Designing programmes for girls

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We've put together a guide to getting started with girl-centred design. Discover essential toolkits that will not only help you plan, start and evaluate your programming, but also show how you can - and should - involve girls from the very start. You'll also find real-life case studies of programmes that have seen positive results after incorporating girl-centred design principles.

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Designing programmes for girls

  1. 1. Designingprogrammesfor girls
  2. 2. 3. INTRODUCTION4. WHICH GIRLS TO TARGET AND WHY9. VENUE AND DELIVERY15. CONTENT21. RECRUITING GIRLS28. Leadership and Mentoring34. MONITORING AND EVALUATIONcontents2 | girleffect.org
  3. 3. introduction33 | girleffect.orgTo unlock their potential and unleash the girl effect, programmes targeting adolescent girls need to placethem at the centre of each and every programme decision.This guide will help you to find the right content and tools to enhance your programme and deliver morefor girls.The Population Council has published a range of toolkits with guidance on how to kick-start programmesand use data to keep girls at the centre of decisions about programme recruitment strategies, venuesand delivery. This guide helps you identify the right toolkits for your work and gives you case studies ofreal-life examples that have put girl-centred programming into practice.Today there are 250 million adolescent girls living in poverty in the developing world. They are the mostpowerful force for positive change in their own lives, as well as in their families, communities and the worldat large.3 | girleffect.org
  4. 4. 44 | girleffect.orgAll girls are not the same. Understanding the differences between girls and their situations will change the way youdesign your programme and deliver content. When you start with data, the picture emerges of how different girlsare from one another. Understanding what data tells you about them will inform what they need and the appropriatestrategies you can implement to meet those needs.Some key indicators or information about girls – such as school, marital status, employment and parentalstatus, who they live with and their social support – are foundational pieces of information. When put together,they will inform the choices you make about your programme design and delivery.Here are some specific indicators to consider. Cross-referencing the information from the table below canhighlight groups of girls or their situations that deserve programme attention. For example, a population inwhich a significant percentage of girls have never been to school, or one in which only low levels of schoolattainment are reached, gives you clues about what girls might need, and what strategies you need toeffectively engage with them.When designing an evidence-based programme, start by gathering data, conducting analysis of different kindsof data to understand the situation, and then apply your findings to build an effective programme.1.Which girls totarget and why4 | girleffect.org
  5. 5. KEY ASPECTS KEY INDICATORSCitizenship andregistration⊲ Percentage with registered birth⊲ Percentage with an identity card(of any type)Families and livingarrangements⊲ Percentage living with both parents, one parent or no parents⊲ Percentage who are orphaned⊲ Percentage living in other arrangements (eg with husbands, in-laws,employers etc)Schooling ⊲ Percentage who are in school⊲ Percentage who started school on time (age 7)⊲ Mean years of educational attainment⊲ Percentage who completed a schooling cycle (primary or secondary)Social networks,participation andtime use⊲ Percentage with friends/no friends⊲ Percentage who socialised in the past week/month⊲ Percentage who belong to a club or group⊲ Percentage who visited a peer educator, youth centre, health facility orreligious
institution in the past month⊲ Mean hours spent in school, paid work, unpaid work, socialising/recreation, restTable:Key aspectsof girls’ livesand relatedindicators usedin programmedevelopmentTABLE sourced from:“From Research, To Programme Design, ToImplementation: Programming For Rural Girls in Ethiopia,A Toolkit For Practitioners” popcouncil.org/pdfs/2011PGY_EthiopiaGirlsProgramToolkit.pdf5 | girleffect.org
  6. 6. 6 | girleffect.orgKEY ASPECTS KEY INDICATORSWork, paid and unpaid ⊲ Percentage who have ever worked for pay⊲ Type of paid work, hours and wages⊲ Mean hours spent in unpaid domestic or farm workSexual activity**Note: this can be a verysensitive topic area and expertsupport should be sought whenconsidering collecting newinformation on these indicators.⊲ Percentage who are sexually experienced⊲ Percentage who have had non-consensual sex⊲ Percentage who use condoms and/or other family planningPartnership, marriage ⊲ Percentage who have ever been married⊲ Mean age at marriage and percentage who married by age15 and 18⊲ Percentage who had arranged marriages⊲ Age difference with husbandTable:Key aspectsof girls’ livesand relatedindicators usedin programmedevelopment(continued)TABLE sourced from:“From Research, To Programme Design, ToImplementation: Programming For Rural Girls in Ethiopia,A Toolkit For Practitioners” popcouncil.org/pdfs/2011PGY_EthiopiaGirlsProgramToolkit.pdf6 | girleffect.org
