National Movement 1
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National Movement 1






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National Movement 1 National Movement 1 Presentation Transcript

  • National Movement 1914-1917 A Bird’s Eye View
    • The First World War
    • Hindu – Muslim Relations
    • The LUCKNOW Pact 1916
    • Home Rule Leagues
    • The August Declaration, 1917
  • The First World War
    • Broke out in 1914 and lasted till 1918
    • War between two groups of hostile nations
    • Britain Germany
    • France Turkey
    • Italy Austria
    • Japan Hungary
    • Russia
  • Involvement of India
    • The main cause of the war= the policy of some powers to expand their empires.
    • India then being the colony of England was led into the war to safeguard the British interests.
    • British decided using Indian soldiers in the war.
    • First the nationalists opposed.
    • Moderates followed a conciliatory attitude.
    • Later INC agreed to cooperate with British in the war.
    • Even Tilak supported.
    • India helped England with M,M,M.
    • More than 1million Indian troops served on the British side.
    • As a consequence of this Congress leaders hoped for self governing domain under the British throne.
    • British appreciated Indian contribution in the war.
    • But British did not keep their word.
  • 2. Hindu Muslim Relations
    • Many international events that occurred changed the attitude of Muslims against British.
    • Britain was indifferent towards Turkey in Wars between Turkey and Italy & Balkan Wars between 1912&1913.
    • Muslims felt British were pro- Christian and anti- Muslim.
    • Muslims decided to support the Congress in their efforts to gain self government in India.
    • Muslim leaders fostered the idea of self government in India.
    • News papers to published in order to mobolize public opinion for self govt.
    • Muslim League session of 1913
    • In 1913 M A Jinnah joined League
    • Aim of Congress and League became identical
    • Arrest of famous leaders under Seditions Meeting Act.
    • Role of Madam Annie Besant and Tilak in fostering unity among the 2 organiastions.
  • The Lucknow Pact, 1916
    • LP- An outcome of efforts made by both the organisations to come to an agreement regarding political reforms in India.
    • December 1915, Mumbai- Annual Session of Congress and League.
    • Leaders of both the parties forged a common plan of post war reforms.
    • December 1916, Lucknow- Annual Session of Congress and League, this joint scheme was adopted at Lucknow and came to be known as the Lucknow Pact.
    • Terms of the Pact
    • Impact of the Pact
    • Negative Impact
  • 1. Terms of the Lucknow Pact
    • India must not be treated as a dependency but as a self governing state.
    • ILC should consist of 150 members, of these 4/5 th were to be elected and 1/5 th nominated, 1/3 rd of the elected were to be Muslims, elected members of the ILC were to be elected by the elected members of the PLC.
    • Adequate separate representation in elected bodies for minorities
    • Govt of India should not ordinarily interfere in the local affairs of the Province. Defence, foreign and political relations of India were excluded from the control of the IL.
    • No bill would be introduced by a non-official member if it affected the interest of any community.
    • Two permanent Under Secretaries should replace India Council of Secretary of State.
    • ½ the members of the Viceroy’s Executive Council should be Indians, elected by the elected members of the ILC
    • Each bill passed by the Legislature should be effective unless vetoed by the G-G in Council. If the same bill was passed again by the legislative council within a year the govt would be obliged to pass it.
  • 2. Impact of the Pact
    • Praised as great achievement, symbolized Hindu Muslim unity.
    • Congress and League demanded self govt
    • Govt could not easily reject the demand for constitutional reforms.
    • Lucknow Session of the Congress- Extremists and the Moderate Congressmen were reconciled, Tilak became the most popular politician in the country, Home Rule Movement gave new impetus to National Movement.
  • 3. Negative Impact
    • The Congress failed to retain its secular character by agreeing to a scheme of communal electorate.
    • Besides this scheme provided for Muslim representation in the council in excess of their proportion in the total population.
    • The compromise demanded more sacrifice on the part of the Hindus. This marked the beginning of appeasement of Muslims by Congress.
    • By the acceptance of separate electorates for Muslims, the Congress paved the way for future communal tension.
    • Furthermore, the scheme did not involve either the masses of Hindus or Muslims. It was an agreement at the level of leadership.
  • 4. Home Rule Leagues
    • Two Home Rule leagues were founded in India in 1915-16 one led by Lokmanya Tilak and other by Mrs. Annie Besant and Subramanya Iyer.
    • A. Annie Besant and the Home Rule Movement
    • B. Tilak and the Home Rule Movement
    • c. Impact of the Movement
  • C. Impact of the Movement
    • HRM intensified the demand for the grant of the government.
    • Tilak and Mrs. Besant infused new life in the National Movement.
    • HRM brought together the Moderates and the Radicals in the Congress.
    • HRM encouraged participation of women in large numbers, HRL for India were established in London and New York.
    • Congress and the League joined hands in presenting a Common Charter of Demand.
    • British Govt was forced to change its attitude in India.
    • On August 20, 1917, the Secrt of State, Mr. Montague announced in the House of Commons, that the policy of the British government was to develop gradually self-governing institutions in India.
    • The Government of India Act was passed which introduced several significant changes in the administration of the provinces.
  • 5. The August Declaration. 1917 (Montague-Chelmsford Declaration)
    • British Govt made a declaration on 20 th Aug, 1917 announcing the British policy towards India.
  • The August Declaration 1917
    • 20 th Aug 1917-declaration by British Govt announcing the British policy towards India.
    • E S Montague made the announcement.
    • Announcement disappointed the Indian Leaders
    • Lord Motague the Secretary of State for India with Lord Chelmsford, the Viceroy of India.
    • Govt of India Act 1919 was passed on the basis of their Report – came into operation in 1921.
    • The reforms embodied – Montague Chelmsford Reforms
    • Object of the Act- to give some responsibility to the Indian representatives elected by the people.
    • British-Central Govt = Indians-administration of the provinces (states)
    • Diarchy- Dual Rule
    • According to this arrangement:
    • Centre would control Law & Order, affairs, finance, defence, external and communication.
    • Provinces would control irrigation, forests, health, education.
    • The Indian leaders found these reforms inadequate, unsatisfactory and illusory.
    • This dissatisfaction of the people spurred them to widespread agitations.