155

0

338

230

422

1

21

228

22

46

89
145

194

104

86

356

187

359

93
481

21
483

25

16
374

476

114

254
...
MOSCOW’S
LIBRARIES

ATLAS

448 ROOMS WITH A VIEW

project by:
Paolo Ruaro
Giovanni Bellotti

tutors:
Paola Viganò
Alexande...
Index
• Introduction

• Chronology of Events

pg.
x
x

• History of Moscow’s Library System

xx

• The 448 Rooms of Moscow...
Introduction
The library system of Moscow stands today as a piece of a wider cultural
infrastructure that no longer exists...
Chronology of events
This time line is based on Irina Kharkov’s research “Management structure of the territorial network ...
centralization of the libraries becomes effective. St. Petersburg and
Moscow work as independent branches of the same orga...
changing conditions, although there is a greater availability of foreign
newspapers within the libraries.

Library n°75 in...
15

10

5
History OF MOSCOW’S LIBRARY SYSTEM
The History of Moscow’s libraries over the last 100 years is as complex and rich as
tha...
4. N. K. Krupskaya, Part two : Krupskaia
on libraries, ed Sylva Simsova (Hamden :
Archon Books, 1968) 45–51.

5. Thomas, C...
1. Planning the City of Socialist Man, Jack
C. Fisher, Journal of the American Institute
of Planners, Vol. 28, Iss. 4, 196...
In a lounge of a house-hold cooperative (Admiralteyskaya embankment), 1927-28

24

In a lounge of a students’ commune of t...
26

27
28

29
9. The Theology Of Tabula Rasa: Walter
Benjamin And Architecture in The Age
of Precarity, Pier Vittorio Aureli, Log 27,
20...
7. Specialization in Moscow’s libraries
began in the late 1980s, in the meantime
the most advanced library systems in the
...
the 448 rooms of Moscow’s library

The municipal libraries of the city are hosted in a variety of types, spread throughout...
36

37
38

39
40

41
42

43
44

45
46

47
48

49
50

51
Round House n°1

The library is hosted in one of the two “round
houses” existing in the city. Built in 1979 as part
of a g...
The round house soon after construction in 1972

54

55
K7

K7s were the first generation of industrial housing,
designed by the engineer Vitaliy Lagutenko. The
first protoype wa...
P-44

A series P-44 (П-44) is the longest lasting housing
product of Soviet Union and one of the most multiplied ones. Dev...
60

61
Kvartal

Kvartals are the clearest manifestation on an architectural scale of the city envisioned and built with
the “Stal...
64

65
lation as well as that of the boundaries of the city. Their
role as propaganda machines is, at this point, very clear:
lib...
11

square meters/inhabitant
number of libraries
inhabitants

1980
11,0

1960: As the city
grows in low density
prefabrica...
THE ZERO DEGREE OF THE LIBRARY

The role of the libraries as “places” has been in the past ten years a topic of studies
ma...
1. Scandinavian Experiences

13. Global Librarianship. Public Libraries
in Developed countries: a success story
from Scand...
20. Lenin’s wife, Krupskia, when asked
for reasons why Kant should be censored,
replied: ”The Masses do not read Kant”.
Ro...
Libraries n°139-29

Libraries n°139-29

356 square meters available,
165 accessible to the public

356 square meters avail...
Library n°35

257 square meters available,
142 accessible to the public

oid: 488

Library n°36 - Tolstoy Library - in the...
Library n°175

323 square meters available,
156 accessible to the public

oid:464

Library n°175 is located in the Cheryom...
802 square meters available,
346 accessible to the public
Library n°151

oid : 280
Library n°151 was instituted in 1980 an...
Library n°95

502 square meters available,
290 accessible to the public

oid: 426
The library was built between 1955 and 1...
Library n°128

1205 square meters available,
550 accessible to the public

oid: 85
The original collection of Library n° 1...
Library n°22

136 square meters available,
81 accessible to the public

oid 424

Library Ivan Zabelina hosts a collection ...
Library n°48
278 square meters available,
146 accessible to the public

oid: 004
Named after H. C. Andersen for the 200th ...
A NEW Library geography

The libraries seen as a single entity build a continuity that enables to read specific
aspects of...
1. “Gardens, parks of leisure and culture, water basins
and fountains”

