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Partition Of India

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  • 1. 10. Partition of India 1942-1947
  • 2. Topics of Discussion
    • Lord Wavell’s plan,
    • The Cabinet Mission Plan,
    • The Cabinet Mission of India,
    • Final Proposals,
    • Reaction of the Congress and the League,
    • Observance of Direct Action by the League,
    • Attle’s Announcement of 1947,
    • The Announcement,
    • The Mountbateen Plan,
    • Acceptance by the Congress
    • The Indian Independence Act
  • 3. 1. Lord Wavell’s Plan
    • Purpose of Shimla Conference: to grant more powers to Indians.
    • Shimla Conference: A) Proposals of the Cripps offer of 1942 were renewed B) LW offered to reconstruct the VEC.
    • LW made the following proposals:
    • VEC would be reconstructed. It would wholly consist of Indians except for the Viceroy and the Commander in Chief.
    • Par representation of H & M on the VC.
    • Dominion status to India on the long run.
    • Constitution of India would be drafted by the Indians themselves.
    • GG would retain the veto power to use in the interest of the Indians.
  • 4. 2. The Cabinet Mission of India
    • PM Clement Attlee announced in the Parliament the British Govt ‘s plan to send a Cabinet Mission Plan to India.
    • Purpose: Hold consultations with the Indian leaders with the object of setting up complete self government in India.
    • CM arrived on 16thMay.
    • Rejected Jinnah’s demand for a separate Pak for Muslims majority areas in the NW & NE on the following grounds:
    • Partition would not solve the communal problem bcoz Hindu minorities would still live in the areas demanded by the League and there was no justification for keeping large Hindu districts in Bengal, Assam and Punjab in Pakistan. The same argument, as advanced by the League for the partition of India, was applied with equal relevance to the separation of the Hindu majority districts in Pak
  • 5. 2.The Cabinet Mission Plan.
    • 2. Small Pak would not be viable when its two parts – one in East and the other in the West.
    • 3. Partition would involve:
    • dislocation of communication network,
    • Division of armed forces and services personnel along communal lines.
  • 6. 3.Final proposals of the Cabinet Mission Plan.
    • India would be a fed of BP and IS.
    • Fed Govt would deal with defence, foreign affairs and communication. Other subjects would be under the control of the provinces.
    • BP would be divided under 3 groups:
    • Group A: Madras, Bombay, UP of Bihar Orissa & the CP.
    • Group B: Punjab, North West Province and the Sindh,
    • Group C: Bengal and Assam.
    • 4. Each group would draft a Const for a regional union if required.
    • 5. Province could opt out of the group by a majority decision of its legislature.
    • 6. A CA would be elected to draw up the future Constitution of India.
    • Treaty between CA and Britain.
    • Interim Govt at the centre
  • 7. Mountbatten Plan
    • He was given powers to negotiate and effect transfer of power to Indians.
    • After meeting leaders of different parties and communities, he came to the conclusion that he could not unite the two major parties, and partition of the country was inevitable.
    • MP stated that transfer of power in India could be on the basis of the partition of the country.
    • He said that a Bill to this effect would be introduced in British Parliament in July 1947. Power would be transferred to one whole or more states.
    • Points of MP:
    • Date of British withdrawal- 15 th Aug 1947 when power would be handed over to successor Govts in India.
    • Country would be divided into 2 dominions.
    • Princely states would have the option to join either of two dominions or to remain independent.
    • Plebiscite - nwfp
  • 8. Mountbatten Plan
    • Points of MP:
    • Provinces of Assam, Bengal and Punjab would be divided. A boundary commission was to be instituted to delimit the boundaries.
    • Acceptance by Congress: Congress accepted the MP for the following reasons.
    • Extension of BR was harmful to India.
    • A smaller united India was better than a bigger disorganised country.
    • Congress believed that it could not have a joint administration with League against the bitter experience it had when the latter joined the interim govt in 1946.
    • Better than the Large Scale Communal Riots in the country resulting in bloodshed.
  • 9. The IIA 1947.
    • Provisions of the Act:
    • Creation of 2 dominions.
    • A GG for each dominion.
    • Constituent Assemblies to serve as Central Legislatures.
    • End of the jurisdiction of the British Parliament.
    • Princely States would become independent.
    • The abolition of the Office of the Secretary of the State.
    • Safeguarding the Interests of Existing Officers.
    • Division of the Indian Army and the sharing of the Assets.
    • Power for bringing the Act into Operation.

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