PRICIPLES OF MANAGEMENTA principle is a basic statement or a fundamental truth thatprovides understanding and guidance to thinking and practice. Aprinciple represents a basic element of knowledge in that itexplains the relationship and , helps in predicting what wouldhappen if the principles were applied over the years, a numberof principles have been developed in management to aidexecutive thinking and action , a group of concepts have beendeveloped by experience and responsible research. Theseprinciples. As pointed out by j.l massie, are only approximationsof generalizations from experience . as such , they should not betreated as rigid and inflexible rules to administrative behavior.The principles , however convenient as a shortened method ofthinking, are only guides to action. If they become rules, theylose their utility.
NATURE OF MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLESMANAGEMENT principles can never be stated as rigorously asthat of physical sciences because human beings behave moreerratically than physical phenomena. Management principleshave been developed out of experience and analysis only theempirical support for most of these principles is woefullyinadequate . it the absence of a scientific analysis , theseprinciples must be taken as general ideas on which sound andeffective action can be based. They are , thus, not absoluretruths our infallible law, manager should no conclude thatprinciple are ever changing . most of the so called goldenprinciple s of management have been replaced. Refinementsare taking place continuously.
WHY MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES ?According to Terry, principles of management are to amanager as a table of strengths of materials is to acivil engineer. The utility of principles lies in thefoundation they provide for its efficient conduct, bymaking out the basic features that must characterizethe practice for management irrespective of where itis occurring , by means of principles of management ,manager can avoid fundamental mistakes in his joband foretell the results of his actions with confidence.
According to koontz principles help in the following ways.1.TO INCREASE EFFICIENCY: principles aid thinking andaction . the need for guesswork , haphazard activities isreduced . the problems brought out by rapid changes in theenvironment can be solved easily ., for example , theprinciple of span of control tells a manger that he canmange only a limited number of subordinates , say 8 to 10,and thereby helps him predict the result if the principle isnot applied.2.TO CRYSTALLISE THE NATURE OF MANGEMENT:principles crystallize the ever increasing knowledge andthinking in the field of management . without principles , it isnot possible to impart knowledge and provide training tomanagers.
3.TO IMPROVE RESEARCH IN MANGEMENT : management dealswith human beings whose behavior is highly unpredictable,principles provide a canopy of broad generalizations. Which helpin testing behavior, understanding it and predicting the outcomesfor future, the help in improving the fund of tested knowledgeand promoting further reea4rch in human behavior .4.TO ATTAIN SOCIL GOALS: management principal play animportant role in improving the quality of life of people and thestandard of living . they bring order out o chaos .mangers are ableto commit resources to the best possible advantage and employthem in a judicious fashion.
WHAT ARE PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT?FAYOL S PRINCIPLES: It was Henry Fayol who sated a set of 14principles of management based on his practical experience as amanager , according to fayol. These principles can be applied in alltypes., functions , levels and sizes of organizations. For a long time,Fayols list was accepted as complete and comprehensive. adescription o f these principles is given below:FAYOL S FOURTEEN UNIVERSAL PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT1) DIVISION OF WORK. Specialization of labour is necessary for organizational success.2) AUTHORITY. The right to give order must accompany responsibility.3) DISCIPLINE. Obedience and respect help an organization run smoothly.4) UNITY OF DIRECTION. The efforts of everyone in the organization should be coordinated and focused in the same direction.
5.UNITY OF COMMAND . each employee should receive ordersform only one superior.6.SUBOR DINATION OF INDIVIDUAL INTERESTS OT THE GENERALINTEREST. Resolving the tug of war between personal andorganizational interests in fovour for the organization is ofmanagement greats difficulties.7.REMUNERATION. Employees should be paid fairly in accordancewith their contribution .8.CENTRLISATION. The relationship between centralization anddecentralization is a matter of proportion , the optimum balancemust be found for each organization.
10.SCALAR CHAIN. Subordinates should observe the formalchain of command unless expressly authorize by theirrespective superiors to communicate with each other.11.ORDER. Both material things and people should be in theirproper places.12.EQUITY . fairness that results from a combination forkindliness and justice will lead to devoted and loyal service.13.STABILITY AND TENURE OF PERONNEL . people need time tolearn their jobs .14.INITIATIVE. one of the greatest satisfactions is formulatingand carrying out a plan.ESPRTI DE CORPS. Harmonious effort among individuals is thekey to organizational success.
2.MOONEY AND REILEY S STAFF PRINCIPLE: according to thisprinciple, staff units must be created in order to provide serviceand expert advice to the line managers.3.TAYLORS PRINCIPLE OF MANAGEMNET BY EXCEPTION: routinework , according to this principle, must be handled by subordinatesand management must concentrate on strategic, key andimportant issues.4.WEBERS PRINCIPLES: Organization work must be performedaccording to rules. All administrative actins must be recorded inwriting so as to have a ready reference in future. A hierarchy ofpositions should provide for supervision of each unit by a higherofficial etc.
5.LIKERTS PRINCIPLE FO SUPPORTIVE REATIONSHIP: accordingto this principle , managers should provide social, psychologicaland moral support to subordinates . the purpose should be toimprove the subordinates sense of personal usefulness anddignity and secure commitment to organizational goals.6.HUMAN RELATIONS: human relatitionists( MAYO ANDROETHLISBERGER) and behavioral scientists (MCGREGOR,BENNIS, ARGYRIS) have avoided providing prescriptions andhave suggested ideas and concepts to describe somefundamental guides to managerial thought and action. Theseconcept are largely aimed at improving the quality of life ratherthan achieving organizational goals. The importance for humanelement is recognized and efforts are made to make human lifemore interesting meaningful and challenging in an organization.
MODREN ORGANISTION THEORIES ANDPRINCIPLES OF MANGEMENT: Systems andcontingency theorists advocate that, a mangershould know and understand the existence ofcertain fundamental concepts advanced bytheorists from time to time and use themjudiciously managers. Should understand thatthere is a way to apply these concepts. theprinciples must be applied in a flexible way keepingthe changing circumstances in mind.