  7. 7. Case study:Identifying married adolescent girls asa focus for programmesManagers from the Population Council and the Ministry of Youth andSports used these surveys to explore who may have been among themost vulnerable groups of youths in these areas. They surmised thatif a younger adolescent in the 10-14 age group was out of school, thiswould probably reflect a young person in a very vulnerable situation.In both rural and urban areas, girls were more likely to be out ofschool than boys (reference A in footnotes)When examining who was most likely to be out of school, theyidentified two groups. In rural areas, married adolescents were themost likely, while, in urban areas, it was rural-urban migrants, manyof whom were domestic workers. Further analysis revealed thatboth of these groups were extremely socially isolated, with a largeproportion reporting having no friends. As a result, the PopulationCouncil and the Ministry of Youth and Sports started to developprogrammes for married adolescent girls and rural-urban migrants/child domestic workers.In 2002, the Population Council started to develop programmes for adolescents in Ethiopia. Managers knew at the outset that theywere interested in developing programmes for the most disadvantaged young people. As a result, they selected disadvantagedcommunities in urban and rural areas to conduct formative research on adolescents. In 2003, surveys were undertaken amongadolescent girls and boys in the slum area of Merkato, in Addis Ababa, and poor rural areas of Amhara Region, the second-largestregion in Ethiopia.Case study sourced from:“From Research, To Programme Design, To Implementation: Programming For Rural Girls In Ethiopia, A Toolkit For Practitioners” popcouncil.org/pdfs/2011PGY_EthiopiaGirlsProgramToolkit.pdf7 | girleffect.org
  8. 8. ESSENTIAL TOOLKITSFor more tools and information to help you define ‘which girlsand why’ for your programme and use data to allocate fundseffectively, download the following Population Council toolkits: From Research, To Programme Design, To Implementation: ProgrammingFor Rural Girls In Ethiopia, A Toolkit For Practitionerspopcouncil.org/pdfs/2011PGY_EthiopiaGirlsProgramToolkit.pdf Using Data To See And Select The Most Vulnerable Girlspopcouncil.org/pdfs/2012PGY_GirlsFirst_Data.pdf Ethical Approaches To Gathering Information From Children AndAdolescents in International Settingspopcouncil.org/pdfs/horizons/childrenethics.pdf8 | girleffect.org
  9. 9. 9 | girleffect.orgGathering and using data and informationabout the girls you want to reach will aidyou in selecting a venue and designingdelivery strategies that have the bestchance of working for them.2. Venue anddelivery (and whydata matters)99 | girleffect.org
  10. 10. VENUEGirls need a place to meet. To help you select a place, gather existinginformation and data about where the girls whom you want to attend yourprogramme currently spend their time, and which routes they travel on.You can use existing data, or engage girls directly, to help you understandwhere they are and are not spending their time, as well as which placesand routes are safe and unsafe.Programmes often meet at places that girls already visit, such as school. But for girlswho are more isolated – eg girls who are not in school, are married or are domesticworkers – adapting a local venue for your programme is a more effective strategy.If your programme is a media programme, think about how and where girls might cometogether around that media (on their own or with your support) and what you can do tomake that experience positive, safe and productive for them.10 | girleffect.org
  11. 11. Has no friendsNever married Ever marriedBest friendis a relativeBest friendis a non-relativeLives with noparentsDELIVERYGiving girls what they need can be done throughdifferent modalities, such as media, institutionsor community structures, and then by differentindividuals, such as a peer, mentor, teacher oranother kind of service-delivery professional.01020304050607080Look at what data tells you about the girls – particularlytheir friendships, social-group membership and whothey live with – to inform how you might deliver activitiesand content.For example, social network data is available. The chart tothe right shows data from rural girls on friendship networksand co-residence with parents.Chart: Using social network data to suggest programmaticstrategies for rural Ethiopian girls, age 12-19758351017542929source:Ethiopia Young Adult Survey (2009); weighed data11 | girleffect.org
  12. 12. RESEARCH FINDINGCHARACTERISTIC REFLECTEDOR SUGGESTEDpROGAMMATIC IMPLiCATIONEXAMPLE OFPROGRAMme STRATEGYFriends1 About 1 in 10 rural girlshas no friends; 1 in 5 marriedgirlsSocial networks forrural girls are focused onfamily membersPeer education may beineffective among rural girlswho have few friends/peersoutside the homeBuild girls’ peer networksoutside the home: creategirls’ clubs where girls canmeet other girls outside oftheir family2 Among girls with friends,most are within the familyPARENTS3 Most married girls live awayfrom parentsMarried girls may lack acaring adult in their livesParent-child approaches willnot reach married girls and,regardless of marital status,girls need a caring adultBuild relationship witha caring adult who canadvocate on their behalf: usementors rather than peersBy applying this data to how you make decisions, you can follow a deductive process, like the one below,to select how you might deliver content in the programme.SOURCE: “From Research, To Programme Design, To Implementation: Programming For Rural Girls In Ethiopia, A Toolkit ForPractitioners” popcouncil.org/pdfs/2011PGY_EthiopiaGirlsProgramToolkit.pdfDELIVERY (continued)12 | girleffect.org
