Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Form 5 topics combined
Form 5 topics combined
Form 5 topics combined
Form 5 topics combined
Form 5 topics combined
Form 5 topics combined
Form 5 topics combined
Form 5 topics combined
Form 5 topics combined
Form 5 topics combined
Form 5 topics combined
Form 5 topics combined
Form 5 topics combined
Form 5 topics combined
Form 5 topics combined
Form 5 topics combined
Form 5 topics combined
Form 5 topics combined
Form 5 topics combined
Form 5 topics combined
Form 5 topics combined
Form 5 topics combined
Form 5 topics combined
Form 5 topics combined
Form 5 topics combined
Form 5 topics combined
Form 5 topics combined
Form 5 topics combined
Form 5 topics combined
Form 5 topics combined
Form 5 topics combined
Form 5 topics combined
Form 5 topics combined
Form 5 topics combined
Form 5 topics combined
Form 5 topics combined
Form 5 topics combined
Form 5 topics combined
Form 5 topics combined
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Form 5 topics combined

424

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
424
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
17
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. LEARNING AREA 4 - MULTIMEDIATOPICS FOR MULTIMEDIA 4.1 Multimedia Concepts 4.1.1 Definition of Multimedia 4.1.2 Usage of multimedia in various fields i. Entertainment industry ii. Business iii. Arts iv. Medicine v. Engineering 4.1.3 Interactivity: Characteristics of linear and non-linear multimedia 4.1.4 Differentiate between characteristics of linear and non-linear multimedia 4.1.5 Medium of delivery 4.1.6 Compare and contrast the mediums of delivery 4.1.7 Multimedia elements i. Text ii. Graphics iii. Video iv. Audio v. Animation 4.1.8 Standard file formats 4.2 Hardware and Software 4.2.1 Identifying hardware that can be used to produce multimedia products i. Scanner ii. Video camera iii. Digital camera iv. Audio devices v. Video capture devices 4.2.2 Identify editing software that can be used to produce multimedia elements i. Text editor ii. Graphics and image editor iii. Audio editor iv. Video editor v. Animation editor 4.2.3 Authoring tools 4.2.3.1 Define the concepts in authoring tools i. Time frame concept ii. Icon concept iii. Card concept 4.2.4 Web editor 4.2.4.1 Describe and give examples of: i. Text-based ii. WYSIWYG 4.3 Multimedia Development 4.3.1 User interface principles 4.3.1.1 State user interface principles i. Consistency ii. Clarity iii. Context iv. NavigationM.D.A.S-SMK BELAGA ICT DEPARTMENT 1
  • 2. LEARNING AREA 4 - MULTIMEDIA v. Search vi. Personalisation vii. Learnability viii. Flexibility 4.3.1.2 Apply suitable user interface principles in a project 4.3.2 Development Team 4.3.2.1 State the role of each member in development team i. Project manager ii. Subject matter expert iii. Instructional designer iv. Graphics artist v. Audio-video technician vi. Programmer 4.3.3 Multimedia production 4.3.3.1 Describe the phases in multimedia production i. Phase 1 - Analysis ii. Phase 2 - Design iii. Phase 3 - Implementation iv. Phase 4 - Testing v. Phase 5 - Evaluation vi. Phase 6 - PublishingM.D.A.S-SMK BELAGA ICT DEPARTMENT 2
  • 3. LEARNING AREA 4 - MULTIMEDIA4.0 MULTIMEDIA 4.1 Multimedia Concepts 4.1.1 Definition of Multimedia  “Multimedia” comes from the word “multi” and “media”. “Multi” means various. “Media” refers to any hardware or software used for communicating.  Multimedia is the presentation of information by using a combination of text, audio, graphic, video and animation.  In the field of Information and Communication Technology, multimedia is an interactive communication process that uses an integration of five main elements such as texts, graphics, audio, video and animation. 4.1.2 Usage of multimedia in various fields i. Entertainment industry  Produces computer games, and develop animations or special effects for cartoons and movies. ii. Business  Multimedia applications are used in advertising products.  Many companies nowadays develop and distribute catalogues in the form of a CD-ROM as it is more interesting to the consumers. iii. Arts  Artists use multimedia elements by combining drawing and animation. iv. Medicine  Doctors can practice or be trained in performing high-risk surgery by using virtual surgery. v. Engineering  Uses an application called Computer-Aided Design or CAD.  By using this application, engineers can view the design from many aspects and improve on it before production. 4.1.3 Interactivity: Characteristics of linear and non-linear multimedia Interactivity Refers to how a user interacts with a multimedia application or program Linear Non-Linear Interactivity Interactivity Characteristics Characteristics The user interacts The content is The user can control with the multimedia The user is the The user is can arranged in the progress of the The user controls the application without passive receiver of interact with the sequence. This multimedia sequence of the controlling the the multimedia application according means, everything application content by multimedia content. progress of the content to how they want to happens in order using buttons or links content FIGURE 1: Characteristics of linear and non-liner multimedia 4.1.4 Differentiate between characteristics of linear and non-linear multimediaM.D.A.S-SMK BELAGA ICT DEPARTMENT 3
