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Session 7 Tp 7
 

Session 7 Tp 7

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    Session 7 Tp 7 Session 7 Tp 7 Presentation Transcript

    • Session 7 Clustering Servers
    • Review
      • NAT is included in the Routing and Remote Access and aims to provide internet connection and protect internal resources
      • Location, IP Address, Rate of Data Flow, and Persistence influence the design of the NAT network
      • Using Routing and Remote Access filters, Address pools and special ports to permit internal resource access and VPN connections can improve security
    • Review Contd…
      • We can configure the dynamic IP Address Assignment for private network clients from the Address Assignment tab in the NAT/Basic Firewall Properties dialog box
      • Name Resolution is configured from the Name Resolution tab in the NAT/Basic Firewall Properties dialog box
      • Masquerading technique of NAT is used to increase the NAT Network Security
    • Objectives
      • Identify the types of clusters
      • Determine the factors affecting a cluster design
      • Design and create a Network Load Balancing Cluster
      • Design and create a Server Cluster
    • Clustering
      • Clustering is a process that interconnects multiple servers to give a single server functionality
      • Clustering provides fault tolerance and load balancing
      • Fault tolerance is the ability of a system to continue normal operation in the event of a hardware or software failure
      • Load Balancing is the process of dividing the processing load among a group of servers to reduce the processing overload of a single server
      • Windows Server 2003 supports two types of cluster:
        • Server Clusters
        • Network Load Balancing Clusters
    • Types of Cluster
      • A server cluster is designed for database servers such as Microsoft SQL Server, email and messaging servers such as Microsoft Exchange, and file and print services
      • Each server in the cluster is called a node and is connected to a common data set such as a storage area network
      • Each node in server cluster behaves as either an active node or a passive node
      • An active node receives and processes client requests
      • A passive node functions only when an active node fails.The passive node is idle at all other times.
    • Types of Cluster Contd…
      • Windows Server 2003, Enterprise Edition, and Windows Server 2003, Datacenter Edition, support up to eight nodes in a server cluster
      • Network Load Balancing (NLB) cluster is used for applications whose data sets do not change frequently or are read-only
      • Such applications include Web, File Transfer Protocol (FTP) and Virtual Private Network (VPN) servers
      • Each node in the cluster has a cloned data set instead of being connected to a shared data set
      • An incoming client request is divided among the nodes of the cluster. Each node processes its request independently
      • Windows Server 2003 operating system supports up to 32 nodes in a NLB cluster
      Types of Cluster Contd…
    • Designing a Cluster
      • We must consider the following factors for designing
      • Availability requirement – Depends on factors such as nature and role of the applications in the organization. It also depends upon the size, location and distribution of the users of the organization.
      • Scaling – Enables to improve the performance of a cluster. Two ways of scaling a cluster configuration:
        • Scaling up : Includes upgrading individual server’s hardware configuration such as adding memory or faster processors.
        • Scaling out : Includes addition of servers to an existing cluster.
    • Designing a Cluster Contd…
      • Number of Clusters to be created
      • Combination of Server Cluster and NLB clusters
      • Geographical Distribution of the clusters
    • Designing a NLB Cluster
      • We must plan the network infrastructure before implementing a NLB cluster
      • NLB Clusters provides two operational modes:
        • Unicast mode – The MAC address of the network adapter in each server is replaced with the MAC address of the virtual adapter that represents the cluster.
        • Multicast mode – Assigns a cluster MAC address to the physical network adapters, retaining the adapter’s original MAC address. We make use of two network interface adapters in each server.
    • Designing a NLB Cluster Contd…
        • One of the adapters functions as the cluster adapter having its original MAC address replaced by the MAC address for the cluster. The second adapter retains its original MAC address and assigned IP address.
      • Windows Server 2003 provides the Network Load Balancing Manager to create and manage NLB clusters
    • Designing Server Cluster
      • Designing a Server Cluster includes
        • P lanning the hardware setup of individual servers
        • Planning the application deployment
        • Selecting a quorum model for the cluster
      • Windows Server 2003, supports following types of storage connections:
        • Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) : Includes a parallel interface used to connect storage devices and peripherals to a computer
        • Fibre Channel : Inlcudes a serial, high-speed data transfer architecture standard of ANSI, which is used to connect a computer to its storage devices.
    • Designing Server Cluster Contd…
      • Windows Server 2003 hosts single-instance and multiple-instance applications in a server cluster
      • Single-instance applications run on a single server at a time
      • Multiple-instance applications are duplicated on each sever in the cluster
    • Quorum Model
      • Each server in a server cluster stores a copy of the cluster database
      • The cluster database contains information about the cluster components such as servers, host adapters, or storage devices
      • When a node fails, the cluster database of that server does not store updated information
      • When the failed server joins back the cluster, it retrieves a latest copy of the cluster database from the quorum resource of the cluster
    • Quorum Model Contd…
      • A quorum resource is the drive on which the quorum is stored
      • A quorum consists of the configuration information required for the cluster recovery
      • Windows Server 2003 supports various quorum models such as:
        • Single-node cluster : Denotes a cluster consisting of one server
        • Single-quorum device cluster : Denotes a cluster that uses one of the shared storage devices
        • Majority node set cluster : Used for clusters that are distributed over different physical locations
    • Summary
      • A cluster is a group of interconnected servers that together function to provide load balancing and fault tolerance
      • Windows Server 2003 operating system provides two types of clustering services:
        • Server Clusters
        • Network Load Balancing Clusters
      • Windows Server 2003, Enterprise Edition and Windows Server 2003, Datacenter Edition support up to 8 nodes in a Server cluster
    • Summary Contd…
      • Windows Server 2003 supports up to 32 nodes in a NLB cluster, in all the editions.
      • The factors to be considered while designing a cluster include availability requirements, scaling of clusters, number of clusters, combination of cluster types and distribution of clusters
      • Windows Server 2003 provides Network Load Balancing Manager to create and manage NLB clusters
      • We can create and manage Server clusters using the Cluster Administrator