  13. 13. Case study:Using the stature of mentors to breakdown resistanceMeserete Hiwot (Amharic for ‘Basis for Life’) is a mentor-led programme for married ordivorced teen girls in the rural Amhara Region of Ethiopia, implemented by the AmharaRegional Bureau of Women, Children and Youth (formerly the Amhara Regional Bureauof Youth and Sports). The mentors are women recruited from the local community andare frequently local leaders, well known in the location. Married teen girls are oftenstrictly controlled by their husbands or in-laws, with some family members limiting herrelationships with friends or affiliations to other social groups. Meserete Hiwot managersanticipated that using high-status mentors, rather than peer educators, would be aneffective strategy in convincing resistant families to allow girls to attend meetings.Monitoring studies from Meserete Hiwot reflect the added value of mentors in breakingdown barriers to participation:“[At first] my husband didn’t allow me to attend the meeting. Our mentor dealt withmy husband and convinced him in private...” (Married girl, North Gondar zone, 21, noeducation, one child)Case study sourced from:“From Research, To Programme Design, To Implementation: Programming For Rural Girls in Ethiopia, A Toolkit For Practitioners” popcouncil.org/pdfs/2011PGY_EthiopiaGirlsProgramToolkit.pdfMy mother was not happy.She wanted me to sell liquorrather than attend themeetings. I brought the mentorto convince my mother andalso used to tell her aboutthe information we coveredduring the meetings.”(Divorced girl, West Gojjam zone, 18, three years’ education,no children)13 | girleffect.org
  14. 14. ESSENTIAL TOOLKITSFor more tools and information to help you to use data aboutadolescent girls to inform decisions about the programmestructure, download the following Population Council toolkits: Girl-centred Programme Design: A Toolkit To Develop, Strengthen Expand Adolescent Girls Programmespopcouncil.org/pdfs/2010PGY_AdolGirlToolkitComplete.pdf From Research, To Programme Design, To Implementation: ProgrammingFor Rural Girls In Ethiopia, A Toolkit For Practitionerspopcouncil.org/pdfs/2011PGY_EthiopiaGirlsProgramToolkit.pdf Priorities For Adolescent Girls’ Education – educational policies,approaches and programmes to support adolescent girls in schoolpopcouncil.org/pdfs/2012PGY_GirlsFirst_Education.pdf Ethical Approaches To Gathering Information From Children AndAdolescents In International Settingspopcouncil.org/pdfs/horizons/childrenethics.pdf14 | girleffect.org
  15. 15. 1515 | girleffect.orgThe content girls receive should respond to what theyneed, rather than the problems they face. Focusingon what girls need will lead you to thinking about atransformative programme design, rather than a reactive,problem-oriented programme. Girls are the experts ontheir own lives and situations, and listening to them canoffer you useful insights. That, combined with effectivepractices, will increase the chances of your programmedelivering impact.3. Content15 | girleffect.org
  16. 16. LISTEN TO WHAT GIRLSHAVE TO SAYAdolescent girls have unique insights into their own lives. They are bestpositioned to speak about their aspirations and the barriers they face,and can offer inspiring solutions.Girl-centred design includes listening to what girls ask for directly and gaininginsights from their stories to inform programme decisions. This requires giving girlsthe space to make direct requests and also to share stories so you can identifyareas of support that they may need, but won’t ask for directly. For example, a girlmay not ask directly for services to respond to violence in her life, but her storiesmay be filled with instances of violence that highlight a need. Using participatorymethods and building girls’ leadership skills through your learning process can be awin-win approach.16 | girleffect.org
  17. 17. Best and promisingpracticesProfessional opinion and specialist knowledge are critical in guidingprogramme content selection. Young people may not always knowwhat is best for them, emotionally or developmentally.For example, girls who have not been socialised to address adult men may notknow they require skills to do so; girls who lack birth certificates may not be awareof them in the first place.17 | girleffect.org
  18. 18. social assets human assets⊲ Social networks⊲ Group membership⊲ Relationship of trust⊲ Access to wider institutionsof society⊲ Skills and knowledge⊲ Good health⊲ Ability to work⊲ Financial education⊲ Self-esteem⊲ Bargaining power⊲ Autonomy⊲ Control over decisionsphysical assets financial assets⊲ Personal assets (clothing, jewellery,household items)⊲ Land⊲ Housing⊲ Transport⊲ Tools equipment and otherproductive assets⊲ Cash⊲ Savings⊲ EntitlementsDeliveringassetsAssets reduce vulnerability and expandopportunities. Research has shown that themore assets young people have, the morelikely they are to thrive. Assets can include:18 | girleffect.org
  19. 19. Programme activities thatbuild: social assetsProgramme activities thatbuild: human assets⊲ Group formation⊲ Social support⊲ Development of social networks⊲ Mentoring⊲ Life-skills training⊲ Health education⊲ Literacy programmes⊲ Financial education⊲ Rights education⊲ Employability training⊲ Vocational/skills training⊲ Business development training⊲ Business internships/attachmentsProgramme activities thatbuild: physical assetsProgramme activities thatbuild: financial assets⊲ Access to tools or equipment forbusinesses⊲ Safe physical space to meet⊲ Safe place to work⊲ Savings⊲ Credit⊲ Remittance services⊲ Other financial servicesHere is an example of programme activitiesthat can be used to build girls’ assets:Deliveringassets19 | girleffect.org