  • 4. LEARNING AREA 4 - MULTIMEDIA Provides more buttonsor NON-LINEAR The user can controlthe The user can control the links for the user to control MULTIMEDIA progress sequence the application Of Content Sequence Buttons & Links Control User Provides limited buttons LINEAR The user cannot control The content is played in or links that limit the user’s MULTIMEDIA the progress sequence control FIGURE 2: Difference between linear and non-linear multimedia 4.1.5 Medium of delivery  “Medium of delivery” means the ways to distribute a multimedia application.  There are two most common medium of delivery.  They are: i. Web-based ii. CD-based  For web-based multimedia, the multimedia content will be delivered through Web pages using the Internet technology. It can only be viewed using a web browser such as Internet Explorer and Mozilla Firefox.  For CD-based multimedia, the multimedia content will be delivered in CD-ROMs. These CD-ROMs are usually used with computers. 4.1.6 Compare and contrast the mediums of delivery Web-based CD-based Limited in picture size and low Can store high end multimedia resolution video elements such as video Can be changed, damaged or deleted Can be permanently stored and are by irresponsible individuals not changeable Information for multimedia can be Information on a multimedia can be updated easily and its cheaper quickly outdated TABLE 1: Comparison between mediums of delivery 4.1.7 Multimedia elementsM.D.A.S-SMK BELAGA ICT DEPARTMENT 4
  • 5. LEARNING AREA 4 - MULTIMEDIA 5 Main Elements of Multimedia Text Graphics Video Audio Animation Static elements Dynamic Elements (Does not move) (Moves) FIGURE 3: 5 Main Elements of Multimedia vi. Text  The most basic element  Involves the use of text types, sizes, colours and background colour vii. Graphics  Graphics help to illustrate ideas through still pictures.  There are two types of graphics used; bitmaps and vector.  Bitmaps are real images captured using cameras or scanners  Vectors are images drawn on the computer viii.Video  Videos can be obtained from various sources  It can be recorded using a digital video camera and transferred to a computer or created from a photo slideshow and saved in video format ix. Audio  Examples of audio elements are speech, music and sound effects.  There are two types of audio; analog and digital  In multimedia, digital audio is used  We must convert an analog audio into digital audio before using it in a multimedia application x. Animation  Animation is a process of making a static image look like its moving.  In multimedia, digital animation is used.  Digital animation can be divided into 2 areas; 2D (2-Dimensional) and 3D (3-Dimensional) animations. 4.1.8 Standard file formats  Each of the five elements of multimedia has various standard file formats.  File formats can be determined by looking at the file extensions.  For example, a file named Multimedia.doc has the file extension of .doc.M.D.A.S-SMK BELAGA ICT DEPARTMENT 5
  • 6. LEARNING AREA 4 - MULTIMEDIA 5 Main Elements of Multimedia Text Graphics Video Audio Animation File File File File File Full name Full name Full name Full name Full nameextension extension extension extension extension Microsoft Word Joint Photographic Audio Video *.doc *.jpg *.avi *.wav Waveform *.swf Shockwave Flash Document Expert Group interleave Graphics Musical Instrument Graphics *.txt ASCII *.gif *.mov Quicktime Movie *.midi *.gif Interchange Format Digital Interface Interchange Format Tagged Image File Motion Picture Audio Interchange Animation Swish *.rtf Rich Text Format *.tiff *.mpeg *.aif/*.aiff *.swi Format Experts Group File Format Format Windows Media *.bmp Bitmap *.wmv *.au Audio Video Portable Network Windows Media *.png *.wma Graphics Audio Photoshop *.psd Document FIGURE 4: Standard File Formats of the Multimedia Elements 4.2 Hardware and Software FIGURE 5: Hardware Used In Multimedia Production 4.2.1 Identifying hardware that can be used to produce multimedia products i. Scanner  Used to convert conventional images, texts, drawings and photos into digital form that can be understood by the computer.  There are four types of scanners: flatbed scanner, hand held scanner, sheet-fed scanner and 3D scanner.M.D.A.S-SMK BELAGA ICT DEPARTMENT 6
  • 7. LEARNING AREA 4 - MULTIMEDIA FIGURE 6: Types of Scanner ii. Video camera  There are two types of video cameras: analog video camera and digital video camera (DV).  An analog video camera records video in analog signals on a magnetic video tape.  A digital video camera records video in digital signals, which can be stored in various forms of media, such as digital video tape or memory cards. FIGURE 7: Types of Video Camera iii. Digital camera  In a digital camera, images are captured and stored in a media card.  The advantages of having a digital camera is that the images captured can directly be used in the computer.  It saves cost as we do not have to buy films and can choose to keep or delete the pictures in the memory card.M.D.A.S-SMK BELAGA ICT DEPARTMENT 7
  • 8. LEARNING AREA 4 - MULTIMEDIA FIGURE 8: Types of Camera iv. Audio devices  Audio devices are needed to record analog sound.  The sounds are then changed into digital sound.  Examples of devices used for recording sounds or audio are microphone, sound card and voice synthesizer. FIGURE 9: Types of Audio Devices v. Video capture devices  Video capture devices help to convert analog video to digital video. The firewire helps to transfer the video from video camera to the computer.  They also transfer digital video to the computer so that the data can be edited or stored. FIGURE 10: How Video Capture Device WorksM.D.A.S-SMK BELAGA ICT DEPARTMENT 8