1. The text is held at the manuscript
section of t...
2. Moscow’s metro

The connection of the libraries with the metro lines is
one that works on a temporal basis. The social ...
98

99
100

101
cinem
sp

school

075

ol

8’

co

lle

ge

8’

nsko

opre
snen

skay
aaa

Za

m

os

kv
or
ets

ka
ya

theatre

ege

coll...
Veteranov park

140

081

131

Dzhamgarovskiy park
078
105

471

Izhorskiy park

082

220/222
208

Chermyanka river
Dmitro...
The main lane of the Kirov Park, August 1937

106

Swimmers on the Moscow rivers, 1920s

107
Parks and forests
Kuzminkiy forestpark
Losinyy Ostrov forestpark

Topolevaya park
Lyublinskiy park

284
151

152

406/407
...
399

161
175

Rublevskiy park
367

296

Moscow river
Moscow river

159

158

Sadovniki park

Bolshoy Sadovyy pond

Bittsev...
Reserve Krylatskiye Hills

Penyaginskaya park

416/490

346/347/369

Troitskiy forestpark
Pobedy park

Ochakovka river
482...
Streets and boulevards

Borovika park

Dyusseldors�kiy park
Strastnoy bul'var

261

061/062

Rozhdestvenskiy bul'var
Srete...
374

076

271

Moscow University botanical garden

127

Savelovskogo Vokzala square

Borovskoye highway

128
272

065

Gra...
10km
039

326/393
026

488

Komsomolskiy alley

023

491

Zhivopisnaya bay

391

251
402

031
035

TroitseLykovskaya �lood...
Verkhniy Golovinskiy pond

Bolshoy Golovinskiy pond

103

137
102
140

368

202

182
191

Likhoborka ecologic park

Chermy...
Altu�ievskoe highway

131

Dmitrovskiy district

Bibirevo district

ghway

way
high
rov
Dmit

78

Severnoye Medvedkovo dis...
Microdistrict life in 1972

124

Winter jim class in the micro-district, 2007

125
1st RING

way
igh
252

Presnenskiy district

vh
sto

ia
tuz

En

244/253

e
km
an

Troparevo-Nikulino district
497

Kuus
i...
av
en
ue

lle
y

Le
ni
ns
ky

ky
a
Le
ni
ns

423/424

426
Gagarinskiy district

Schelkovskoe highway

Lomonosovskiy distri...
Passage number 5467

Dmitrov highway

Dmitrovskiy district

78

280

471

Kapotnya district
Bibirevo district

Altu�ievsko...
dwellings

Evolution of neighbourhood services

dwellings

Dwelling and services

garages

garages

church

dwellings

hos...
dwellings

Evolution of neighbourhood services
dwellings

dwellings

garages

garages

shop

Dwelling and services
dwellin...
Moscow's Libraries Atlas. 448 Rooms with a View.
Moscow's Libraries Atlas. 448 Rooms with a View.
Moscow's Libraries Atlas. 448 Rooms with a View.
Moscow's Libraries Atlas. 448 Rooms with a View.
Moscow's Libraries Atlas. 448 Rooms with a View.
Moscow's Libraries Atlas. 448 Rooms with a View.
Moscow's Libraries Atlas. 448 Rooms with a View.
Moscow's Libraries Atlas. 448 Rooms with a View.
Moscow's Libraries Atlas. 448 Rooms with a View.
Moscow's Libraries Atlas. 448 Rooms with a View.
Moscow's Libraries Atlas. 448 Rooms with a View.
Moscow's Libraries Atlas. 448 Rooms with a View.
Moscow's Libraries Atlas. 448 Rooms with a View.
Moscow's Libraries Atlas. 448 Rooms with a View.
Moscow's Libraries Atlas. 448 Rooms with a View.
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Project by Giovanni Bellotti and Paolo Ruaro, tutors Paola Viganò (IUAV University of Venice) and Alexander Sverdlov (TU Delft, SVESMI).

