Reproductive System(Genital System) -a system of organs within an organism which work together for the purpose of reproduction, which is the capacity of human beings to originate new individuals.
Human reproduction -takes place as internal fertilization bysexual intercourse.During this process, the erect penis of the maleis inserted into the females vagina until the maleejaculates semen, which contains sperm, into the femalesvagina. The sperm then travels through the vagina andcervix into the uterus or fallopian tubes for fertilization ofthe ovum. Upon successful fertilization andimplantation, gestation of the fetus then occurs within thefemales uterus for approximately nine months, thisprocess is known as pregnancy in humans.
During puberty, usually occurringbetween the ages of nine andfourteen, the reproductive systems ofboth sexes mature. The ovaries of afemale release eggs (female sex cells)and a males testes produce sperm(male sex cells).Reproduction occurs when a spermunites with an egg, a process calledfertilization.
The Male Reproductive System
HUMAN MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM - series of organs located outside of thebody and around the pelvic region of a male thatcontribute towards the reproductive process.primary direct function of the male reproductivesystem: provide the male gamete or spermatozoa forfertilization of the ovum. OTHER FUNCTIONS: •To produce, maintain, and transport sperm (the male reproductive cells) and protective fluid (semen) •To discharge sperm within the female reproductive tract during sex •To produce and secrete male sex hormones responsible for maintaining the male reproductive system
PARTS OF THE MALEREPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
Bladder - removes toxin fromthe body
Testicles (testes) — oval organs about the size of largeolives that lie in the scrotum, secured at eitherend by a structure called the spermatic cord.Most men have two testes. The testes areresponsible for making testosterone, theprimary male sex hormone, and forgenerating sperm. Within the testes are coiledmasses of tubes called seminiferoustubules. These tubules are responsible forproducing the sperm cells through a processcalled spermatogenesis.
Urethra —the tube that carries urinefrom the bladder to outside of thebody. In males, it has the additionalfunction of expelling (ejaculating)semen when the man reachesorgasm. When the penis is erectduring sex, the flow of urine isblocked from the urethra, allowingonly semen to be ejaculated atorgasm.
Penis —the male organ for sexual intercourse. It has three parts: (1)theroot, which attaches to the wall of the abdomen; (2)the body, or shaft; and(3)the glans, which is the cone-shaped end of the penis. The glans, which also is called the head of the penis, is coveredwith a loose layer of skin called foreskin. (This skin is sometimes removed ina procedure called circumcision.) The opening of the urethra, the tube thattransports semen and urine, is at the tip of the glans penis. The penis alsocontains a number of sensitive nerve endings. The body of the penis is cylindrical in shape and consists of threeinternal chambers. These chambers are made up of special, sponge-likeerectile tissue. This tissue contains thousands of large spaces that fill withblood when the man is sexually aroused. As the penis fills with blood, itbecomes rigid and erect, which allows for penetration during sexualintercourse. The skin of the penis is loose and elastic to accommodatechanges in penis size during an erection. Semen, which contains sperm, is expelled (ejaculated) through theend of the penis when the man reaches sexual climax (orgasm). When thepenis is erect, the flow of urine is blocked from the urethra, allowing onlysemen to be ejaculated at orgasm.
PARTS OF THE MALEREPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
Seminal vesicles — The seminal vesicles are sac-likepouches that attach to the vas deferensnear the base of the bladder. Theseminal vesicles produce a sugar-richfluid (fructose) that provides sperm witha source of energy and helps with thesperms’ motility (ability to move). Thefluid of the seminal vesicles makes upmost of the volume of a man’sejaculatory fluid, or ejaculate.
Prostate gland — The prostate gland is a walnut-sized structure that is located below theurinary bladder in front of the rectum.The prostate gland contributesadditional fluid to the ejaculate.Prostate fluids also help to nourish thesperm. The urethra, which carries theejaculate to be expelled duringorgasm, runs through the center of theprostate gland.
Vas deferens — The vas deferens is a long,muscular tube that travels from theepididymis into the pelvic cavity, tojust behind the bladder. The vasdeferens transports mature spermto the urethra in preparation forejaculation.