  20. 20. ESSENTIAL TOOLKITSFor more tools and information to help spread the word aboutyour programme and get girls on board, download the followingPopulation Council toolkits: Girl-centred Programme Design: A Toolkit To Develop, Strengthen Expand Adolescent Girls Programmespopcouncil.org/pdfs/2010PGY_AdolGirlToolkitComplete.pdf Priorities For Adolescent Girls’ Education – educational policies,approaches and programmes to support adolescent girls in schoolpopcouncil.org/pdfs/2012PGY_GirlsFirst_Education.pdf The Health Of Vulnerable Adolescent Girls: A Strategic InvestmentFor Double Return – ideas and innovations to help guide the field tobetter respond to, and maximise, the potential of the poorest girls inthe poorest communitiespopcouncil.org/pdfs/2012PGY_GirlsFirst_Health.pdf20 | girleffect.org
  21. 21. 2121 | girleffect.orgWhen girls begin puberty, their world starts to shrinkand they are increasingly isolated. Many don’t haveaccess to school, media or social networks thatallow them to connect with others and learn aboutthemselves and the world. Recruitment strategiesneed to be tailored to the girls you want to reach,because different strategies will attract different girls.No single method will attract all girls.4. Recruiting girls21 | girleffect.org
  22. 22. Recruitment methods1. THROUGH THE COMMUNITYHOWMobilise community leaders – such as chiefs or elders,local government leaders, staff from communityorganisations, religious leaders and teachers –to recruit girls to participate in the programme.For example, you can work with community leadersto organise a meeting at which you can explain theprogramme, ask them to identify appropriate girls inthe community to participate and encourage parentsto enrol their daughters.PROS Gains buy-in and support from community leaders at the start of theprogramme Can be cost-effectiveCONS Community leaders may not agree with you about who is the ‘right girl’for the programme May fail to reach marginalised girls who are not already connected toexisting infrastructure in their communities – eg out-of-school girls orgirls who are not known by community leaders22 | girleffect.org
  23. 23. Recruitment methods2. MEDIAHOWAdvertise and introduce key information aboutthe programme through effective media in thecommunity, such as flyers or radio. Flyers can beposted in strategic places such as schools, markets,churches/mosques etc. Radio stations can featureadvertisements about the programme or interviewstaff and participants from your programme.PROS Can reach vulnerable and isolated girls who may not be reached byother recruitment strategies Radio can reach a large number of peopleCONS Flyers and radio don’t target specific profiles of girls Flyers don’t reach girls who can’t read Radio can be costly23 | girleffect.org
  24. 24. Recruitment methods3. DOOR TO DOORHOWHave programme staff and/or volunteers go to everyhousehold in the target area of the programme toidentify adolescent girls who fit the profile of yourtarget beneficiaries. If there are adolescent girls in thehousehold, staff and volunteers should talk to parentsand girls to explain the programme, its benefits andwhy the girl should attend.PROS Reaches vulnerable, isolated girls who are not likely to be reached byother recruitment strategies Directly engages girls – and their parents – who may not automaticallythink a programme is for themCONS Time consuming24 | girleffect.org
  25. 25. Recruitment methods4. WORD OF MOUTHHOWThis strategy relies on girls who already participatein your programme and staff members spreading theword within their communities.The girls are encouraged to bring other girls with themto participate.PROS Achieves a linked group of girls Is low- or no-cost Doesn’t draw on programme personnel Uses local resources and connectionsCONS May be hard to expand membership beyond existing networks Relies on others to do the recruiting25 | girleffect.org
  26. 26. Case study:Safe and smart savings products forvulnerable adolescent girls in Kenyaand UgandaFaulu-Kenya, a partner microfinance institution that offers thePrincess Account for girls aged 10-19, aimed to mobilise 500 girlsto open accounts and join savings groups during the pilot period.Faulu used a mix of recruitment strategies: holding meetings withcommunity leaders to announce the product and asking them tosend girls who were interested; gaining approval of religious leadersand then advertising the programme after the religious service;meeting with current clients who were parents of adolescent girls;going to youth-serving organisations, churches/mosques andschools in the area; and going door to door to talk to girls and theirguardians about joining savings groups. Even when the formalrecruitment stopped, existing Princess Account holders would bringtheir friends to the group meetings to open accounts themselves.The Population Council, in partnership with MicroSave Consulting Ltd, manages a programmethat is developing and rolling out savings accounts for girls.Case study sourced from:“Girl-centred Programme Design: A Toolkit To Develop, Strengthen Expand Adolescent Girls Programmes” popcouncil.org/pdfs/2010PGY_AdolGirlToolkitComplete.pdf26 | girleffect.org
