Face negotiation theory

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  • 1. Face Negotiation Theory
    Teaching Practice 1: COMS 620
    Jenny A. Armentrout
  • 2. Development of FNT
    Face - Negotiation Theory (FNT) was
    developed by Stella Ting-Toomey
    (1985), a communication professor at
    California State University, Fullerton
    “Face” according to sociologist Erving Goffman
    (1967, p. 5), is “the positive social
    value a person effectively claims for
    her/himself by the line others assume
    s/he has taken during a particular
    contact.”
  • 3. Face-work
    Face is a metaphor for the image of oneself that we want others to see and believe.
    Every culture is always negotiating face.
    FNT states that people from individualistic, low context cultures interact differently from collectivistic, high context cultures.
  • 4. High/Low Context Cultures
  • 5. FNT: Practical Conflict Management
    The ways which various cultures view face and their individual role in face-work will determine the approach to conflict management.
    FNT maintains that inter-cultural conflict can be reduced by recognizing, understanding, accepting, and adapting to the differences with another's culture.
  • 6. Four Types of Face-work:
    • Face-restoration - protecting your own autonomy
    • 7. Face-saving - protecting the autonomy of another person
    • 8. Face-giving - protecting another's need for inclusion
    • 9. Face-assertion - protecting your own need for inclusion
  • Face Movements
    • Obliging- accommodating
    • 10. Compromising- bargaining
    • 11. Avoiding- withdrawing
    • 12. Integrating- problem-solving
    • 13. Dominating- competing
  • Seven Assumptions of FNT
    Communication in all cultures is based on maintaining and negotiating face.
    Face is problematic when identities are questioned.
    Differences in individualistic vs. collectivistic and small vs. large power distance cultures profoundly shape face management.
    Individualistic cultures prefer self oriented face-work, and collectivistic cultures prefer other oriented face-work.
    Small power distance cultures prefer an “individuals are equal” framework, whereas large power distance cultures prefer a hierarchical framework.
    Behavior is also influenced by cultural variances, individual, relational, and situational factors.
    Competence in intercultural communication is a culmination of knowledge and mindfulness.
  • 14. Ex: Good Will Hunting
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uY6k50qB4Ys
  • 15. Ex: Mr. Rogers
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UcvRMHz4mb4