The main cause of the war= the policy of some powers to expand their empires.
India then being the colony of England was led into the war to safeguard the British interests.
British decided using Indian soldiers in the war.
First the nationalists opposed.
Moderates followed a conciliatory attitude.
Later INC agreed to cooperate with British in the war.
Even Tilak supported.
India helped England with M,M,M.
More than 1million Indian troops served on the British side.
As a consequence of this Congress leaders hoped for self governing domain under the British throne.
British appreciated Indian contribution in the war.
But British did not keep their word.
2. Hindu Muslim Relations
Many international events that occurred changed the attitude of Muslims against British.
Britain was indifferent towards Turkey in Wars between Turkey and Italy & Balkan Wars between 1912&1913.
Muslims felt British were pro- Christian and anti- Muslim.
Muslims decided to support the Congress in their efforts to gain self government in India.
Muslim leaders fostered the idea of self government in India.
News papers to published in order to mobolize public opinion for self govt.
Muslim League session of 1913
In 1913 M A Jinnah joined League
Aim of Congress and League became identical
Arrest of famous leaders under Seditions Meeting Act.
Role of Madam Annie Besant and Tilak in fostering unity among the 2 organiastions.
The Lucknow Pact, 1916
LP- An outcome of efforts made by both the organisations to come to an agreement regarding political reforms in India.
December 1915, Mumbai- Annual Session of Congress and League.
Leaders of both the parties forged a common plan of post war reforms.
December 1916, Lucknow- Annual Session of Congress and League, this joint scheme was adopted at Lucknow and came to be known as the Lucknow Pact.
Terms of the Pact
Impact of the Pact
1. Terms of the Lucknow Pact
India must not be treated as a dependency but as a self governing state.
ILC should consist of 150 members, of these 4/5 th were to be elected and 1/5 th nominated, 1/3 rd of the elected were to be Muslims, elected members of the ILC were to be elected by the elected members of the PLC.
Adequate separate representation in elected bodies for minorities
Govt of India should not ordinarily interfere in the local affairs of the Province. Defence, foreign and political relations of India were excluded from the control of the IL.
No bill would be introduced by a non-official member if it affected the interest of any community.
Two permanent Under Secretaries should replace India Council of Secretary of State.
½ the members of the Viceroy’s Executive Council should be Indians, elected by the elected members of the ILC
Each bill passed by the Legislature should be effective unless vetoed by the G-G in Council. If the same bill was passed again by the legislative council within a year the govt would be obliged to pass it.
2. Impact of the Pact
Praised as great achievement, symbolized Hindu Muslim unity.
Congress and League demanded self govt
Govt could not easily reject the demand for constitutional reforms.
Lucknow Session of the Congress- Extremists and the Moderate Congressmen were reconciled, Tilak became the most popular politician in the country, Home Rule Movement gave new impetus to National Movement.
3. Negative Impact
The Congress failed to retain its secular character by agreeing to a scheme of communal electorate.
Besides this scheme provided for Muslim representation in the council in excess of their proportion in the total population.
The compromise demanded more sacrifice on the part of the Hindus. This marked the beginning of appeasement of Muslims by Congress.
By the acceptance of separate electorates for Muslims, the Congress paved the way for future communal tension.
Furthermore, the scheme did not involve either the masses of Hindus or Muslims. It was an agreement at the level of leadership.
4. Home Rule Leagues
Two Home Rule leagues were founded in India in 1915-16 one led by Lokmanya Tilak and other by Mrs. Annie Besant and Subramanya Iyer.
A. Annie Besant and the Home Rule Movement
B. Tilak and the Home Rule Movement
c. Impact of the Movement
C. Impact of the Movement
HRM intensified the demand for the grant of the government.
Tilak and Mrs. Besant infused new life in the National Movement.
HRM brought together the Moderates and the Radicals in the Congress.
HRM encouraged participation of women in large numbers, HRL for India were established in London and New York.
Congress and the League joined hands in presenting a Common Charter of Demand.
British Govt was forced to change its attitude in India.
On August 20, 1917, the Secrt of State, Mr. Montague announced in the House of Commons, that the policy of the British government was to develop gradually self-governing institutions in India.
The Government of India Act was passed which introduced several significant changes in the administration of the provinces.
5. The August Declaration. 1917 (Montague-Chelmsford Declaration)
British Govt made a declaration on 20 th Aug, 1917 announcing the British policy towards India.
The August Declaration 1917
20 th Aug 1917-declaration by British Govt announcing the British policy towards India.
E S Montague made the announcement.
Announcement disappointed the Indian Leaders
Lord Motague the Secretary of State for India with Lord Chelmsford, the Viceroy of India.
Govt of India Act 1919 was passed on the basis of their Report – came into operation in 1921.
The reforms embodied – Montague Chelmsford Reforms
Object of the Act- to give some responsibility to the Indian representatives elected by the people.
British-Central Govt = Indians-administration of the provinces (states)
Diarchy- Dual Rule
According to this arrangement:
Centre would control Law & Order, affairs, finance, defence, external and communication.
Provinces would control irrigation, forests, health, education.
The Indian leaders found these reforms inadequate, unsatisfactory and illusory.
This dissatisfaction of the people spurred them to widespread agitations.