  • 9. LEARNING AREA 4 - MULTIMEDIA 4.2.2 Identify editing software that can be used to produce multimedia elements FIGURE 6: Editing Software Used in Multimedia Production i. Text editor  Used to edit plain text ii. Graphics and image editor  Used to edit images, draw or illustrate pictures or objects iii. Audio editor  Used for voice recording or producing music and special sound effects iv. Video editor  Used to edit video v. Animation editor  Used for producing 2D, 3D, special effects and animation for the web ELEMENTS EDITING SOFTWARE Text • Notepad • Microsoft Word • Open Office Writer Graphics • Microsoft Paint • Adobe Photoshop • Corel Draw Audio • Sound Recorder • Sony Sound Forge • Adobe Audition Video • Adobe Premiere • Pinnacle Studio • Ulead MediaStudio Pro Animation • Macromedia Flash (2D) • Asymmetrix 3DFX (3D) • Magic Morph (special effect) • Ulead Gif Animator (Web animation) TABLE 2: Examples of Editing SoftwareM.D.A.S-SMK BELAGA ICT DEPARTMENT 9
  • 10. LEARNING AREA 4 - MULTIMEDIA 4.2.3 Authoring tools  Authoring tool is a program that helps you write multimedia applications.  Authoring tools usually enable you to create a final application by linking together objects such as a paragraph of text, graphic or a video.  By sequencing them in an appropriate order, authoring tools can produce attractive and useful multimedia applications. 4.2.3.2 Define the concepts in authoring tools i. Time frame concept  the multimedia elements or events are presented and organised along a time line  This type of tool helps users coordinate when each multimedia element (text, graphics, audio, video or animation) plays.  Examples of authoring tools using the time frame concept are Flash and Director. FIGURE 7: Time Frame Concept ii. Icon concept  The icon concept provides the multimedia developer with a visual programming approach to sequencing events in the multimedia application.  In this concept, elements and events are organised in a structural framework.  Users can present visually a logical flow of events by dragging icons from an icon menu.  The icon can represent graphics, audio files, animation, text, movies, and other elements  These icons represent: o events such as mouse clicks, key press o actions to be performed after an event e.g. a transition, a sound o routines to perform loops, conditional branches  Several multimedia authoring tools which use this icon concept are Authorware and IconAuthor.M.D.A.S-SMK BELAGA ICT DEPARTMENT 10
  • 11. LEARNING AREA 4 - MULTIMEDIA FIGURE 8: Icon Concept iii. Card concept  The card concept is based on the idea of card stacks containing graphics, audio, video, text and animation.  Elements and events in card concept authoring tools are organised as pages in a book or a stack of cards.  When card concept authoring tools starts, a blank page is displayed. Certain objects can be inserted e.g. text, pictures and buttons.  By inserting objects into several pages, a multimedia "book is eventually created.  Examples of the card concept in authoring tools are ToolBook, HyperCard and SuperCard. FIGURE 9: Card ConceptM.D.A.S-SMK BELAGA ICT DEPARTMENT 11
  • 12. LEARNING AREA 4 - MULTIMEDIA 4.2.4 Web editor  Web editor is a program that you use to create Web page.  It can be something as simple as the text editor that came with your operating system.  It can be something as simple as the text editor.  It can also be something that creates the Websites as you point and click away. 4.2.4.1 Describe and give examples of: iii. Text-based  A text-based Web editor is a basic editor where you work with Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) tags to create a Web page.  It can be used to change HTML source codes.  Using a text-based Web editor requires you to have HTML knowledge to get started.  Notepad and PSPad are examples of text-based editors. FIGURE 10: Examples of Text-based Editors iv. WYSIWYG  WYSIWYG stands for What You See Is What You Get.  WYSIWYG web editors provide an editing interface that shows how the pages will be displayed in a web browser.  Using a WYSIWYG editor does not require any HTML knowledge. It is easier for an average computer user.  Examples of WYSIWYG web editor are Microsoft FrontPage and Macromedia Dreamweaver.M.D.A.S-SMK BELAGA ICT DEPARTMENT 12
  • 13. LEARNING AREA 4 - MULTIMEDIA FIGURE 11: How WYSIWYG Editor Works FIGURE 12: Examples of WYSIWYG Editors 4.3 Multimedia Development 4.3.1 User interface principles  User interface refers to how human can interact with a computer  In multimedia, the most common type of user interface used is Graphical User Interface (GUI)  To create a good user interface, there are several principles that we must consider 4.3.1.3 State user interface principles ix. Consistency  Consistency means the interface design is in harmony and applies to all screen in a software program.  The same words or commands perform the same functions throughout the user interface.M.D.A.S-SMK BELAGA ICT DEPARTMENT 13
  • 14. LEARNING AREA 4 - MULTIMEDIA FIGURE 13: Example of Consistency x. Clarity  Clarity means that the icons, words or commands are clearly labeled and easy to understand.  Users should be able to use relevant icons or graphics to guide them through the multimedia application. FIGURE 14: Example of Clarity xi. Context  Context means that the content of the multimedia application should be relevant to its title.  Ideas must be presented in relation to the title. xii. Navigation  Navigation means users can move around or navigate through the multimedia application easily using the menus, buttons, links help files or other screens in a system.M.D.A.S-SMK BELAGA ICT DEPARTMENT 14
