Face Negotiation Theory<br />Teaching Practice 1: COMS 620<br />Jenny A. Armentrout<br />
Development of FNT<br />Face - Negotiation Theory (FNT) was <br /> developed by Stella Ting-Toomey <br /> (1985), a communication professor at <br /> California State University, Fullerton<br />“Face” according to sociologist Erving Goffman<br /> (1967, p. 5), is “the positive social<br /> value a person effectively claims for<br /> her/himself by the line others assume<br /> s/he has taken during a particular<br /> contact.”<br />
Face-work<br />Face is a metaphor for the image of oneself that we want others to see and believe.<br />Every culture is always negotiating face.<br />FNT states that people from individualistic, low context cultures interact differently from collectivistic, high context cultures.<br />
FNT: Practical Conflict Management<br />The ways which various cultures view face and their individual role in face-work will determine the approach to conflict management.<br />FNT maintains that inter-cultural conflict can be reduced by recognizing, understanding, accepting, and adapting to the differences with another's culture. <br />
Four Types of Face-work:<br /><ul><li>Face-restoration - protecting your own autonomy
Face-saving - protecting the autonomy of another person
Face-giving - protecting another's need for inclusion
Face-assertion - protecting your own need for inclusion</li></li></ul><li>Face Movements<br /><ul><li>Obliging- accommodating
Dominating- competing</li></li></ul><li>Seven Assumptions of FNT<br />Communication in all cultures is based on maintaining and negotiating face. <br />Face is problematic when identities are questioned. <br />Differences in individualistic vs. collectivistic and small vs. large power distance cultures profoundly shape face management. <br />Individualistic cultures prefer self oriented face-work, and collectivistic cultures prefer other oriented face-work. <br />Small power distance cultures prefer an “individuals are equal” framework, whereas large power distance cultures prefer a hierarchical framework. <br />Behavior is also influenced by cultural variances, individual, relational, and situational factors. <br />Competence in intercultural communication is a culmination of knowledge and mindfulness. <br />
Ex: Good Will Hunting<br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uY6k50qB4Ys<br />
Ex: Mr. Rogers<br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UcvRMHz4mb4<br />
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