Percursos e percalços da inovação


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Pessoas, compartilho com vocês um modelo bem amplo dos percursos e percalços da inovação!

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Percursos e percalços da inovação

  1. 1. innovationconvention conventioncommunity1agrees on & is shaped by A community is a system of people who interact within an agreed set of rules—conventions. may fail to recognize pressure (external) decay (internal) a model of innovation Innovation is a holy grail of contemporary society, and especially business. A flood of books and magazines promote it. Design firms promise it. Customers demand it. Survival, we’re told, depends on it. po Typically, members of a community share a common location or if strong, raise calls for efficiency, dangerously reducing se common interests. They may be related by birth or may come Entropy always increases. But what is it? And how do we get it? together for social or business reasons. Communities rely on Resisting entropy requires energy and variety. o l inevitably lead to individuals to provide the variety necessary for survival— Inevitably, both are limited. We used to ask the same questions about quality. Then Walter ng to share perspective, insight, ideas, and inspiration. Shewhart and Edward Deming answered. Today, statistical -te process control, total quality management (TQM), kaizen, and Over time, new members join and existing members depart. These six-sigma management are fundamental tools in business. rm changes can affect the conventions the community keeps. Organizations have become much better at managing quality. th Quality has become a commodity, or at least “table stakes,” re necessary but not sufficient. Now, innovation matters more— a because you can’t compete on quality alone, whether as a ts business, a community, or a society. The next arena of global to competition is innovation, but the practice of innovation remains a stuck some 40 years behind the practice of quality. ny Quality is largely about improving efficiency, whereas innovation is largely about improving effectiveness. Improving quality is decreasing defects. It’s about measuring. It’s making processes more efficient. It works within an existing paradigm.convention 1 each faces change (disturbance) Business Week design editor Bruce Nussbaum has suggested you can’t measure your way to innovation—measurement being the hallmark of quality processes. And though some six-sigma Every convention exists within a community. Pressure from outside or decay inside changes the advocates disagree, Nussbaum is pointing out a fundamental s) disturbs relations creating relationship between a community and its context. That difference between managing quality and managing innovation.maintains relationship to ng ce A convention establishes a relation between relationship—formalized as a convention—is no longer Innovation is creating a new paradigm. It’s not getting better at se n o a community and its context. It defines a way comfortable, no longer a fit. playing the same game; it’s changing the rules and changing the en m on ctio the community expects its members to behave sa game. Innovation is not working harder; it’s working smarter. qu in a given situation. It prescribes the tools A disturbance upsets an existing convention. they can use, even what they can think. This is a root cause of innovation. This poster proposes a model for innovation. It takes the form of a d c ru an rd g n es r th as e s c d-o nin . R - o h lac concept map, a series of terms and links forming propositions. be er io ult ir te . ce nd fit,” p ne est ed an co r “ one t Every innovation has a precedent in a A disturbance has variety of its own. la te ad s, s th n in insight previous convention. Unless a community has corresponding variety to cancel it, The model is built on the idea that innovation is about changing nin le in ue uce tio re lan e d nd v e ei paradigms. The model situates innovation between two conven- s u ab tin ed ova the variety in a disturbance will overwhelm the community. ce w on y r nn in tions. Innovation transforms old into new. It is a process— str ion he Variety cancels variety. en no e c a . I ing s lut “t np iv qu t k cl d m re oy ize a process in which insight inspires change and creates value. e.” tly vo as se no cy an ltu ce on re the ns f cu on an re on (u eat w ss tly i ct d c ts a s tio b o n ne nce san tru The process begins when external pressure or internal decay an fec n. A ven we de la g a n, i es es cr tin thi inc e d ing ef tio on a disturbs the relation between a community and its context, a ris ct va c in ba ea wi t iv rp ire no ed ist ha at relation maintained by a convention. su ind r in lat ex ly om n t re im nt fr io s c or rthe ts re ions sa re tat be fu c t The existing convention no longer “fits.” Perhaps the context es ctu mu cri fe n af onve is inc tru ial des changed. Or the community. Or even the convention. Someone C c s tr r on i us te notices the misfit. It causes stress. It creates enough friction, ld nom ind pe cr e o co of hum enough pain, to jump into people’s consciousness. Perception of e e ess Sc misfit almost simultaneously gives rise to proposals for change, oc phcontext 1 misfit (pain) variety se for reframing. These proposals compete for attention. Most fail to Jo e, inspire, are ignored, and fade away. pr th th The changes that survive are by definition those a community finds effective. They spread because they increase fit (gain) and lower(environment) A misfit arises when a convention no longer maintains (experiences) that is large enough gains a desired relation between a community and its context. pain or cost (delivering value). can be superseded by n i Misfit manifests itself as pain. It exacts a cost— We rarely recognize innovation while it’s happening. Instead, cr Every community exists within a context. physical, mental, social, or financial—on members W. Ross Ashby describes variety as a measure of information. innovation is often a label applied after the fact, when its value is e of the community. clear and a new convention has become established. a Variety describes a system’s potential to respond to se Context is the environment in which a community lives. disturbances—the options it has available. Applied to communities, Ethnography and other research techniques may help identify s To survive, a community must have a stable relationship variety describes the experiences—the richness of language and opportunities for innovation. Design methods may increase the th with its environment. Maintaining that stable relationship range of cultural tools—they can bring to bear on problems. speed of generating and testing new ideas. But new ideas are still e is the purpose of conventions. subject to natural selection (or natural destruction) in the political lik In a stable environment, increasing efficiency makes sense. Do what you’ve been doing, but do it better and at a lower cost. process or the marketplace. e lih That means narrowing language—decreasing variety. Innovation remains messy. Even dangerous. Luck and chance, o being at the right place at the right time, still play a role. But od In an unstable environment, pursuing efficiency may actually be dangerous. You may get better at doing the wrong thing—at doing heightened sensitivity and persistent alertness may increase luck. of something that no longer matters. This model is not a recipe. At best it suggests ways to increase The key is to make sure what you produce is valuable, before you the probability of innovation. Our goal is for it to spur discussion. worry about making it more efficiently. Increasing effectiveness Our hope is that increased understanding will spur innovation calls for increasing variety—changing perspective, bringing new and increase the greater good. people, new experience, and new language into the conversation and expanding the field of action. recognition (definition) als ss Recognition of misfit comes from observation and experience. Research methods—such as ethnography—help. st fa go roce frames possibilities for en o he op ing ng am But identifying a problem requires definition. ) ini fr Definitions are constructed—agreed to. ef e r r t th ing p They have constituencies. s. g o ou he in ab fin ing Thus, definition is a political act, ac am ns ro efr tio an exercise of power. pp . R es (re arn r a als qu he o e ot of g rais ing on ay le try iti m to efin ype lity r d ot ibi o rot possess ss m p po le a ob g pr stin Te (a bit of luck)innovation requires preparation aids insight (seeing opportunity) comes from individuals driveEach innovation is a link between two conventions:the one it replaces and the one it becomes. (immersion) Insight begins a process of restoring fit. Insight remains the most mysterious part of the innovation process. It may be irreducible, but Individuals who are prepared to innovate possess: motivates benefit from (increase efficiency by) sharing skills within a must be shared through n) olu sAn innovation is a pivot; it transforms one period into the next. it can be aided. Immersion within the context is almost always Optimism ev es change tio essential. Experience with other domains helps (by increasing Belief they can improve the world variety). For example, applying patterns from other domains can Openness to change ial oc Some organizations have processes by which their members build (or buy) new ideas at a small scale. The organizations vet (or select help solve new problems. This is the promise of Genrich Altshuller’s Confidence to make it so