  • 15. LEARNING AREA 4 - MULTIMEDIA FIGURE 15: Example of Navigation xiii. Search  Search means the system enables users to search keywords or glossary.  The user interface should have a search function. FIGURE 16: Example of Search Function xiv. Personalisation  Personalisation means the users can make their own personal or individual learning.  Users can choose their display options. FIGURE 17: Example of Personalisation xv. Learnability  Learnability means the system provides support information and help files to make the system easy to understand.  Support information is important, especially in helping the user to use the system.M.D.A.S-SMK BELAGA ICT DEPARTMENT 15
  • 16. LEARNING AREA 4 - MULTIMEDIA  The help function should be available to speed up the interaction for both experienced and inexperienced users. FIGURE 18: Example of Help Tool xvi. Flexibility  Flexibility means a user has the authority to navigate through all the sections without any limitations.  For example, the user is allowed to access any of the lessons, sections and pages of the program. FIGURE 19: Example of Flexibility 4.3.1.4 Apply suitable user interface principles in a project 4.3.2 Development Team  A multimedia production team consists of a Project Manager, Subject Matter Expert (SME), Graphic Artist, Audio-Video Technician, Instructional Designer and Programmer. FIGURE 20: Hierarchy of a Multimedia Development TeamM.D.A.S-SMK BELAGA ICT DEPARTMENT 16
  • 17. LEARNING AREA 4 - MULTIMEDIA 4.3.2.2 State the role of each member in development team i. Project manager  Define the scope of the project  Meet and discuss with clients  Search for financial resources  Search for equipment and facilities  Coordinate the production team ii. Subject matter expert  Do research on the content of a multimedia program  Provide content for the multimedia content iii. Instructional designer  Decide the best educational strategies and practices to present the information iv. Graphics artist  Develop the graphic elements of the multimedia program such as backgrounds, buttons, photo collages, animations, 3D objects and logos. v. Audio-video technician  Responsible for recording the voice or audio for the program  Edits audio files such as sound effects, music and narrations  Capturing, editing and digitizing videos vi. Programmer  Writes the program code or scripts using the authoring tool  Combines all the multimedia elements into a multimedia program. 4.3.3 Multimedia production 4.3.3.2 Describe the phases in multimedia production PHASE 1 PHASE 2 PHASE 3 ANALYSIS DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION PHASES OF MULTIMEDIA PRODUCTION PHASE 6 PHASE 5 PHASE 4 PUBLISHING EVALUATION TESTING FIGURE 21: Phases of Multimedia Production i. Phase 1 - Analysis The Analysis Phase is the main phase of a multimedia production. Enables multimedia developers to set the focus of the project. The multimedia developers will identify the project title, problem, objectives, possible solution and target users.M.D.A.S-SMK BELAGA ICT DEPARTMENT 17
  • 18. LEARNING AREA 4 - MULTIMEDIA ii. Phase 2 - Design  The Design Phase refers to the planning of the design of the multimedia program to be developed.  There are two popular tools used in the Design Phase, namely the Flow Chart and Storyboard. FIGURE 22: Example of Storyboard iii. Phase 3 - Implementation  The multimedia developers will convert a design plan such as a Storyboard into a multimedia program.  This is the phase where the multimedia program is produced using an authoring tool such as Toolbook Assistant 2004. iv. Phase 4 - Testing  The Testing Phase begins after the Implementation Phase.  The Testing Phase involves multimedia developers and does not involve the users yet.  The purpose of testing is to ensure that the program runs correctly without errors. v. Phase 5 - Evaluation  Selected users are involved in the evaluation of multimedia programs.  Focuses on overall presentation and effectiveness of the multimedia. vi. Phase 6 - Publishing  In the publishing phase, the multimedia contents will be published so that it can be delivered to the client.  We have two options of mediums used in delivering multimedia contents: o CD-based o Web-basedM.D.A.S-SMK BELAGA ICT DEPARTMENT 18
  • 19. LEARNING AREA 4 - MULTIMEDIATOPICS FOR PROGRAMMING 5.1 Basic Programming Concepts 5.1.1 Define Program and Programming Language. 5.1.2 Levels and Generations of Programming Languages 5.1.3 Programming Language Approaches 5.1.3.1 Structured approach 5.1.3.2 Object-oriented approach 5.1.3.3 Differentiate between structured and object-oriented 5.1.4 Translator 5.1.4.1 Describe translation methods using: 5.1.4.1.1 Assembler 5.1.4.1.2 Interpreter 5.1.4.1.3 Compiler 5.1.5 Basic Elements in Programming 5.1.5.1 Differentiate between constants and variables 5.1.5.2 Differentiate between the data types: Boolean, integer, double, string and date 5.1.5.3 Differentiate between mathematical and logical operators 5.1.5.4 Differentiate between sequence control structure and selection control structure (flow chart) 5.2 Program Development 5.2.1 Program Development Phases 5.2.2 Describe the five main phases in program development i. PHASE 1 - Problem analysis ii. PHASE 2 - Program design iii. PHASE 3 - Coding iv. PHASE 4 - Testing and debugging v. PHASE 5 - DocumentationM.D.A.S-SMK BELAGA ICT DEPARTMENT 19