Epididymis — The epididymis is a long, coiled tubethat rests on the backside of each testicle. Itfunctions in the transport and storage ofthe sperm cells that are produced in thetestes. It also is the job of the epididymis tobring the sperm to maturity, since the spermthat emerge from the testes are immatureand incapable of fertilization. During sexualarousal, contractions force the sperm intothe vas deferens.
The female reproductive system consists of4 major parts: the uterus, vagina, Fallopiantubes and ovaries.
Uterus -a hollow, peared-shaped organwith thick muscular wall; it lies inthe middle of the pelvis, betweenthe bladder and the rectum. It issubdivided into two parts:the corpus (body), andthe cervix (neck).
Vagina -muscular, narrow canal that extends fromthe vaginal opening called introitus to thecervix. It is also known as the birth canal due ofthe fact that the fetus passes through it to beborn during natural childbirth. The inner wall ofvagina is surfaced with numerous folds of softelastic mucous membrane called vaginalrugae. They allow the vagina to expandconsiderably during sexual intercourse orchildbirth. During menstruation, the vaginaprovides a channel for the menstrual fluid to flowout of the body.
Fallopian tubes - sometimes simply called tubes or oviduct, are the two channelsthat connect the ovaries to the uterus. They are the main structure thatfacilitate fertilization.Each tube is further divided into 5 main portions:>Fimbriae: The fringe-like structure located at the end of the tube thatcaptures egg released from the ovary and draws it into the tube.>Infundibulum: The funnel-like structure of the tube which is marginedwith fimbriae.>Ampulla: The longest portion of the tube with thin wall (almost muscle-free) and wide lumen. It is usually the portion where fertilization takesplace.>Isthmus: The almost straight portion of the tube with relatively thickmuscular wall and the narrowest lumen.>Interstitium: The portion of the tube that is closest to the uterus. It issometimes known as the uterine portion of the tube for the fact that it lieswithin the uterus.
Anatomy ofFallopian Tube
Ovaries -small, oval-shaped paired glands thatare attached to each side of the uterus via athin, fibrous ovarian ligament. The pair areresponsible for storing and nurturingimmature egg cells into mature eggs; everymonth, one of them releases a mature egginto its neighboring Fallopian tube.In addition to producing eggs, the ovariesproduces two main female sex hormones:the oestrogen and progesterone, whichare vital in regulating the menstrual cycles.
Other Parts of the Female Reproductive System Labium Majora - enclose and protect the other external reproductive organs. Literally translated as "large lips," the labia majora are relatively large and fleshy, and are comparable to the scrotum in males. The labia majora contain sweat and oil-secreting glands. After puberty, the labia majora are covered with hair. Labium Minora - literally translated as "small lips“, the labia minora can be very small or up to 2 inches wide. They lie just inside the labia majora, and surround the openings to the vagina (the canal that joins the lower part of the uterus to the outside of the body) and urethra (the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body). Clitoris - The two labia minora meet at the clitoris, a small, sensitive protrusion that is comparable to the penis in males. The clitoris is covered by a fold of skin, called the
Urethra - The opening to the urethra is just below the clitoris. Although it is not related to sex or reproduction, it is included in the vulva. The urethra is actually used for the passage of urine. The urethra is connected to the bladder. In females the urethra is 1.5 inches long, compared to males whose urethra is 8 inches long. Because the urethra is so close to the anus, women should always wipe themselves from front to back to avoid infecting the vagina and urethra with bacteria. This location issue is the reason for bladder infections being more common among females. Cervix - lower end of the uterus. It is located at the top of the vagina and is about one inch long. The cervical canal passes through the cervix, allowing blood from a menstrual period and a baby (fetus) to pass from the womb (uterus) into the vagina. Rectum - The last 6 to 8 inches of the large intestine. The rectum stores solid waste until it leaves the body through the anus. The word rectum comes from the Latin rectus meaning straight (which the human rectum is not). Ureter - tubes made of smooth muscle fibers that propel urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder.
