Rfid based employee tracking

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My presentation explores how RFID system works and describes briefly about history of RFID, active & passive tags, modes of transmission of data and applications

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Rfid based employee tracking

  1. 1. BY KAMBA GIRI
  2. 2. RFID Introduction :  RFID – Radio Frequency Identification is An ADC (Automated data collection).  It is a wireless non-contact radio system to transfer data from a tag attached to an object.  RFID is a new generation of auto identification and data collection technology which helps to automate business processes and allows identification of large number of tagged objects like books using radio waves.  RFID tag wirelessly sends bits of data, when it is triggered by a reader.
  3. 3. A SAMPLE RFID TAG A paper label with RFID inside an antenna, printed, etched or stamped ... … and a chip attached to it … on a substrate e.g. a plastic foil ...
  4. 4. HISTORY OF RFID  The concept of RFID is based on the barcode.  First barcode patents was in 1930s.  RFID technology was first used in world war- II for identification, friend or foe (IFF) systems, and has been available in one form or another since 1970’s.  Mario cardullo’s device (1973) was first true ancestor of modern RFID.
  5. 5.   The first patent to be associated with the abbreviation RFID was granted to Charles Walton(1983). RFID is being used to tie the physical world with the virtual world. RFID in social media first came to light in 2010 with Facebook's annual conference.
  6. 6.  RFID technology uses radio waves as the medium to transfer the data from an electronic tag, called RFID tag, through a reader for the purpose of identifying and tracking the object.  RFID technology uses I) RFID tag. II) RFID reader. III) Antenna. IV) Middle ware. V) Host computer.
  7. 7. HOST COMPUTER Antenna Customer-Specific Application Software Application program interface (API ) Reader RFID API software
  8. 8. Many types of RFID exists, but at the highest level based on the type of tag and the power sources and their powered infrastructure, we can divide RFID devices into two classes: 1). Active RFID. 2). Passive RFID.
  9. 9.  An active rfid tag talks first, it beacons.  This tag does not depends on a reader to be energized.  Active tag can be read at much greater ranges and is equipped with a battery that can be used as a partial or complete source of power .  Active tag transmits radio signals.  It has capability to perform independent monitoring control.  Active rfid tags may even be equipped with autonomous networking; the tags autonomously determine the best communication path.
  10. 10. Active rfid tag Reader Host computer Battery Listens for beacons Communicates with RF and it beacons Stores and evaluates the data.
  11. 11.  Passive tag uses reader talk first.  Tags are muted until a signal is received from reader.  Passive RFID tag functions without any battery; these tags have a useful life of twenty years or more.  The tag is much less expensive to manufacture and is smaller in size.  Passive RFID tag costs upto $0.25 to $10.  Power and data transmission occurs between reader via antenna.
  12. 12. Passive rfid tags Antenna RFID Reader Provides power to passive tag Receives and transmits the electromagnetic waves Host computer Stores and evaluates the data.
  13. 13. RFID, HOW FAST…… Freque ncy 125-150 kHz 13.56 MHz 433 MHz 860-930 MHz 2450 MHz Regulation Basically unregulated ISM band, dif fering power levels and duty cycle Non-specif ic Short Range Devices (SRD), Location Systems ISM band (Region 2); increasing use in other regions, differing pow er levels and duty cycle ISM band, dif fering power levels and duty cycle Range Data Spe ed Comments Animal identific ation and factory data collection systems Popular frequency for I.C. Cards (Smart Cards) Å 10 cm Low < 1m Low to moderate 1 Š 100 m Moderate Asset trackin g for U.S. DoD (Pallets) 2Š5m Moderate to high EAN.UCC GTAG, MH10.8.4 (RTI) , AIAG B-11 (Tir es) High IEEE 802.11b, Bluetooth, CT, AIAG B-11 1Š2m
  14. 14.  A RFID reader transmits an encoded radio signal to interrogate the tag.  RFID readers are two-way radio transmitterreceiver called interrogates or reader.  The reader sends a signal to the tag and read its response.  The readers generally transmit their observations to a computer system running RFID software or RFID middleware.
  15. 15. Signaling between the reader and the tag is done in several different incompatible ways, depending on the frequent band used by the tag. This signaling is of two types 1). Near-field. 2). Far- field.
  16. 16.  Near field RFID is based on the principle of faraday’s magnetic induction.  A reader passes a large alternating current through a reading coil, resulting in an alternating current through reading coil.  If you place a tag that incorporates a smaller coil in this field, an alternating voltage will appear across it.  The current is proportional to the load applied to the tag’s coil. This concept is load modulation.
  17. 17. INDUCTIVE COUPLING TAG N R E A D E R S
  18. 18.  RFID tags based on far-field emissions capture electromagnetic waves propagating from a dipole antenna attached to reader.  Unlike induction designs, information can’t be transmitted back to the reader using load modulation.  By changing the antenna’s impedance overtime, the tag can reflect back more or less of incoming signal in a pattern that encodes the tag’s ID.
  19. 19. BACK SCATTERING R E A D E R T A G
  20. 20.  Host controller is a computer that communicates with the reader, it performs two main functions. 1). It is receiving data from the readers and performing data processing such as filtering and collation . 2). It serves as a device monitor, making sure the reader is functioning properly, securely and with up to date instructions.  Host controllers are connected to readers through network technologies such as TCP/IP or sometimes through serial connectivity.
  21. 21. APPLICATIONS OF RFID Auto Immobilizers Automated Vehicle Id • Isolated systems • Simple reads • Slow growth Animal Tracking Access Control
  22. 22. We proposed a rfid based employee tracking system with the functionalities as 1). It tracks the employee location with in the campus. 2). It stores the data of an employee during his stay in the region. 3). Graphical interface system. 4). Automatized attendance system can be embedded.
  23. 23. QUERIES ???? THANK YOU……

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