  27. 27. ESSENTIAL TOOLKITSFor more tools and information to help spread the word aboutyour programme and get girls on board, download the followingPopulation Council toolkits: Girl-centred Programme Design: A Toolkit To Develop, Strengthen Expand Adolescent Girls Programmespopcouncil.org/pdfs/2010PGY_AdolGirlToolkitComplete.pdf Priorities For Adolescent Girls’ Education – educational policies,approaches and programmes to support adolescent girls in schoolpopcouncil.org/pdfs/2012PGY_GirlsFirst_Education.pdf The Health Of Vulnerable Adolescent Girls: A Strategic InvestmentFor Double Return – ideas and innovations to help guide the field tobetter respond to, and maximise, the potential of the poorest girls inthe poorest communitiespopcouncil.org/pdfs/2012PGY_GirlsFirst_Health.pdf27 | girleffect.org
  28. 28. 28A girl needs leadership skills – the kind that enable her to make healthy decisions, work toward life goals, take action forwhat is important to her and positively influence her world.Girl-centred programmes use simple, purposeful strategies to regularly exercise girls’ leadership skills: for example, askinggirls to set and monitor their own ground rules for behaviours during programme sessions. Activities need to be deliveredin ways that give girls the chance to practise analysis, planning, influencing and working together; sometimes within a safespace and, if appropriate, sometimes outside of a safe space. It’s about creating opportunities for girls to find their voice,gain confidence and practise making choices, as individuals and with others.Gaining access to a female mentor or a group leader (who is a little older, but not so old she can’t identify with them) who isfrom and lives in the same community is a game-changer for girls. They need a caring adult who is their champion and canhelp raise their status, particularly if they live in a more traditional community where their status is typically very low. Girl-centred programmes articulate the desired profile of a mentor – including the characteristics and skills they would bring –and offer structured training, supervision, support and, ideally, compensation for the hours mentors are involved.A powerful way to combine building girls’ leadership skills and providing access to a mentor is the cascading leadershipmodel. This is a promising model that has been used in diverse settings across the world.5. Leadershipand Mentoring28 | girleffect.org
  29. 29. IT LOOKS LIKE THISNATIONAL / REGIONAL SUPPORTNATIONAL / REGIONAL SUPPORTCOMMUNITY-LEVEL INTERVENTIONMENTORS(PROGRAMme GRADUATES)GIRL LEADERS AND INTERNSGIRLS(AGES 13-17)GIRLS(AGES 8-12)29 | girleffect.org
  30. 30. Older adolescent girls and young women from the community can be recruitedand trained as mentors Adolescent girls participating in the programme can take on increasingly seniorleadership roles over the lifecycle of the programme, and can eventually transitionfrom participants to mentorsCascading leadershipIn the cascading leadership model, older adolescent girls and youngwomen (aged 18-30) are trained to mentor younger girls in theprogramme. This can be done in two ways:In most cases you can assume it will be necessary to recruit older adolescent girlsand young women from the community to be mentors at the start of a programme.30 | girleffect.org
  31. 31. Case study:The Binti Pamoja CentreIn 2006, the first group of graduates went through a trainingprogramme that strengthened their skills in facilitation, groupdevelopment, communication and conflict resolution. Theresponsibility of the mentor-alumnus was to recruit girls into thegroup; locate a place in the community to meet, plan and facilitate theweekly meetings; provide support and guidance to the girls in theirgroup; and spend the monthly group budget appropriately. Alumniare provided with a small salary and meet on a monthly basis forsupervision meetings with the Binti Pamoja staff.Within a year, the Safe Spaces programme at Binti Pamoja had grownto 20 alumni and 10 groups. Two alumni were hired as part-time fieldofficers to monitor and support the alumni and Safe Spaces groups.With each year, the Safe Spaces programme has continued to grow.Girls finish Binti’s core programme, become alumni and start theirown girls’ groups in the community. Village co-ordinators have beenrecruited, each responsible for a specific geographical area in Kiberain which they oversee four to six groups. They help the alumni in theirarea with recruitment, identifying spaces to meet, monitoring groupcontent and planning events and training.Through a cascading leadership model, Binti Pamoja has been ableto grow from a programme of 40 girls meeting in one location inKibera to a programme of more than 1,000 girls, 30 groups (15-25girls per group), 75 alumni in some leadership capacity and a reachinto every village within Kibera.Binti Pamoja (Swahili for ‘Daughters United’) is a programme for adolescent girls aged 10-19 in the Kibera slum of Nairobi, Kenya.The programme started with a core group of 15 girls and then grew to two groups. As these girls grew up within the programme,they were ready to ‘graduate’ and take on leadership roles, and the programme could be expanded into the community.Case study sourced from:“Girl-centred Programme Design: A Toolkit To Develop, Strengthen Expand Adolescent Girls Programmes” popcouncil.org/pdfs/2010PGY_AdolGirlToolkitComplete.pdf31 | girleffect.org
  32. 32. THE STRUCTUREBINTI PAMOJA STAFFProgramme officer andassistant programme officerfield officer(2)SOCIAL WORKER(2)Core programme(60 girls)VillagecoordinatorVillagecoordinatorVillagecoordinatorVillagecoordinatorVillagecoordinatoralumini(60)30 SAFE SPACES GROUPS(600 GIRLS)32 | girleffect.org
