First Aid

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The presentation is about the simple first aid measures which can be given by any one.

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First Aid

  1. 1. First Aid “ A stitch in time saves nine .” Dr.S.Siva, ARC Hospital, Little Aden, Yemen
  2. 2. What is first aid? <ul><li>The aims of first aid are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>t o preserve life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to prevent the worsening of injury </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to promote recovery </li></ul></ul>It is the simple medical treatment given as soon as possible to someone who is injured or who suddenly becomes ill. Dr.S.Siva, ARC Hospital, Little Aden, Yemen
  3. 3. Why do I need to know about first aid? Most accidents happen at homes, schools and public places and the first-aider can treat the condition better than a stranger. e.g. It takes only 3 minutes for a blocked airway to kill someone but it can take more time for an ambulance to arrive on the scene. A simple procedure like opening an airway can save someone’s life while you are waiting for professional help to arrive. Dr.S.Siva, ARC Hospital, Little Aden, Yemen
  4. 4. DR. ABC - the letters that save lives First aid has a framework - the letters &quot;DR ABC“ provide a checklist for every emergency. <ul><li>D is for Danger Check carefully before going to the </li></ul><ul><li>assistance of a casualty </li></ul><ul><li>R is for Response &quot;Are you all right?&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>A is for Airway </li></ul><ul><li>B is for Breathing </li></ul><ul><li>C is for Circulation </li></ul>Dr.S.Siva, ARC Hospital, Little Aden, Yemen                                   
  5. 5. Fever is body’s reaction to infection. Fever <ul><li>Normal body temp is 98.6F(37C). </li></ul><ul><li>Temp above 103F(39.4) is dangerous. </li></ul><ul><li>Temp can be taken at mouth, armpit (add1), </li></ul><ul><li>rectum (minus1) or ear. </li></ul>Dr.S.Siva, ARC Hospital, Little Aden, Yemen
  6. 6. Fever with headache, stiff neck, rashes, swelling in throat, mental confusion to be sent to doctor immediately. First aid: Cold sponging, fanning, oral/rectal paracetamol Fever Dr.S.Siva, ARC Hospital, Little Aden, Yemen
  7. 7. Wounds and bleeding A wound is a discontinuity in the skin or mucus membrane Types: abrasions, contusions, lacerations, incisions and punctured wound Complications: Infection & bleeding Dr.S.Siva, ARC Hospital, Little Aden, Yemen
  8. 8. Wounds- What to do? Wash Dry Dr.S.Siva, ARC Hospital, Little Aden, Yemen
  9. 9. Cont'd Antibiotic cream Dressing Dr.S.Siva, ARC Hospital, Little Aden, Yemen
  10. 10. Wounds - First aid Dr.S.Siva, ARC Hospital, Little Aden, Yemen
  11. 11. <ul><li>Wounds on head, face. chest and abdomen- </li></ul><ul><li>to be considered emergencies </li></ul><ul><li>Bleeding from Nose (Epistaxis) </li></ul><ul><li>Bleeding from Varicose Veins, ear & mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Animal or Human Bites </li></ul>Special circumstances Dr.S.Siva, ARC Hospital, Little Aden, Yemen
  12. 12. <ul><li>DO NOT assume that a minor wound is clean. </li></ul><ul><li>DO NOT breathe on an open wound. </li></ul><ul><li>DO NOT try to clean a major wound. </li></ul><ul><li>DO NOT remove an embedded object. </li></ul><ul><li>DO NOT push exposed body parts back in. </li></ul><ul><li>Cover them with clean towels. </li></ul>Wounds - do not Dr.S.Siva, ARC Hospital, Little Aden, Yemen
  13. 13. <ul><li>The bleeding is severe, spurting, or cannot be stopped </li></ul><ul><li>The person has other serious injuries. </li></ul><ul><li>There is an exposed body part. </li></ul><ul><li>The wound is large or deep. </li></ul><ul><li>The person has been bitten by a human or animal. </li></ul><ul><li>A cut or puncture is caused by a fishhook or rusty object. </li></ul><ul><li>An object or debris is embedded. </li></ul><ul><li>The wound shows signs of infection </li></ul>Contact doctor if: Dr.S.Siva, ARC Hospital, Little Aden, Yemen
  14. 14. Bleeding (Hemorrhage) <ul><li>External </li></ul><ul><li>Internal </li></ul>Dr.S.Siva, ARC Hospital, Little Aden, Yemen
  15. 15. <ul><li>Apply direct pressure </li></ul><ul><li>to the wound with hand </li></ul><ul><li>or pressure bandage </li></ul><ul><li>Elevate the affected part </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure Point additional pressure may be applied to a pressure point </li></ul><ul><li>to help reduce bleeding. </li></ul>External Bleeding Dr.S.Siva, ARC Hospital, Little Aden, Yemen