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Moscow's Libraries Atlas. 448 Rooms with a View.

  1. 1. 155 0 338 230 422 1 21 228 22 46 89 145 194 104 86 356 187 359 93 481 21 483 25 16 374 476 114 254 504 200 258 1 442 376 238 372 265 49 498 82 24 100 331 41 282 175 111 18 270 436 451 435 208 520 62 357 94 136 452 350 172 198 179 243 421 427 34 144 MOSCOW’S LIBRARIES 180 312 384 361 135 171 255 395 216 153 272 55 181 413 457 311 373 35 313 354 71 235 500 467 ATLAS 14 425 351 380 259 291 131 507 444 348 450 334 365 438 391 38 299 448 ROOMS WITH A VIEW 97 99 146 342 371 330 513 217 42 289 236 79 308 307 370 106 160 242 73 218 475 80 332 102 76 333 318 251 95 263 57 389 61 116 516 287 212 51 494 130 449 115 110 31 249 309 75 290 128 366 37 288 197 68 203 168 81 159 485 19 397 0 140 52 463 349 285 295 119 166 277 403 328 321 53 418 15 85 117 219 428 11 294 496 469 26 4 454 489 47 325 189 185 234 244 88 381 3 505 7 510 65 67 133 225 379 281 91 276 430 383 169 490 386 345 156 253 394 317 252 283 360 247 439 429 390 401 237 4 139 120 518 479 158 32 215 271 426 448 58 453 319 257 419 25 447 127 105 327 392 519
  2. 2. MOSCOW’S LIBRARIES ATLAS 448 ROOMS WITH A VIEW project by: Paolo Ruaro Giovanni Bellotti tutors: Paola Viganò Alexander Sverdlov
  3. 3. Index • Introduction • Chronology of Events pg. x x • History of Moscow’s Library System xx • The 448 Rooms of Moscow’s Library xxx • The Zero Degree of the Library Scandinavian Experiences Libraries as Places, Books as Objects The Neutral Library • A New Library Geography xxx Spatial Equality and the role of the libraries From Free-time to Leisure Heritage Current Issues Round House n°1 K7 P-44 Kvartal Construction time-line and styles “Gardens, parks of leisure and culture, water basins and fountains” Kvartals and Microrayons Underground Rooms and Lines • Moscow Views • Bibliographic References xxx xxx xx
  4. 4. Introduction The library system of Moscow stands today as a piece of a wider cultural infrastructure that no longer exists. The 448 municipal libraries within the city’s boundaries belong to the list of soviet welfare infrastructures, along with hospitals, schools, clubs and sport centres, a complex social machine of which they are a fragment. Their present connotation, distribution, and function largely depends on this past, although the history of the libraries stretches beyond and before the 75 years of soviet regime. Its architecture can be seen as an element of continuity in Moscow’s XX century history, having survived through the change of three different regimes over one century. This continuity is expressed in their physical presence of the city, in their interiors, their collections, and especially in their direct link to political power; under each regime the libraries expressed the political message of the time. The present condition of the libraries, in this perspective, is that of a large system in transition where the lack of political and economical interests have slowed the changes that affected other institutions. The libraries constitute a huge resource of public space -their rooms alone would cover 25 hectares, an area three times that of the red square. This monumentality, however is expressed in a long list of small interiors, worn out collections and minor histories. Recognizing the library system as a whole, before considering its circumstantial situations, is a way to understand how the network was designed and maintained. The system embodies principles of soviet urbanism; libraries were related to the number of inhabitants and geographical distance from other services, they occupy the ground floors of the buildings and are evenly spread throughout the city. This quantitative approach in the planning faces today a variety of issues; bringing back the libraries to their present condition, studying their contexts and seeing which of these relations still exist, which don’t and which could be formed gives directions on how the network could be reorganized and on what it could accomplish. Such connections are often hidden behind a curtain of low fences, rows of garages, and blurred by the different management systems of the city’s grounds. The Atlas proposes three ecologies and a series of public elements to which the rooms can relate both on the scale of architecture and of management. Establishing a common language among the diversity of circumstances and building an atlas of relations between the libraries and their contexts is a first step towards the new cycle of the system and in recognizing the new geography of the libraries.