  33. 33. ESSENTIAL TOOLKITSFor more tools and information on how to engage mentors anddevelop the leadership skills of girls, download the followingtoolkits: Girl-centred Programme Design: A Toolkit To Develop, Strengthen Expand Adolescent Girls Programmespopcouncil.org/pdfs/2010PGY_AdolGirlToolkitComplete.pdf The Power To Lead: A Leadership Model For Adolescent Girls – focusingon girls aged 10 to 14 years and developing their leadership skillscare.org/campaigns/2009/downloads/sigprog_pw_leadership.pdf Girls’ Leadership And Mentoring – how to provide role models for younggirls, empower and strengthen older girls and challenge outmodedcommunity normspopcouncil.org/pdfs/2012PGY_GirlsFirst_Leadership.pdf It’s Her Business: A Handbook For Preparing Young At-Risk Women ToBecome Entrepreneursitsherbusiness.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/05/ItsHerBusiness.pdf33 | girleffect.org
  34. 34. To maximise learning and achieve effectiveevolution of your programme, it should bemonitored from a range of perspectives, using avariety of data to reflect those insights.6. Monitoringand evaluation3434 | girleffect.org34 | girleffect.org
  35. 35. Listen – learn – actPlan to learn – and evolve your programme as you learn moreabout girls, their situations and how they interact with theprogramme. Frequent monitoring of programmes at the field orcommunity level gives valuable insight into which girls you arereaching, through which activities. You will never truly understandhow it is functioning from second-hand reports.Field-level visits, through which you connect with girls and staff, are critical.Capturing qualitative and quantitative information will be important to gaina more complete picture of what is happening as a result of the programme.35 | girleffect.org35 | girleffect.org
  36. 36. QUALITATIVEWhen connecting with girls, you’ll need to find creative ways ofdiscovering what works for them and what doesn’t, and to gaininsight into the kinds of changes they are experiencing because ofthe programme.Because girls will often hesitate to criticise or say something negative aboutthe programme, or to openly identify something that is of concern to them,you’ll want to develop some participatory tools and creative ways of askingquestions to understand what’s happening.To ensure the important details that provide insight aren’t lost duringmonitoring visits, try to capture responses to questions in their entirety.The detail will be important for reflection and for retaining the crucial factsthat can offer insight into what is really happening.36 | girleffect.org
  37. 37. QUANTITATIVEMonitoring information will help you to discover if you arereaching the girls you intended to reach, and to understandpatterns of participation. It’s important to track the number ofparticipants, their demographic profile and the patterns of theirparticipation or what programmatic inputs they received.A participant register is a simple and effective way of doing this. Youshould include only the information you might need to know about thegirls you want to reach. You can record individual participants and theirdetails, rather than just estimating the total number of participants, foreach activity. Individual records are extremely important because theyallow managers to analyse characteristics of participants and patternsof participation among different groups of members – and to evolvethe programme accordingly.Your programme can help girls be counted officially – or obtainidentification – either through: Assisting with obtaining formal documents such as birthcertificates or national IDs Providing programme IDs that are recognised locally, which canhelp girls access formal institutions of society and perhaps, at alater stage, be used to obtain official ID37 | girleffect.org
  38. 38. Case study:Using qualitative monitoring to suggestimprovements to the programmeQUESTION: What is your experience with disabled girls in theprogramme?Mentors’ responses to this question were all very similar and showedthe challenges faced by disabled girls. Below is the actual responsefrom one of the Biruh Tesfa mentors:
ANSWER: Once I registered a girl with polio. Her parents were verypoor and she didn’t have a wheelchair or crutches... After coming tothe programme for a few days, she stopped coming and her parentssaid she couldn’t come on her own. (Addis Ababa mentor)As a result, Biruh Tesfa managers understood they needed todevote more attention to improving the access for, and increasingthe participation of, girls with disabilities. Ramps were constructedat the meeting places, making them more accessible for girls withdisabilities. Funding was set aside to provide taxis or companionsfor girls with disabilities. A new partnership was formed with a localdisabilities organisation to include disabled mentors and to intensifyrecruitment and support of girls with disabilities.Biruh Tesfa (meaning ‘Bright Future’ in Amharic) is a girls’ programme in Ethiopia that mobilises extremely poor, out-of-school girlsinto groups, led by an adult female mentor. Every six months, programme managers use a tool similar to Tool 3.1 (see appendix) tomonitor girls’ perceptions and mentors’ experiences of the programme. Between 10 and 20 girls are interviewed, as well as five to10 mentors. Biruh Tesfa managers use the occasion to explore new areas for expansion or programme modification, and adapt thequestions each time to elicit different types of information. In one round of monitoring interviews, managers added the followingquestion to the questionnaire for mentors:Case study sourced from:“Girl-centred Programme Design: A Toolkit To Develop, Strengthen Expand Adolescent Girls Programmes” popcouncil.org/pdfs/2010PGYAdolGirlToolkitComplete.pdf38 | girleffect.org
