select and access to individual items: “The story to be told is best done by considering the material together rather than as individual parts”.
Collection-level description• Discovery• Search across collections• Management (part. collaborative)• Collection development (eg planning acquisitions, shared collections etc)• Support operations on the collections (machine- readable metadata and metasearch engines)
Obstacles towards further evolutionAfter 2008 a bit of a slowing down…• Lack of common practices and internationally agreed collections description rules• Lack of effective connection between object- level and collection-level description• Lack of unambiguous identification of collections
Researching for solutions• Combination of the two levels (item- and collection-level description) to improve quality of search and discovery• Development of a logic-based framework for classifying collection/item metadata relationships and achieve inferencing• Semantic integration via CIDOC/CRM
International Standard Collection Identifier• ISO FDIS 27330 Developed by ISO TC 46 Information and documentation, SC 9, Identification and description• Unique international identification system for each collection, fond and series and parts of collections, fonds and series• Intended for use by organisations managing collections, such as libraries, museums and archives• Builds upon: – ISIL (ISO 15511) – URI (IETF RFC 3986)
ISCI: ISIL of the organisation + Collection identifier string (organisation-specific)• Each identified collection, fond or seriesmust be described (to a minimal extent)
International Standard Collection Identifier• Organisation-specific Collection identifier string: – At least one Unicode character – Unlimited length – Characters not allowed in URIs shall be encoded• Memory organisations may use existing local collection identifiers, provided that: • They conform to ISCI syntax and structure • They use proper encoding when necessary ISO FDIS 27330
International Standard Collection Identifier• An ISCI Registration Authority will coordinate the system in collaboration with national ISCI agencies• ISCI RA will maintain a system supporting: – Assignment and utilisation of ISCIs – Harvesting of collection related metadata into the global ISCI registry• Each memory organisation will be able to assign ISCIs independently, with no support from the ISCI RA or national agency, provided that the organisation has one ISIL assigned.• It should then make available collections metadata to ISCI NA or RA. ISO FDIS 27330
Standard identification of collections“Identifiers – the keys to cultural information integration” (G. McKenna)Benefits• Context information automatically connected to object description through use of ISCI in the object description – No need to repeat shared information• Objects belonging to the same group are automatically related to each other through the same ISCI
Persistent identification of collections • ISCIs are easily expressed through URIs • Online, collections will be uniquely identified by suitable URIs; • URIs will be resolvable into collection descriptions • URI can be managed through a resolving service, and become persistent
Collection description and Linked data • Through standard identification Collection descriptions can easily enter the Linked Data environment Linked data principles according to T. Berners-Lee
Collection descriptions as Linked data Why? • Semantic Web is about meaning • Collection descriptions offer context and meaning • The more CLD are linked to other resources, the more effective they are
Collection descriptions as Linked dataBenefits• Data directly into the Web – Discoverable, no “hidding data silos”• Collection information easily available for use across apps• No duplications of effort: – create only the data specific to the own purpose, and retrieve already existing data• No need for crosswalks/mappings: – everyone uses the own metadata format, all triples can be aggregated• No harvesting: – Data are already available on the Web, URI allow to track back content wherever it is o the Web• No proprietary software issues/developments – Everything relies on open standards
Browsing by meaning “The Web is wonderful because people can go on journeys of discovery, by following links to the things that interest them” At first there were the hyperlinks.Web of documents Then APIs allowed the integration of existing resources, data, services, taxonomies, metadata etc., providing for the creation of exciting servicesWeb of applications
Browsing by meaningAnd now?Publication of structured data directly onto the WebThe Web becomes one global databaseIntegration across services is made possible, withouthaving to “fork” the data.
Linked Data Cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch.source: http://lod-cloud.net
Conclusions• Collection description is underpracticed and has potential• ISCI will offer us an opportunity to exploit the full potential of collection description• Ready? Steady? Go!
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