  5. 5. Chronology of events This time line is based on Irina Kharkov’s research “Management structure of the territorial network of public libraries in super big cities. Current trends and prospects for improvement”, and on Evgeny Kuzmin’s “From totalitarianism to democracy: Russian libraries in transition” Timeline of the most significant events in XX cenbtury Moscow •1862: “Regulations on public management of Moscow”, chapter on censorship and press (186), institutes “rooms for reading” under the control of the ministry of Interior affairs. •1881 Alexander II assassinated •1884: new regulations institute penalties for librarians guilty of displaying censored books. •1890: new regulations state that public libraries could only acquire books approved by the Synod or the Scientific Committee of the Ministry of Education. Library n°36 in 1910 •1896: a Catalogue with the authorized books is distributed across the public libraries of the country •1901: although plans were to have one library every 1000 literate people (estimated around 200.000 in Moscow), only 41 libraries were active in the city. •1904: plans are made to build 161 more libraries in the city •1910: the public Libraries in Moscow could count on ca 985.000 books in 65 libraries, 12 of which managed by the city, counting on 31 librarians1 , with a budget of 7000 roubles for the large libraries and 500 for the small ones Library n°36 in 1910 •1911: First meeting on librarianship is held in Moscow, a call is made for the training of professional librarians and for the dismissal of the 1884 censorship law, problems related to the lack of a central management are exposed. •1912: Plans are made for the institution of 300 state owned libraries in Moscow, including small libraries and larger libraries with reading rooms. The investment on Moscow was however never approved, and major investments were only made in St. Petersburg. •1917: On the eve of the revolution, 180 libraries operate in the city, 76 of which are free public libraries and an additional 40 private institutions which provided library service. The centralization of the system begins under the guidance of A. Piskunov. •1918: Issues regarding the network of Libraries are raised by N. Krupskaya, new libraries are proposed according to location, level of literacy and population density. •1918: City Central Library is opened in January. In December, the 10 •1891 - 1905 Trans Siberian Railroad built •1894 Accession of Nicholas II to the throne of Russia • 1896 May Coronation of Nicholas as Czar of all the Russians • 1901 Socialist Revolutionary Party founded • 1903 Congress of Social Democrats in London splits into Bolsheviks and Mensheviks • 1904 February 8 Russo-Japanese War begins with the Japanese attack on the Russian fleet at Port Arthur • 1905 January 22 “Bloody Sunday.” Lenin returns from Switzerland to St. Petersburg. Marchers fired on by Imperial Troops. After internal riots and unrest Nicholas re-establishes his power September 5 Russia defeated. Treaty of Portsmouth marks the end of the Russo-Japanese War. •1906 DUMA - Russia’s first elected parliament • 1914 August 1 Germany declares war on Russia •1917 March 16 Abdication of Nicholas II and formation of the Provisional Government • November 6-7 Bolsheviks seize key points including the Winter Palace. Provisional Government is overthrown and Bolshevik government is formed • 1918 March 3 Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, Bolsheviks negotiate a separate peace with Germany March 12 Capital is transferred from Petrograd to Moscow May Civil War begins, Red armies vs White armies July 16 Czar Nicholas and his family executed at Ekaterinburg November 11 World War I ends • 1919 Founding of the Communist International. •1921 March Lenin announces the New Economic Policy {NEP)— temporary postponement of socialist measures in agriculture and commerce. War gradually comes to an end with victories of Red Army. Uprising at Kronstadt naval base brutally suppressed. Ban on factions within the Communist Party. 11
  6. 6. centralization of the libraries becomes effective. St. Petersburg and Moscow work as independent branches of the same organism. The system is supervised by Lenin’s wife, Nedezhda Krupskaia • 1919: The principle of centralization proves to be unrealistic during the years of the NEP. The central system continues to operate 88 libraries, reduced to 80 by 1924, while 448 total libraries operate in the city. • 1921: Dewey classification system is introduced in all Russian libraries Library n°8 built in 1931 • 1930: major reforms are introduced, restructuring the library system (diagram 3) • 1935: over 220 libraries operate in Moscow, all under strict control of the Party. • 1941-1945: The number of operating libraries is