  • 20. LEARNING AREA 4 - MULTIMEDIA5.0 PROGRAMMING 5.1 Basic Programming Concepts 5.1.1 Define Program and Programming Language.  Program is a series of organized instructions that directs a computer to perform tasks. It contains a list of variables and a list of statements that tell the computer what to do with the variables.  A programming language is a set of words, symbols and codes that enables humans to communicate with computers. 5.1.2 Levels and Generations of Programming Languages PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES Low-level High-level Languages Languages First Generation Second Generation Third Generation Fourth Generation Fifth Generation (1GL) (2GL) (3GL) (4GL) (5GL) EXAMPLE(S) EXAMPLE(S) EXAMPLE(S) EXAMPLE(S) EXAMPLE(S) COBOL FORTRAN SQL BASIC PROLOG Machine Language Assembly Language NOMAD COBOL MERCURY FOCUS C C++ FIGURE 1: Levels of Programming Languages 5.1.3 Programming Language Approaches 5.1.3.1 Structured approach  Uses a top-down design model  Programs are drawn as rectangles  The whole program is broken down into modules 5.1.3.2 Object-oriented approach  A special type of programming approach that combines data with functions to create objects  The objects have relationships with one another 5.1.3.3 Differentiate between structured and object-oriented Structured Object-oriented Uses top-down design model Uses objects TABLE 1: Difference between structured and object-oriented 5.1.4 Translator 5.1.4.1 Describe translation methods using: 5.1.4.1.1 Assembler  A computer program for translating assembly language into machine language  Examples of assemblers are MACRO-80 Assembler and Microsoft MASM.M.D.A.S-SMK BELAGA ICT DEPARTMENT 20
  • 21. LEARNING AREA 4 - MULTIMEDIA 5.1.4.1.2 Interpreter  Used to interpret and execute program directly from its source without compiling it first  The source code is interpreted and executed in real time when the user executes it  The interpreter will read each code, converts it to machine code and executes it line by line until the end of the program 5.1.4.1.3 Compiler  The source code will be converted into machine code  If the compiler encounters any errors, it records them in the program-listing file  A compiled code runs faster than programs based on interpreted language. 5.1.5 Basic Elements in Programming Basic elements Control Constant Variables Data types Operators structures FIGURE 2: 5 Basic Elements in Programming 5.1.5.1 Differentiate between constants and variables Constants Variables Characteristics The value will never The value can change anytime during change during the course the course of the program of the program Usage Used when we want to Used to store data that may or will declare something that change during the running of the won’t be changed during program the program execution TABLE 2: Differences between constants and variablesM.D.A.S-SMK BELAGA ICT DEPARTMENT 21
  • 22. LEARNING AREA 4 - MULTIMEDIA 5.1.5.2 Differentiate between the data types: Boolean, integer, double, string and date Data types Boolean Integer Double String Date Contains any type of whole Any number Any value that Consists either a Any value that number value value that may contains a TRUE or FALSE contains date that does not contain decimal sequence of value format have any points characters decimals Example: Example: Example: Example: Example: TRUE 1990 3.142 Kuala Lumpur 30 October 2007 FIGURE 3: Difference between data types 5.1.5.3 Differentiate between mathematical and logical operators Operators Mathematical Logical Performs mathematical Performs logical operation operations such as addition, such as checking the subtraction, multiplication and condition of two Boolean division values Example: Example: 20 + 25 = 45 A AND B 20 – 15 = 5 C OR D 20 x 15 = 300 NOT E FIGURE 4: Difference between mathematical and logical operatorsM.D.A.S-SMK BELAGA ICT DEPARTMENT 22
  • 23. LEARNING AREA 4 - MULTIMEDIA 5.1.5.4 Differentiate between sequence control structure and selection control structure (flow chart) Sequence Control Selection Control Structure Structure Usage Used when we want Used when we want to implement decision making process to execute the codes in the program line by line Execution Executes statements Executes different statements for different conditions flow one by one in linear or consecutive order Flow chart Does not use the Uses the decision symbol decision symbol BEGIN BEGIN STATEMENT 1 Request mark STATEMENT 2 PROCESS STATEMENT 3 TRUE Mark >= 50? FALSE END Print Print “Congratulations” “Work harder!” END TABLE 3: Difference between Sequence and Selection ControlM.D.A.S-SMK BELAGA ICT DEPARTMENT 23
  • 24. LEARNING AREA 4 - MULTIMEDIA 5.2 Program Development 5.2.1 Program Development Phases Problem Analysis Find out the user’s needs or requirement Program Design The programmer designs the program using a flow chart Coding The programmer starts doing the coding for the program Testing and Debugging The programmer tests the program at the user’s site and performs the debugging for any errors found Documentation The programmer completes the documentation for the program which includes a user manual FIGURE 5: Program Development Phases 5.2.2 Describe the five main phases in program development vi. PHASE 1 - Problem analysis  In this phase, a programmer will: a. Review and define the problem b. Identify the input c. Identify process d. Identify the output  Usually the programmer will interview the client to know their needs and requirements vii. PHASE 2 - Program design  There are 3 types of designs used. These designs must be done accordingly. They are: a. top-down design (to know what are the input, process and output)M.D.A.S-SMK BELAGA ICT DEPARTMENT 24