  39. 39. ESSENTIAL TOOLKITSFor more tools and information to help monitor the successof your programme and to identify areas for improvement,download the following toolkits: Girl-centred Programme Design: A Toolkit To Develop, Strengthen Expand Adolescent Girls Programmespopcouncil.org/pdfs/2010PGY_AdolGirlToolkitComplete.pdf From Research, To Programme Design, To Implementation: Programmingfor Rural Girls in Ethiopia, A Toolkit For Practitionerspopcouncil.org/pdfs/2011PGY_EthiopiaGirlsProgramToolkit.pdf Ethical Approaches To Gathering Information From Children AndAdolescents In International Settingspopcouncil.org/pdfs/horizons/childrenethics.pdf39 | girleffect.org
  40. 40. QUANTITIVE TOOLTHIS TOOL CAN BE USED TO COLLECT FORMATIVE RESEARCH ON GIRLSQuestionNumberQuestion1. ⊲ Are you younger than 18? ☐ Yes (go to Q2) ☐ No (go to Q5)2. ⊲ Do you live with a parent or legal guardian? ☐ Yes (go to Q3) ☐ No (go to Q5)3. ⊲ May we request that your parent or guardian give you permission toparticipate in this study?☐ Yes (go to Q4) ☐ No (go to Q6)4. ⊲ If yes, your parents or guardian will not be informed of your study results,and they will remain confidential, and your parent or legal guardian has toread (or be read) and sign the following declaration.I, the signed, am the parent or legal guardian of the person beinginvited to participate in the study. I have read the informed consentor have had the informed consent read to me, was given anopportunity to clarify and ask any questions I have regarding thestudy, and I give permission for my child or legal ward to participatein the studySignature ............................................................Date ...................................The following tools can be used to collect feedback on the programme from the girls, as well as registration and activity forms that you can print out and use.40 | girleffect.org
  41. 41. QUANTITIVE TOOLTHIS TOOL CAN BE USED TO COLLECT FORMATIVE RESEARCH ON GIRLS (CONTINUED)QuestionNumberQuestion5. ⊲ If no, do you feel it is necessary to not inform your parents or legal guardianfor your own protection?☐ Yes (go to Q6) ☐ No (END)6. ⊲ Do you have any questions? (Note the questions) ☐ Yes ☐ No7. ⊲ Are you willing to participate in this study? ☐ Yes ☐ No⊲ If you have any doubts or questions in the future, you may contact thestudy investigator at (TELEPHONE NUMBER)I, the signed interviewer, have explained to the respondent in alanguage she understands, and she understands the procedures tobe followed in the study and the risks and benefits involved.Signature ............................................................Date ...................................41 | girleffect.org
  42. 42. Question Number Question Response or response codesSECTION ONE: BACKGROUND INFORMATION 101 ⊲ How old are you? Age of respondent:102 ⊲ With whom do you live: mother and father, motheronly, father only, or neither parent?1 Live with mother and father
2 Live with mother only
3 Live with father only
4 Live with neither mother nor father(SPECIFY WITH WHOM). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103 ⊲ I want to talk about your (biological) parents. Areboth of your parents alive, is only your mother alive,is only your father alive, or are both parents nolonger living?1 Both mother and father are alive2 Mother only alive3 Father only alive
4 Neither mother nor father aliveQUALITATIVE TOOLTHIS TOOL CAN BE USED TO COLLECT FEEDBACK ON PROGRAMMES FROM GIRLSNOTE TO DATA COLLECTOR: PLEASE INSERT INFORMED CONSENT.42 | girleffect.org
  43. 43. Question Number Question Response or response codesSECTION ONE: BACKGROUND INFORMATION 104 ⊲Have you ever been to school? 0 No (Go to Q106)1 Yes105 ⊲ How many years of education have you completed? Years of education completed:106 ⊲ In what month and year did you jointhe programme?Month:Year:107 ⊲ Which part of the programme are you participating in?(read the list and circle all that apply)(Tailor this section to your organisation’s programme)1 Mentoring sessions2 Community conversations3 Self-help groups4 Tutorial support5 Other (specify). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .QUALITATIVE TOOLTHIS TOOL CAN BE USED TO COLLECT FEEDBACK ON PROGRAMMES FROM GIRLS (CONTINUED)43 | girleffect.org
  44. 44. Question Number Question Response or response codesSECTION TWO: programme experience 201 ⊲ How did you first learn about the [NAME OFPROGRAMME]. (Possible probes: What did you thinkabout it? How did people talk about it?)202 ⊲ Tell me about your participation in the programme. Whatactivities do you take part in? (Possible probes: Howoften do you participate? What have you learned in theprogramme? How do you feel about the programme?)203 ⊲ Tell me about the [MENTOR/PEER EDUCATOR/GROUPLEADER/OTHER PROJECT PERSONNEL]. (Possibleprobes: What do they do in the programme? How doyou feel about them? How have they helped you?)QUALITATIVE TOOLTHIS TOOL CAN BE USED TO COLLECT FEEDBACK ON PROGRAMMES FROM GIRLS (CONTINUED)44 | girleffect.org
  45. 45. Question Number Question Response or response codesSECTION TWO: BACKGROUND INFORMATION 204 ⊲ I want to talk about the timing and location of theprogramme. Are these aspects convenient for you or isthere anything you would change? What do you thinkof the meeting space? Tell me about what you wouldchange if you could. (Possible probes: Is there anythingyou would like to change? How would you change it?)205 ⊲ How do your parents/guardians feel about theprogramme? What do they say about it? What do peoplein your community say about the programme? (Possibleprobes: Has there been a time they did not want you togo to the programme? What happened at that time?)QUALITATIVE TOOLTHIS TOOL CAN BE USED TO COLLECT FEEDBACK ON PROGRAMMES FROM GIRLS (CONTINUED)45 | girleffect.org