drastically reduced during the “ Great Patriotic War”, many being bombed or converted to hospitals. Lenin’s Library in 1936 • 1953: a Minister for the Libraries is pointed, under direct supervision of the Ministry of Culture. The number of Libraries grows rapidly to 300, although most institutions are depending directly on the ministry of Culture and not on the municipality. • 1955: As the city grows in low density prefabricated housing, the ground floor of Moscow becomes more and more public: every micro-rayon hosts a library, the number of cbs and branches rises rapidly to 400. • 1959: following radical social changes in the post-war decade, libraries in Moscow undergo a series of reforms: Each city with more then one library must adapt one to be the central library, efforts to transform the independent libraries in a single network are made, a library code is issued and delivered to all central libraries in the country. • 1967: centralization is carried out on rural, urban and regional level. A solution for the library branches (sometimes up to 80) is still not found, although three solutions are proposed: total centralization in one system; a double network, for children and adults; various centralized system for the different districts. The third solution will be adopted for Moscow and Leningrad. • 1975: The city operates 437 free public libraries, united in 33 CBG (Central Library Systems) • 1985: during perestroika, the libraries struggle to define their role in the Russian changing society. Documentation on the period is inconsistent and gives a multifaceted picture, where single branches open to new contents while others remain tied to party values. The strong ideological character of the libraries still remains, proving the limits of the centralized system incapable of adapting rapidly to 12 •1922 March Stalin is named General Secretary of the Communist party at the eleventh Party Congress •Formation of Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). • 1923 Communists convert Cathedral of Saint Basil the Blessed (at Kremlin) into an anti-religious museum • 1924 January 21 Lenin dies • 1925 Work begins on Lenin’s red granite mausoleum Struggle for leadership of Communist Party gradually won by Stalin and his supporters. •1927 End of NEP. Beginning of first 5-year plan and campaign for the collectivization of agriculture. • 1935 First stage of Moscow metro opened. • 1938 Show trials. Tens of thousands of ordinary people, as well as three fifths of all army officers and many famous wrilters and artists sent to prison camps in Siberia, where most of them die. • 1939 Pact between Nazi Germany and Soviet Union - Poland divided between the two. • 1942 Germans in occupation of most of western Russia. Battle of Stalingrad: Germans eventually thrown back. • 1953 Death of Stalin, leadership taken over by Malenkov, Molotov and Khrushchev. • 1955 Khrushchev emerges as new dominant figure. Signing of military pact by communist countries of eastern Europe (the Warsaw Pact). Kremlin opened to the public • 1956 Khrushchev denounces Stalin in “secret speech” to 20th Party Congress. Demotion of some of Stalin’s close associates, rehabilitation of some of his victims. • 1964 Khrushchev voted out of office by his colleagues. Replaced by Joint leadership consisting of Brezhnev, Kosygin and Podgorny. • 1980 Olympic Games held in Moscow, boycotted by USA and some other countries • 1982 Brezhnev dies and is replaced by Andropov • 1984 Andropov dies and is replaced by the elderly Konstantin Chernenko • 1985 Chernenko dies and Gorbachev replaces him • 1986 Gorbachev begins policies of perestroika and glasnost 13
  7. 7. changing conditions, although there is a greater availability of foreign newspapers within the libraries. Library n°75 in 1959 • 1988: A new re-organization is implemented, trying to introduce specialization in the library system (leisure, literary history, news, video, computers, local history etc.) and an aim for each library (development of creative abilities, assistance to the elderly et cetera) • 1991: As the Soviet Union falls, the three principles that restrained the 453 libraries existing at the time (partiinost, spetskhran and censorship) fall with it. • 1994: Bill on libraries is approved, tying all city libraries to the DUMA authority, meanwhile a process of de-centralization is started. Library n°79 in 1979 Right: diagrams of the management of the city’s libraries 1871- 2013 • 2010: 448 Public Libraries operate in Moscow, 168 of which are children Libraries, under 36 centralized library systems. 