  • 25. LEARNING AREA 4 - MULTIMEDIA MAIN PROGRAM Student Registration Input Process Output Request Verify Students’ Print Students’ Print Error Students’ Data Data Class Message FIGURE 6: Example of Top-Down Design b. pseudo code BEGIN Key in students’ data If all fields are filled Then Print Class Else Print Error Message End If END FIGURE 7: Example of Pseudo Code c. flow chart (to show the data flow of the program) BEGIN Request mark PROCESS TRUE Mark >= 50? FALSE Print Print “Congratulations” “Work harder!” END FIGURE 8: Example of Flow Chart viii.PHASE 3 - Coding  This is the phase where the program is written using a computer programming language  A programmer will use a program development tool (such as Visual Basic 6.0) which generates the codesM.D.A.S-SMK BELAGA ICT DEPARTMENT 25
  • 26. LEARNING AREA 4 - MULTIMEDIA FIGURE 9: Example of Program Development Tool ix. PHASE 4 - Testing and debugging  Before a program or software is released to the client, it must go through the testing and debugging phase  This phase is to ensure that the program has no errors  Testing means to run the program and try all the functions in the program to make sure that they work accordingly  Debugging means to correct or repair any errors found  Usually testing and debugging is done at the client’s site and the tester will be the client  There are 3 types of errors: a. Syntax error b. Logic error c. Run-time error TYPES OF ERROR SYNTAX ERROR LOGIC ERROR RUN-TIME ERROR DESCRIPTION DESCRIPTION DESCRIPTION A syntax error is caused by A logic error occurs when A run-time error is an error a wrong spelling in the actual output does not that occurs while the command and declaration, match the expected output. program is running or case sensitive , punctuation For example 2+1=3 but the executing. It may cause the marks and wrong word program shows 2+1=4. program to stop running. command. FIGURE 10: Types of Error and Description x. PHASE 5 - Documentation  Documentation refers to any written materials produced during the program development  It includes: a. detailed problem definition b. program plan (flow chart or pseudo code) c. comments within the source codeM.D.A.S-SMK BELAGA ICT DEPARTMENT 26
  • 27. LEARNING AREA 4 - MULTIMEDIA d. testing procedures e. user manual  Proper documentation is important because it will help new programmers to learn the existing program if the program requires changes in the futureM.D.A.S-SMK BELAGA ICT DEPARTMENT 27
  • 28. LEARNING AREA 4 - MULTIMEDIATOPICS FOR INFORMATION SYSTEMS 6.1 Concepts of Information Systems 6.1.1 Definition 6.1.1.1 Give the meaning of: i. Data ii. Information iii. Information Systems 6.1.2 Usage of Information Systems in various fields. 6.1.2.1 State the usage of Information Systems in: i. Education ii. Business iii. Management. 6.1.3 Information Systems components 6.1.3.1 List the Information Systems components: 6.1.3.2 Define each of the Information Systems components i. Data ii. Hardware iii. Software iv. People v. Procedure 6.1.3.3 Describe the interrelation between Information Systems components using a diagram. 6.1.4 Types of Information Systems 6.1.4.1 List FIVE types of Information Systems 6.1.4.2 State the usage of each type of Information Systems i. Management Information System (MIS) ii. Transaction Processing System (TPS) iii. Decision Support System (DSS) iv. Executive Information System (EIS) v. Expert System (ES) vi. Artificial Intelligence (AI) 6.1.5 Hierarchy of data 6.1.5.1 Define: i. Bit ii. Byte iii. Field iv. Record v. File 6.1.5.2 State the hierarchy of data 6.2 Software 6.2.1 Definition 6.2.1.1 Define: i. Database ii. Database Management Systems (DBMS) 6.2.1.2 List the benefits of using database 6.2.2 Features 6.2.2.1 State the relationship between attribute (field), row (record) and relation (file) 6.2.2.2 Define: i. Primary keyM.D.A.S-SMK BELAGA ICT DEPARTMENT 28
  • 29. LEARNING AREA 4 - MULTIMEDIA ii. Foreign key 6.2.2.3 State the importance of primary key 6.2.2.4 Differentiate between the primary key and foreign key 6.2.2.5 State the importance of relationship between the primary key and foreign key 6.2.3 Database objects 6.2.3.1 Define the following database objects/tools: i. Table ii. Form iii. Query iv. Report 6.2.3.2 Identify table, query, form and report as database objects/tools 6.2.4 Data manipulation 6.2.4.1 List the basic operations of data manipulation: 6.2.4.2 State the usage of basic operations in data manipulation i. Update ii. Insert iii. Delete iv. Retrieve v. Sort vi. Filter vii. Search 6.3 Database development 6.3.1 Phases of Systems Development 6.3.1.1 Describe the phases of systems development i. Analysis ii. Design iii. Implementation iv. Testing v. Documentation vi. MaintenanceM.D.A.S-SMK BELAGA ICT DEPARTMENT 29
