Govt. R. C. College of Commerce & ManagementOrganizational BehaviorModule -2 FOUNDATIONS OF INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOR Submitted to: Dr. B. Chardashekar Dept. of Management Presentation by: Deepak Kumar S.C Harshita Girish.D Imran Dilip Kiran Iliyas
CONTENTS; Individual Behavior Foundation of Individual Behavior Personality Self-Concept Perception
INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOR“Individual behavior means some concrete action by a person.” For instance, how a teacher behaves in the class reflects his behavior. The behaviorof an individual is influenced by various factors. Some of the factors lies within him e.g., his instincts, personalitytraits, internal feelings, etc., while some lie outside him comprising the externalenvironment of which he is a part e.g., events conveying some information, & otherpeoples‟ behavior that directly influence his behavior etc. The environment acts as a „stimulus‟ & the personresponds to it. The teacher is affected by students‟ behavior & in turn affects theirbehavior. Thus, individual behavior is not a self-induced phenomenon, but isaffected by a larger system. For Ex: group, family, & the society within which onefunctions.
Factors Influencing Individual Behavior Personality Ability Perception Motivation Organizational Factors Socio-Culture Factor Foundation Of Individual Behavior Personal Factors Environmental Factors Organizational Factors psychological Factors
Psychological Personal Factors Personality Age Perception Sex Attitudes Education Values Abilities Learning Marital status No. of dependants Creativity Emotional intelligence Individual Behaviour Organisational Systems & Resources Environmental FactorsPhysical facilities EconomicOrganisation structure & design Social norms & cultural valuesLeadership Ethics & social responsibilityReward system PoliticalWork – related behavior Foundation of Individual Behavior
PERSONALITYMeaning and Definition of personality According to Schiffman and kanuk: “Personality can be defined as those inner psychological characteristics that both determine and reflect how a person responds to his or her environment.”Nature of personality Personality Traits Personality Reflects Individual Difference Personality is Consistent and Enduring Personality can Change
Shaping of personality/Stages of personality Development Stages Freudian Erikson‟s Cognitive Chris stage stages stages Argyris 1. Oral stage 1. Infancy 1. Sensorimotor 1. Immaturity to 2. Anal stage 2. Early childhood 2. Preoperational maturity 3. School age 3. Concrete operational 3. Phallic stage 4. Play age 4. Latency stage 4. Play age 5. Formational 5. Young adulthood 5. Genital stage operational 6. Late adulthood
Biological Cultural Factors Factors PersonalityFamily and Social Factors Situational Factors Other Factors Determinants of Personality
Managerial Application Of Personality Matching Jobs and Individuals Designing Motivation System Designing Control System Personality Dimension Locus Of Control Authoritarianism Machiavellianism Introversion and Extroversion Bureaucratic Personality Problem Solving Style Type “A” and Type “B”
SELF-CONCEPTMeaning; According to Sociologist Viktor Gecas “Self-Concept is the concept the individual has of himself as physical ,social and spiritual or moral being.Types of Self-concept/Self-Image Actual self-Image Ideal self-Image Social self-Image Ideal Social self-Image Expected Social self-Image
How Self-concepts Develops Self-Appraisal Reflected Appraisal Social Comparison Biased Scanning Aspects of Self-concept Self-Esteem Aspects of Self-concept Self-Efficiency
SELF-ESTEEMMeaning; “Self-Esteem means pride in oneself or self-respect. Self-esteem is the extent to which a person believes that he or she is worthwhile and deserving individual.”Six pillars of Self-Esteem Live Consciously Be Self-Accepting Take Personal Responsibility Be Self-Assertive Live Purposefully Have Personal Integrity
Strategies For Building Self-Esteem Free yourself from “Should” Respect your own Needs Respecting your deeper Needs Set Achievable Goals Talk to yourself Positively Test your Reality Experience Success Take Chances Solve Problems Make Decisions Develop your Skills Emphasize your Strengths Rely on your own Opinion of your self
“ WE DON’T SEE THINGS AS THEYARE, WE SEE THINGS AS WE ARE.” Perception
PERCEPTION “The study of perception is concerned with identifying the process throughwhich we interpret and organize sensory information to produce our consciousexperience of objects and object relationship.” “Perception is the process of receiving information about and making senseof the world around us. It involves deciding which information to notice, how tocategorize this information and how to interpret it within the framework of existingknowledge.” “A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensoryimpressions in order to give meaning to their environment.”
The Perceptual ProcessSensation An individual‟s ability to detect stimuli in the immediate environment.Selection The process a person uses to eliminate some of the stimuli that have been sensed and to retain others for further processing.Organization The process of placing selected perceptual stimuli into a framework for “storage.”Translation The stage of the perceptual process at which stimuli are interpreted and given meaning
Factors Influencing Perception Factors in the perceiver • Attitudes • Motives • Interests • Experience • Expectations Factors in the situation • Time Perception • Work Setting • Social Setting Factors in the Target • Novelty • Motion • Sounds • Size • Background • Proximity • Similarity
Perceptual Organization It is the process by which we group outside stimuli into recognizable and identifiable patterns and whole objects. Certain factors are considered to be important contributors on assembling, organizing and categorizing information in the human brain. These are- Figure ground- Perceptual grouping
Figure-Ground IllustrationField-ground differentiation The tendency to distinguish and focus on a stimulus that is classified as figure as opposed to background.
PERCEPTUAL GROUPING Our tendency to group several individual stimuli into a meaningful and recognizable pattern. It is very basic in nature and largely it seems to be inborn. Some factors underlying grouping are -continuity -closure -proximity -similarityPerson Perception: Making Judgments About Others
Attribution Theory When individuals observe behavior, they attempt to determine whether it is internally or externally caused. Observation Interpretation Attribution of cause H Distictinctiveness External L Internal HIndividual External Consensus Behavior L Internal H Internal Consistency L ExternalH –High L- Low
Shortcuts In Judging OthersSelective Perception: People selectively interpret what they see on the basis of theirinterests, background, experience and attitudes.Halo Effect: Drawing a general impressions about an individual on the basis of a singlecharacteristics.Contrast Effect: Evaluation of a person‟s characteristics that are effected by comparisons with other people recently encountered who rank higher or lower on the same characteristics.Projection: Attributing ones own characteristics to other people.Stereotyping: Judging someone on the basis of one‟s perception of the group to which that persons belongs.