4500 librarians are employed in the city serving 2.5 million users, lending around 50 million books per year. 14 • 1989 Yeltsin elected leader of Russia • 1992 A Federation Treaty is signed by 15 Russian republics The Supreme Soviet confirmed the dissolution of the Soviet Union. • 1993 Russian constitutional crisis • 1999 The State Duma confirmed the appointment of Vladimir Putin as Prime Minister of Russia. Second Chechen War: Russian ground troops invaded Chechnya. The treaty of creation of the Union of Russia and Belarus was signed. Boris Yeltsin resigned as President of the Russian Federation. Prime minister Vladimir Putin became acting president. • 2004 Putin won re-election to a second term, earning 71 percent of the vote. • 2008 Russian presidential election, 2008: Dmitry Medvedev won, earning 70.5 percent of the vote. • 2012 Russian presidential election, Vladimir Putin wins, earning 63.6 percent of the vote. 15
  8. 8. 15 10 5
  9. 9. History OF MOSCOW’S LIBRARY SYSTEM The History of Moscow’s libraries over the last 100 years is as complex and rich as that of the city itself. The core of the system stands today as a monument of soviet network planning, being the only surviving cultural infrastructure of the communist city spared from the privatizations that have reshaped most of the nation’s welfare networks1. As a heritage of the tsarist period - pre-revolutionary Moscow could already count on 180 collections of books2 - the changes within the libraries management and their spaces reflect the evolving tendencies of Russian politics under the soviet regime, just as their difficulty to adapt to contemporary Russian society. The soviet library system was instituted in 1922 by Lenin and his wife, Nedezhda Krupskaia, librarian by profession3: “[Libraries] were to serve as instruments for eradicating illiteracy and for educating the population; an important element was moral education, one which would make for good Marxist/Leninist citizens. Thus, the role of the librarian was not to facilitate access to material which the reader demanded, but rather to guide the reader to material that was considered appropriate and to keep away from the reader material which was considered inappropriate or harmful.” Since then, partiinost, spetskhran4 and censorship informed soviet librarianship for almost 75 years. 1. Privatization in Moscow,James H. Bater, Geographical Review, Vol. 84, No. 2 (April, 1994), pp. 201-215 2.Those Libraries were not accessible, however, by the entire population, but reserved to specific classes of workers belonging to trade unions or reserved to clergy or nobility. 2. From totalitarianism to democracy: Russian libraries in transition. Kuzmin, E. (1993). American Libraries, 24, 568-570. 3. Raymond, B. (1979). Krupskaia and Soviet Russian librarianship, 1917-1939. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press. 4. Under “Спецхран”, abbreviation for “special storage sections”, were listed all the books that were not accessible to the public without authorization. Those prohibited archives, opened only for researches of undoubted comunist beliefs became at one point so vast that became a storage problem for the libraries. Over 60% of the books in the libraries were censored in the year 1930 alone, when their stock had already being purged at least three times. By 1935 only few copies of the censored books were to be kept in a special section of the Lenin library, while the rest was to be destroyed. (Rogers, 1973)
  10. 10. 4. N. K. Krupskaya, Part two : Krupskaia on libraries, ed Sylva Simsova (Hamden : Archon Books, 1968) 45–51. 5. Thomas, C. (1999). Changes in Russian libraries in the 1990s. Focus on International and Comparative Librarianship, 30(3), 112-12. 6. Greening, J. M. (1995). Ten years in the life of Russian libraries. International Information & Library Review, 27, 113-127 Krupskaia started her activity directing underground libraries in pre-revolutionary Moscow, when libraries were either reserved for specific trade unions or exclusively for higher classes. After the revolution, Krupskaia initiated a census of the libraries, revealing the inadequacy of the system4: “We have a laughable number of libraries, and their book stocks are even more inadequate. Their quality is terrible, the majority of the population does not know how to use them and does not even know what a library is.” In the 1920s the education of a class of professional librarians was being formed for the first time in Russia. E.I. Samurin, one of the chief ideologists of soviet librarianship described in the 1940s the duties of the Russian librarian: (1) Indicate for each subject its ‘politically acceptable’ place in the classification scheme; (2) Grant first place in every division and subdivision to the