  • 30. LEARNING AREA 4 - MULTIMEDIA6.0 INFORMATION SYSTEMS 6.1 Concepts of Information Systems 6.1.1 Definition 6.1.1.1 Give the meaning of: iv. Data  Data includes any text, numbers, images, audio and video that will provide information on specific things v. Information  Information is processed data that are organized, meaningful and useful. vi. Information Systems  A collection of hardware, software, data, people and procedures that work together to produce quality information. 6.1.2 Usage of Information Systems in various fields. 6.1.2.1 State the usage of Information Systems in: iv. Education  Keep track of students’ statistics and grades  Help students and teachers in online learning and discussion  Store subject content v. Business  Carry out online buying and selling  Help plan the delivery of goods and services  Make room bookings and check for the best rates vi. Management.  See employee records  Analyse products, services and product prices  Process customer orders, organize production times and keep track of product inventory 6.1.3 Information Systems components 6.1.3.1 List the Information Systems components: i. Data ii. Hardware iii. Software iv. People v. Procedure 6.1.3.2 Define each of the Information Systems components vi. Data  The raw, unorganised, discrete and potentially-useful facts and figures that are later processed (manipulated) to produce information. vii. Hardware  The set of hardware used to enter, retrieve and manipulate the data in the information system.M.D.A.S-SMK BELAGA ICT DEPARTMENT 30
  • 31. LEARNING AREA 4 - MULTIMEDIA viii.Software  A program that consists of series of instructions that tells the computers what to do and how to do it. In Information Systems, software is used to convert data into useful information. ix. People  People involved in the process of developing, maintaining and using the database. These people include systems analyst, programmer, Manager of Information Systems (MIS) and data entry operator. x. Procedure  A procedure is a series of documented actions taken to achieve something and it is usually more than a single simple task. A procedure can be quite complex and involved, such as performing a backup, shutting down a system, patching software. 6.1.3.3 Describe the interrelation between Information Systems components using a diagram. Data Hardware People Software Procedure FIGURE 1: Interrelation between Information Systems components 6.1.4 Types of Information Systems 6.1.4.1 List FIVE types of Information Systems: i. Management Information System (MIS) ii. Transaction Processing System (TPS) iii. Decision Support System (DSS) iv. Executive Information System (EIS) v. Expert System (ES) / Artificial Intelligence (AI) 6.1.4.2 State the usage of each type of Information Systems vii. Management Information System (MIS)  An information system that generates accurate, timely and organized information so managers and other users can make decision, solve problems, supervise activities and track progress. viii.Transaction Processing System (TPS)  An information system that processes data generated from business transactions; usually used for daily routineM.D.A.S-SMK BELAGA ICT DEPARTMENT 31
  • 32. LEARNING AREA 4 - MULTIMEDIA transactions and record-keeping, especially sales, payroll, reservations, shipping, and worker tracking ix. Decision Support System (DSS)  A system that provides data, structured models and ad-hoc query tools to enable business decision development and analysis. x. Executive Information System (EIS)  An Executive Information System (EIS) is a computer-based system that facilitates and supports the information and decision making needs of senior executives by providing easy access to information relevant to organization’s objectives. It is commonly considered as a specialized form of Decision Support System (DSS). xi. Expert System (ES)  A type of system that makes decisions or solves problems in a particular field by using knowledge and analytical rules defined by experts in the field. xii. Artificial Intelligence (AI)  The ability of a computer to perform tasks, such as reasoning and learning, that human intelligence is capable of doing. 6.1.5 Hierarchy of data 6.1.5.1 Define: vi. Bit A binary digit, taking a value of either 0 or 1. vii. Byte A unit of measurement of information storage consisting of 8 bits that represents a single character. viii.Field A field holds a single data. For example, a birthdate field that shows the date of birth of a person in the database. ix. Record A group of related fields that provides information about someone or something in a database. For example, an Employee record may contain a name field, address field or birthdate field. x. File A collection of related records stored on a storage medium.M.D.A.S-SMK BELAGA ICT DEPARTMENT 32
  • 33. LEARNING AREA 4 - MULTIMEDIA 6.1.5.2 State the hierarchy of data:  Bit  byte (character)  field  record  file  database Database File File Record Record Record Record Field Field Field Field Field Field Field Field Bytes Bytes Bytes Bytes Bytes Bytes Bytes Bytes Bits Bits Bits Bits Bits Bits Bits Bits FIGURE 2: Hierarchy of Data 6.2 Software 6.2.1 Definition 6.2.1.1 Define: iii. Database A database is a collection of data organized in a manner that allow access, retrieval and use of that data. iv. Database Management Systems (DBMS) A collection of programs that enables us to store, modify, extract and manage information from a database. 6.2.1.2 List the benefits of using database i. Data redundancies and inconsistencies are reduced. ii. Access is restricted to authorized people. iii. Information can be presented in a variety of formats. iv. Data filtering is much easier. v. Data manipulation can be done easily. vi. Users may share data with one another vii. Data integrity is preserved because changes in one file are made in other files as well. 6.2.2 Features 6.2.2.1 State the relationship between attribute (field), row (record) and relation (file) i. Data is organized into related tables. ii. Each table is made up of rows which are called records and columns which are called fields. iii. Each record contains fields of information about some specific item.M.D.A.S-SMK BELAGA ICT DEPARTMENT 33
