GISRUK 2010 – UCL LONDON UK Thursday, 15 th April 2010
Neogeography for the Rural Urban Classification of England and Wales
Department of Geography Environment and Development Studies Birkbeck, University of London Malet Street London WC1E 7HX [email_address] firstname.lastname@example.org Maurizio Gibin and John Shepherd
Outline The Rural Urban Classification for England and Wales a brief explanation the methodology Neogeography for the classification what why who The web mashup architecture a brief tour of the features Conclusion
The Rural/Urban Definition was introduced in 2004 as a joint project between a number of Government Departments and was delivered by the Rural Evidence Research Centre at Birkbeck College (RERC) (John wave your hand if you are here!)
The definition has been developed for Output Areas (OAs), SOAs and Wards.
Focus on OA
The Definition adopts a settlement-based approach, comprising four settlement types, of which three are rural – MORPHOLOGY:
Urban (population over 10,000)
Town and Fringe
Hamlet and Isolated Dwellings
The settlement types are assigned to either a 'sparse' or 'less sparse' regional setting to give eight classes - CONTEXT:
Furthermore, different morphologies or settlement forms can be shown to have different typical density ‘profiles’.
‘ Density profiles’ can thus be created using a series of different area or ‘window’ sizes. In other words, density profiles can be created by calculating densities at a series of fixed scales - in our case 200m, 400m, 800m and 1600m:
Settlement 200m 400m 800m 1600m Peri-urban 0.3 0.59 1.57 2.8 Scattered dwellings 0.39 0.17 0.15 0.23 Hamlet 0.65 0.21 0.13 0.2 Village envelope 0.94 1.15 1.31 0.59 Village envelope (in peri-urban) 2.96 3.27 1.81 2.13 Village 3.81 2.28 0.83 0.58 Urban fringe 6.46 7.21 5.9 4.68 Small town 8.23 8.99 8.29 5.59 Urban Areas (above 10k) 16.09 15.17 13.78 11.89
Refers to the broader setting in which are located:
wider accessibility of a settlement, the sparsity of population and the potential costs of overcoming distance to supply that settlement with various public and private services.
Density profiles used at much larger scales 10km, 20km and 30km to characterize aspects of accessibility and population sparsity.
On the basis of these measures it is possible to identify areas where population is ‘sparse’ at the particular scale. By assigning these measures to 2001 Census Output Areas and focusing on the sparsest 5 percent in each case, three indicators of ‘sparsity’ are obtained.
Context Residential delivery points density per ha Sparse at the 10km scale < 0 .3932 Sparse at the 20km scale < 0.41 Sparse at the 30km scale < 0.4224
The final classification…morphology and context
Output Areas are classified by ‘hierarchical privileging’, that is, if an Output Area has 50 percent by area of a particular settlement morphology, this classification is used.
Where an Output Area did not contain a dominant morphological type then the largest settlement character is ‘privileged’ with the Output Area classification.