  16. 16. Internal bleeding <ul><li>SIGNS & SYMPTOMS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anxiety, restlessness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid, weak pulse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid, short respirations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cool moist skin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pale Skin color </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reddening of skin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nausea, vomiting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abdominal Pain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased level of consciousness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Severe Headache </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FIRST AID </li></ul><ul><li>- Minor bleeding </li></ul><ul><li>Ice, compression </li></ul><ul><li>- Major bleeding </li></ul><ul><li>Call for ambulance </li></ul><ul><li>Provide general care </li></ul>Dr.S.Siva, ARC Hospital, Little Aden, Yemen
  17. 17. Animal bites * Observe for signs of infection Dr.S.Siva, ARC Hospital, Little Aden, Yemen
  18. 18. Nose bleed <ul><li>Injury to nose </li></ul><ul><li>2. Strenuous activity </li></ul><ul><li>3. High blood pressure </li></ul><ul><li>4. Exposure to high altitudes </li></ul><ul><li>5. Blowing the nose too hard </li></ul>- Causes Dr.S.Siva, ARC Hospital, Little Aden, Yemen
  19. 19. Nose bleed <ul><li>Make the patient sit up </li></ul><ul><li>Make him breathe through mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Hold the nostrils pinched for 5 mts </li></ul><ul><li>Warn not to sniff or blow the nose </li></ul><ul><li>Decongestant spray </li></ul><ul><li>If bleeding continues, refer to a doctor </li></ul>- First aid Dr.S.Siva, ARC Hospital, Little Aden, Yemen
  20. 20. <ul><li>Tell the person not to rub the eye. </li></ul><ul><li>Wash your hands before examining it. </li></ul><ul><li>Examine the eye in a well-lighted area. </li></ul><ul><li>If you can't find the object, grasp the lower eyelid and gently pull down </li></ul><ul><li>on it to look under the lower eyelid. To look under the upper lid, </li></ul><ul><li>you can place a cotton-tipped swab on the outside of the upper lid </li></ul><ul><li>and gently flip the lid over the cotton swab. </li></ul><ul><li>If the object is on an eyelid, try to gently flush it out with water. </li></ul><ul><li>If that does not work, try touching a second cotton-tipped swab. </li></ul><ul><li>If the object is on the eye, try gently rinsing the eye with water. </li></ul>Eye injuries Dr.S.Siva, ARC Hospital, Little Aden, Yemen
  21. 21. Insect bites <ul><li>A bee leaves the sting & poison bag behind </li></ul><ul><li>Lift the skin and scrape </li></ul><ul><li>off the sting & bag. </li></ul><ul><li>Apply antihistamine </li></ul><ul><li>ointment & cold </li></ul><ul><li>compress. </li></ul><ul><li>A wasp leaves no sting </li></ul><ul><li>Apply cold compress. </li></ul>Dr.S.Siva, ARC Hospital, Little Aden, Yemen
  22. 22. Snake bite Dr.S.Siva, ARC Hospital, Little Aden, Yemen
  23. 23. Scorpion sting Fish Hook Dr.S.Siva, ARC Hospital, Little Aden, Yemen
  24. 24. Heat Emergencies <ul><li>Sunburn </li></ul><ul><li>Heat Exhaustion </li></ul><ul><li>Heat stroke </li></ul>Dr.S.Siva, ARC Hospital, Little Aden, Yemen
  25. 25. Foreign body in the ear Use oil for insects Gravity for small objects Send to doctor Dr.S.Siva, ARC Hospital, Little Aden, Yemen
  26. 26. Allergic reactions Dr.S.Siva, ARC Hospital, Little Aden, Yemen
  27. 27. Allergic reactions Give Phenergan syrup 1 tsp twice daily Dr.S.Siva, ARC Hospital, Little Aden, Yemen
  28. 28. <ul><li>It is a stage of circulatory inadequacy and diminished blood supply to the vital organs resulting in suppressed function. </li></ul>Shock <ul><li>Causes: </li></ul><ul><li>Severe bleeding </li></ul><ul><li>Dehydration </li></ul><ul><li>Heart Attack </li></ul><ul><li>Poisons </li></ul>Dr.S.Siva, ARC Hospital, Little Aden, Yemen
  29. 29. <ul><li>Anxious and thirsty </li></ul><ul><li>Giddiness & Confusion </li></ul><ul><li>Pale, cold & clammy skin </li></ul><ul><li>Weak & fast pulse </li></ul><ul><li>Low Blood Pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Shallow and rapid breathing </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive sweating </li></ul><ul><li>Poor urine output </li></ul>Signs & symptoms of shock Dr.S.Siva, ARC Hospital, Little Aden, Yemen