  • 34. LEARNING AREA 4 - MULTIMEDIA Field Record FIGURE 3: Fields and Records 6.2.2.2 Define: iii. Primary key  A field that uniquely identifies each record in a file. iv. Foreign key  A primary key that exist in other tables in order to link the related tables together. 6.2.2.3 State the importance of primary key i. Used for the purpose of indexing the tables in a database which makes it more efficient to:  search for specific record  sort the data or  link tables. ii. Helps to avoid duplicating records. iii. Prevents null values from being entered in the unique field. 6.2.2.4 Differentiate between the primary key and foreign key Primary key Foreign key Must contain unique values May have duplicate values Used to uniquely identity each Used to link to a primary key in record in a table another table TABLE 1: Differences between primary key and foreign key 6.2.2.5 State the importance of relationship between the primary key and foreign key  To enable users to retrieve all the related information from different tables.  The primary key of one table becomes a foreign key in other table.  A primary key makes creating Queries, Forms and Reports easier.  A primary key improves data performance by relating a smaller table into meaningful database.  By matching a foreign key with primary key, the data does not need to be entered repeatedly. 6.2.3 Database objects 6.2.3.1 Define the following database objects/tools:M.D.A.S-SMK BELAGA ICT DEPARTMENT 34
  • 35. LEARNING AREA 4 - MULTIMEDIA v. Table  A set of data arranged in rows and columns. vi. Form  A form is a type of a database object that is primarily used to enter or display data in a database. vii. Query  An object that requests information from a database and creates a dataset of the requested information. viii.Report  A report is an effective way to present data in a printed format. Since we have control over the size and appearance of everything on a report, we can display the information the way we want to see it. 6.2.3.2 Identify table, query, form and report as database objects/tools FIGURE 4: Table FIGURE 5: Query FIGURE 6: FormM.D.A.S-SMK BELAGA ICT DEPARTMENT 35
  • 36. LEARNING AREA 4 - MULTIMEDIA FIGURE 7: Report 6.2.4 Data manipulation 6.2.4.1 List the basic operations of data manipulation: i. Update ii. Insert iii. Delete iv. Retrieve v. Sort vi. Filter vii. Search 6.2.4.2 State the usage of basic operations in data manipulation viii.Update  To correct inaccurate data and to change old data with new data. ix. Insert  To add new records in the file when new data are obtained. x. Delete  To remove a record from a file when it is no longer needed. xi. Retrieve  To obtain specific information from the tables in order to refer or make changes to the information. xii. Sort  To arrange the records according to ascending or descending order based on a specified field. xiii.Filter  To exclude unwanted records from being retrieved by using certain condition or criteria in a query. . xiv.Search  To find specific records that fulfills the users’ requirements. 6.3 Database development 6.3.1 Phases of Systems DevelopmentM.D.A.S-SMK BELAGA ICT DEPARTMENT 36
  • 37. LEARNING AREA 4 - MULTIMEDIA Analysis Design Implementation Testing Documentation Maintenance FIGURE 8: Phases of Systems Development 6.3.1.1 Describe the phases of systems development vii. Analysis  In analysis phase, the developer will determine the problem or understanding the existing system. Several things will be considered such as users’ wants, needs and requirements in order to come up with a solution. viii.Design  In this phase, the developer will begin to plan the system. Several things will be considered in this phase such as the hardware and software requirement, technical specifications and input and output design. ix. Implementation  The purpose of the implementation phase is to construct or build the new or modified system and then deliver it to the users. Everything which has been considered and decided in design phase will be implemented in this phase. x. Testing  When the system has been developed, the programmers or system analysts will perform a program testing. The purpose of doing the testing is to find any possible errors in the system and correct them. The errors are usually one of the two types; syntax error and logic errors. Another type of error will be the run-time error. Run-time error causes the program to stop until the problem is resolved. xi. Documentation  In the documentation phase, the programmer will prepare all the documentation on the program. This documentation includes charts, solution algorithms, test data, program code listing and user guide. All documents should be made complete and accurate. xii. Maintenance  Keeping the system up to date with the changes in the organization and ensuring it meets the goals of theM.D.A.S-SMK BELAGA ICT DEPARTMENT 37
  • 38. LEARNING AREA 4 - MULTIMEDIA organization by having a help desk to support the system users, having a team available to aid technical difficulties, answer questions and implementing changes to the system when necessary.M.D.A.S-SMK BELAGA ICT DEPARTMENT 38
  • 39. LEARNING AREA 4 - MULTIMEDIAReferences:1. ICT CD Courseware Notes2. Shelly Cashman Series – Discovering Computers 20073. Various sources from the InternetM.D.A.S-SMK BELAGA ICT DEPARTMENT 39

×