• Chlorine is created industrially by using the electrolysis of a concentrated aqueous solution of sodium chloride (brine).• There are two methods in creating chlorine, they are: mercury cell electrolysis and membrane cell electrolysis.
• MERCURY CELL ELECTRLYSIS Mercury cell electrolysis was the first methodused to produce chlorine on an industrial scale.Titanium anodes are located above a liquid mercurycathode and a solution of sodium chloride ispositioned between the electrodes. When anelectrical current is applied, chloride is released at thetitanium anodes and sodium dissolves into themercury cathode forming an amalgam.
The amalgam can be regenerated into mercury byreacting it with water, producing hydrogen andsodium hydroxide . These are useful byproducts.However, this method consumes vast amounts ofenergy.
• MEMBRANE CELL ELECTROLYSIS The electrolysis cell is divided into two by amembrane acting as an ion exchanger. Saturatedsodium chloride solution is passed through theanode compartment leaving a lower concentration.Sodium hydroxide solution is circulated through thecathode compartment exiting at a higherconcentration. A portion of this concentratedsodium hydroxide solution is diverted as productwhile the remainder is diluted with deionized waterand passed through the membrane again.In the anode compartment: 2CL-(aq) -2e- CL2(g)In the cathode compartment: 2H(aq) + 2e- H2(g)
Membrane Cell Electrolysis
MEMBRANE CELL PROCESS The membrane cell process uses a celldivided into two compartments. This is separatedby a semi permeable membrane usually asbestosdiaphragm.• The purified brine solution is added to the container in both compartments.• In one compartment(A) titanium anode is set into place. In the other compartment(B) nickel or steel cathode is set up.
• The sodium diffuses through the membrane while chlorine is attached to the anode and is produced as chlorine gas.• At the cathode sodium hydroxide is produced pure.
• Chlorine Uses in Everyday Life It is used as a disinfectant in various water-treatment plants. Spread of waterborne diseases can be curbed by using chlorine in the water. chlorine is also used in pools to curb bacterial growth. Use of chlorine in sewage and waste treatment plants is also quite popular.• Chlorine Uses in Medicine Approximately 85 percent of medications used to treat a range of diseases, right from depression to arthritis, contain chlorine. Various compounds of chlorine are used as antiseptics as well as cleaning and disinfecting agents in medical facilities. Some of these compounds are also used in disinfecting various machines and equipment used by the medical fraternity.
• Chlorine Uses in Industry Chlorine easily dissolves in water to form a mixture of hydrochloric acid. Also known as chlorine water, this mixture is an excellent oxidizing agent, which is used in paper industry and fabric industry for the purpose of bleaching. Other than this chlorine is also used in preparing dyes, insecticides, explosives, metals, paints, plastics, refrigerants and solvents.• Chlorine Uses in the Body In human body, chlorine is present in form of soluble salts referred to as chloride. Along with sodium and water, chloride work as a mineral electrolyte, and plays a crucial role in distribution of fluids throughout the body. Chloride also helps in maintaining the fluid balance, both within as well as outside the cells. It is also essential for maintaining the require blood volume and proper blood pressure.
GROUP MEMBERS: KIMO ARMSTRONG DANA COLEY ANNAKAY MCBEAN KAMOYA WILLIAMS