  30. 30. First aid Dr.S.Siva, ARC Hospital, Little Aden, Yemen
  31. 31. A fracture is a break in the bone. Fracture Dr.S.Siva, ARC Hospital, Little Aden, Yemen
  32. 32. Dislocations Dr.S.Siva, ARC Hospital, Little Aden, Yemen
  33. 33. <ul><li>A visibly out-of-place or misshapen limb or joint </li></ul><ul><li>Swelling </li></ul><ul><li>Intense pain </li></ul><ul><li>Bruising </li></ul><ul><li>Numbness and tingling </li></ul><ul><li>Bleeding </li></ul><ul><li>Broken skin with bone </li></ul><ul><li>protruding </li></ul><ul><li>Limitation or unwillingness to move a limb </li></ul>Broken bone - signs and symptoms Dr.S.Siva, ARC Hospital, Little Aden, Yemen
  34. 34. “ Sprain” is an injury to the ligaments around a joint. Sprain Dr.S.Siva, ARC Hospital, Little Aden, Yemen
  35. 35. Muscle Strain <ul><li>Apply ice immediately. </li></ul><ul><li>After that, either heat or ice may be helpful. </li></ul><ul><li>Rest the pulled muscle for at least a day. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep the pulled muscle elevated </li></ul><ul><li>(above the level of the heart). </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid using a strained muscle while </li></ul><ul><li>it is still painful. </li></ul><ul><li>When the pain subsides, start activity slowly. </li></ul>Dr.S.Siva, ARC Hospital, Little Aden, Yemen
  36. 36. Burns Dr.S.Siva, ARC Hospital, Little Aden, Yemen
  37. 37. - What to do? Burns Do not apply ice. Dr.S.Siva, ARC Hospital, Little Aden, Yemen
  38. 38. Heart attack - Warning signals Dr.S.Siva, ARC Hospital, Little Aden, Yemen
  39. 39. <ul><li>Have the victim sit down and rest, </li></ul><ul><li>and attempt to keep calm. </li></ul><ul><li>Loosen any tight clothing. </li></ul><ul><li>If the victim has a known heart condition, </li></ul><ul><li>ask if he takes a chest pain medication. </li></ul><ul><li>Assist the victim in taking the medication </li></ul><ul><li>(usually nitroglycerin, which is placed under the tongue). </li></ul><ul><li>If the pain does not subside promptly with rest or within </li></ul><ul><li>3 minutes of taking nitroglycerin, call for emergency </li></ul><ul><li>medical assistance. </li></ul>What should be done? Dr.S.Siva, ARC Hospital, Little Aden, Yemen
  40. 40. Foreign body throat Dr.S.Siva, ARC Hospital, Little Aden, Yemen
  41. 41. Choking Heimlich manuever Dr.S.Siva, ARC Hospital, Little Aden, Yemen
  42. 42. Dr.S.Siva, ARC Hospital, Little Aden, Yemen
  43. 43. Dr.S.Siva, ARC Hospital, Little Aden, Yemen
  44. 44. <ul><li>Becomes unusually drowsy </li></ul><ul><li>Develops a severe headache or stiff neck </li></ul><ul><li>Vomits (especially more than once) </li></ul><ul><li>Loses consciousness at any time (even if brief) </li></ul><ul><li>Behaves abnormally </li></ul>Head injuries Dr.S.Siva, ARC Hospital, Little Aden, Yemen
  45. 45. Electrical injuries <ul><li>Body is a very good conductor of electricity & can cause damage to the body in several ways: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cardiac arrest </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Massive muscle destruction </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thermal burns </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Dr.S.Siva, ARC Hospital, Little Aden, Yemen
  46. 46. Convulsions Dr.S.Siva, ARC Hospital, Little Aden, Yemen
  47. 47. <ul><li>Lay the person on the ground in a safe area. </li></ul><ul><li>Clear the area of furniture etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Cushion the person's head. </li></ul><ul><li>Loosen tight clothing, especially around </li></ul><ul><li>the person's neck. </li></ul><ul><li>Turn the person on his or her side. </li></ul><ul><li>Stay with the person until recovery . </li></ul>-First aid Convulsions Dr.S.Siva, ARC Hospital, Little Aden, Yemen
  48. 48. <ul><li>DO NOT restrain the person. </li></ul><ul><li>DO NOT place anything between the person's </li></ul><ul><li>teeth during a seizure (including your fingers). </li></ul><ul><li>DO NOT move the person unless he is in danger </li></ul><ul><li>or near something hazardous. </li></ul><ul><li>DO NOT try to make the person stop convulsing. </li></ul><ul><li>DO NOT give the person anything by mouth until </li></ul><ul><li>the convulsions have stopped and the person </li></ul><ul><li>is fully awake and alert. </li></ul>Convulsions - Don'ts Dr.S.Siva, ARC Hospital, Little Aden, Yemen

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