  46. 46. Question Number Question Response or response codesSECTION THREE: PERCEPTIONS SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVEMENT 301 ⊲ I would like you to think about all the different aspects of the[NAME OF PROGRAMME], including what you learn, whatactivities you do, the [MENTOR/PEER EDUCATOR/GROUPLEADER/OTHER PROJECT PERSONNEL] and your interactionwith other girls. What do you like most about the programme?(Possible probes: Why do you like this aspect the most? Canyou give me an example? Tell me about the time you enjoyedyourself the most at a session. What happened at that time?)302 ⊲ Again, thinking about all the different aspects of theprogramme, what do you like least about it? What areas wouldyou like to improve? (Possible probes: Why do you like thisaspect the least? Can you give me an example? Tell me abouta time you were not as happy or would have liked to changesomething in the programme. What happened at that time?)QUALITATIVE TOOLTHIS TOOL CAN BE USED TO COLLECT FEEDBACK ON PROGRAMMES FROM GIRLS (CONTINUED)46 | girleffect.org
  47. 47. Question Number Question Response or response codesSECTION THREE: PERCEPTIONS SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVEMENT 303 ⊲ On which topics or areas would you like more information?What kind of information would you like? (Possible probes: Whydo you feel you need more information? Can you give me anexample? What about skills? Are there any additional skills youfeel you need? Tell me why the skills are important to you.)304 ⊲ Please give me ideas for how we could improve theprogramme. What changes or improvements would you like tosee? (Possible probes: What additional information would youlike? What activities would you like? How would you change theway your [MENTOR/PEER EDUCATOR/GROUP LEADER/OTHERPROJECT PERSONNEL] acts?)QUALITATIVE TOOLTHIS TOOL CAN BE USED TO COLLECT FEEDBACK ON PROGRAMMES FROM GIRLS (CONTINUED)47 | girleffect.org
  48. 48. Question Number Question Response or response codesSECTION THREE: PERCEPTIONS SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVEMENT 305 ⊲ I want you to think about the other girls in your community.Are there girls in your community who want to come to theprogramme but do not? What are the reasons they don’tjoin the programme? (Possible probes: Can you give me anexample of a girl who wants to come but cannot. Tell me abouther situation and why she doesn’t come.)306 ⊲ Tell me about anything else you think I should know about theprogramme in order to improve it for you and other girls in thearea. Feel free to tell me anything you would like me to know.QUALITATIVE TOOLTHIS TOOL CAN BE USED TO COLLECT FEEDBACK ON PROGRAMMES FROM GIRLS (CONTINUED)Thank you very much for participating in this survey48 | girleffect.org
  49. 49. REGISTRATION FORM FOR GIRLS’ PROGRAMMEREGION : ZONE :WOREDA : KEBELE :MENTOR NAME : MONTH : YEAR :1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12TO BE FILLED OUT BY MENTORS WHEN GIRLS JOIN THE PROGRAMme. COMPLETE IN DUPLICATE AND GIVE COPIES TO THESUPERVISOR AT MONTHLY MEETINGS.SERIALNO.KEBELEVILLAGE/GOTTAGENAME SCHOOLSTATUSMARITALSTATUSMIGRATETO AREADISABLED OCCUPATION WHO DO YOULIVE WITHYEARS OFEDUCATIONCOMPLETED(OPTIONAL)04 14 Rox Genet Demele 16 2 4 2 1 0 Housewife / farmer 3 (husband)1 = IN SCHOOL 1 = NEVERMARRIED1 = BOTH PARENTS0 = NO0 = NO (DESCRIBE)2 = not inschool 2 = MARRIED2 = ONE PARENT1 = YES1 = YES3 = FORMERLYMARRIED3 = NO PARENT (SPECIFY)49 | girleffect.org
  50. 50. REGISTRATION FORM FOR GIRLS’ PROGRAMME(CONTINUED)1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12SERIALNO.KEBELEVILLAGE/GOTTAGENAME SCHOOLSTATUSMARITALSTATUSMIGRATETO AREADISABLED OCCUPATION WHO DO YOULIVE WITHYEARS OFEDUCATIONCOMPLETED(OPTIONAL)1 = IN SCHOOL 1 = NEVERMARRIED1 = BOTH PARENTS0 = NO0 = NO (DESCRIBE)2 = not inschool 2 = MARRIED2 = ONE PARENT1 = YES1 = YES3 = FORMERLYMARRIED3 = NO PARENT (SPECIFY)50 | girleffect.org
  51. 51. REGISTRATION FORM FOR GIRLS’ PROGRAMME(CONTINUED)REGION : ZONE :WOREDA : KEBELE :MENTOR NAME : MONTH : YEAR :1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12TO BE FILLED OUT BY MENTORS WHEN GIRLS JOIN THE PROGRAMme. COMPLETE IN DUPLICATE AND GIVE COPIES TO THESUPERVISOR AT MONTHLY MEETINGS.MONTH YEARSERIAL NOOF GIRLNAME AGE TOPICS COVERED ACTIVITIES DONE REFERRED FOROTHER SERVICE04 March 16(OPTIONAL) (USE UP TO 3 CODES) (USE UP TO 3 CODES)0 = NO1 = YES (SPECIFY)Genet DemeleFGM16 2 4 8 1 3 1 (VCT)51 | girleffect.org
  52. 52. CODES FOR TOPICS : CODES FOR ACTIVITIES :1 = HIV / AIDS2 = FAMILY PLANNING3 = HEALTH HYGIENE4 = PREGNANCY MOTHERHOOD5 = GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE6 = DISABILITIES7 = COMMUNICATION8 = OTHER (SPECIFY)1 = GROUP LECTURE2 = GROUP DISCUSSION3 = DRAMA / ROLE PLAY4 = SPORTS5 = DANCE6 = ARTS CRAFTS7 = GUEST LECTURE8 = OTHER (SPECIFY)REGISTRATION FORM FOR GIRLS’ PROGRAMME(CONTINUED)These tools are all sourced from “From Research, to Programme Design, to Implementation: Programming forRural Girls in Ethiopia, a Toolkit for Practitioners”popcouncil.org/pdfs/2011PGY_EthiopiaGirlsProgramToolkit.pdf52 | girleffect.org
  53. 53. ADOLESCENT GIRLS HAVE THEPOWER TO END WORLD POVERTY.WE CALL IT THE GIRL EFFECT.GET INSPIRATION AND TOOLSTO UNLEASH THE GIRL EFFECT ATGIRLEFFECT.ORG

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