Diseases of the human reproductivesystem1) genetic or congenital abnormalities2) cancers3) infections which are often sexually transmitted diseases, and4) functional problems cause by environmental factors, physical damage, psychological issues, autoimmune disorders, or other causes. The best known type of functional problems include sexual dysfunction and infertility which are both broad terms relating to many disorders with many causes.
Examples of congenital abnormalities:Kallmann syndrome - Genetic disorder causingdecreased functioning of the sex hormone-producing glands caused by a deficiency or bothtestes from the scrotum.Androgen insensitivity syndrome - A geneticdisorder causing people who are genetically male(i.e. XY chromosome pair) to develop sexually as afemale due to an inability to utilize androgen.Intersexuality - A person who has genitalia and/orother sexual traits which are not clearly male orfemale.
Examples of cancers:Prostate cancer - Cancer of the prostategland.Breast cancer - Cancer of the mammarygland.Ovarian cancer - Cancer of the ovary.Penile cancer - Cancer of penis.Uterine cancer - Cancer of the uterus.Testicular cancer - Cancer of thetestis/testesCervical Cancer - Cancer of the cervix.
Examples of Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Hepatitis B - irritation and swelling (inflammation) of the liver due to infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV). Hepatitis B infection can be spread through having contact with the blood, semen, vaginal fluids, and other body fluids of someone who already has a hepatitis B infection. Human Immunodefeciency Syndrome - HIV infection is a condition caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The condition gradually destroys the immune system, which makes it harder for the body to fight infections. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can be spread by the following: Through sexual contact -- including oral, vaginal, and anal sex Through blood -- through blood transfusions, accidental needlesticks, or needle sharing From mother to child -- a pregnant woman can transmit the virus to
•Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are common virusesthat can cause warts. There are more than 100 types ofHPV. Most are harmless, but about 30 types put you at riskfor cancer. These types affect the genitals and you getthem through sexual contact with an infected partner. Theyare classified as either low-risk or high-risk. Low-risk HPVcan cause genital warts. High-risk HPV can lead tocancers of the cervix, vulva, vagina, and anus in women.In men, it can lead to cancers of the anus and penis.Although some people develop genital warts from HPVinfection, others have no symptoms. Your health careprovider can treat or remove the warts. In women, Papsmears can detect changes in the cervix that might lead tocancer.Correct usage of latex condoms greatly reduces, but doesnot eliminate, the risk of catching or spreading HPV. Avaccine can protect against several types of
Examples of functional problems:Impotence - The inability of a male to produce ormaintain an erection.Hypogonadism - A lack of function of the gonads, inregards to either hormones or gamete production.Ectopic pregnancy - When a fertilized ovum isimplanted in any tissue other than the uterine wall.Hypoactive sexual desire disorder - A low level ofsexual desire and interest.Female sexual arousal disorder - A condition ofdecreased, insufficient, or absent lubrication infemales during sexual activityPremature ejaculation - A lack of voluntary controlover ejaculation.
Ways to maintainproper functioning of your Reproductive System
• Quit smoking. Smoking damages your ovaries, interferes with the production of • Receive treatment estrogen and makes your eggs prone to recommendations from your genetic abnormalities. doctor for conditions such as endometriosis or fibroids.• Maintain a healthy body weight. If you weigh too little, you wont produce • Avoid vaginal enough estrogen and your reproductive infections, which can result in system will shut down. If you weigh too damage to your uterus if left much, youll have too much estrogen in untreated. Precautions your system, which acts like birth control include changing tampons medication, and in your later years, is a regularly, cleaning yourself risk factor for cancer. properly after using the toilet, taking care of genital• Practice safe sex. Some sexually piercings and staying out of transmitted diseases can render you contaminated water. infertile. Many of these diseases have no symptoms at first, so you can severely • Take steps to be healthier. A damage your fertility before you know healthy diet, regular exercise you have them. and stress management all help to keep your reproductive system, along• Get a regular gynecological examination. with all your bodys
Avoid tight underwear and clothing. This keeps your genitials comfortable and wont allow pain to happen. Choose an underwear and clothing size that is right for you. Wear protective gear when playing contact sports. This is the single most important thing to protect your testicals. The gear prevents you from getting testicular trama, testicular torsion, and possibly testicular rupture. ~*~