opinions of the ‘classics of Marxism-Leninism’, as well as to party directives; (3) Grant priority to materials relating the Soviet Union as the country of ‘victorious socialism’, with the provision that these materials must be clearly separated from those of foreign (‘capitalist’) countries; (4) Grant fist place to ‘advanced’ (communist) theories and practices and literature about them; (5) Provide class, division, and subdivision names in ‘politically acute and distinct terms” above: Municipal Library n°16 in 1934, below: Lenin’s Library in 1936 In 1990, 115.000 libraries were active in the Soviet Union, all under the tight central planning authority and financial control of the government5. The following year, the ideological function of the libraries and their precise social objective - no person was to live more then 15 minutes from a library6 - became outdated overnight. Much has changed on the shelves of the libraries and in their management, however the spaces of the libraries- niches of public space spread homogeneously throughout the city- appear, in most cases, to have been frozen for over twenty years. 1. Spatial equality and the role of libraries Most historians recognize two principles shared within the communist party in the 1920s : a radical view of the basic structure of society, shifting from family to com20 21
  11. 11. 1. Planning the City of Socialist Man, Jack C. Fisher, Journal of the American Institute of Planners, Vol. 28, Iss. 4, 1962 2. The first edition of Tomorrow: a peaceful path to real reform (1898) was translated into Russian in 1901. In 1913 St. Petersburg already hosted a branch of the International Garden City Society. 3. Governing the Socialist Metropolis, Timothy Colton, 1995 3. “leisure” is taken here to define the part of the day not spent working, sleeping or travelling, although in communist Russia - “the nation of workers”- leisure was ill regarded as a concept, and free time had a more active connotation. 4. Idee per la città comunista, A. Baburov, 1966, pg 94 munity, and the abolition of “bourgeois” distinctions between city and countryside1. Both points are rooted in Marxist theory, and the latter, under the influence of Howard’s garden cities2, was to become a major theme of discussion among soviet urbanists from the 1920s. Although the academic positions that lead the urban discourse - Leonid Sabsovich’s City Urbanists and Mikhail Okitovic’s Disurbanists - were not taken into account in the 1935 plan, those Marxist principles influenced greatly the ideas for the communist capital. As early as 1918 the 17 tchasti of Moscow, the tsarist shell-like division of the city, were replaced by 11 rayoni, a radial system that was to ensure the inhabitant of the periphery, at least by definition, the same district of those living in the centre3. Parks, museums, playgrounds and libraries, as well as most of the cities free-time facilities revolved along the same principles of spatial equality, contributing to the image of a society where everyone had access to the same knowledge, therefore to the same possibilities. Cultural institutions were to build a bridge between cities and villages, the distance of which constituted a source of social inequality. As communism eroded more and more every aspect of private life - “Communism destroyed private life”, Benjamin wrote in the 20s - and as the working hours were progressively reduced, the problem of infrastructure for “leisure3” became more and more pressing. The issue of free time was addressed as an aspect of the communist lifestyle, “ in the interest of everyone and each one”, and as such required “a well defined place in space and time, equally accessible to everyone”4. Free time thus became an extension of communal living, where each individual could invest his energies on himself in order to better accomplish his individual aspirations. Facilities were heavily subsidized, and ideologically marked; “cultured” use of free time was seen as a mean for the transition from the “realm of necessities” to “the realm of freedom”:“ For a further, greater, growth of material culture, the following will be guaranteed: Increment of the network of Libraries, reading rooms, clubs and culture houses, cinemas (...) The Party retains necessary to distribute homogeneously throughout the nation cultural institutions to elevate gradually the cultural level of the 22 5. Program of the Communist Party of The Soviet Union, 1960 6. Time budget studies were conducted in Russia already between 1922 and 1923, however, for political reasons, no further research was conducted again until the early 60s. Free time and Leisure Participations: International Perspectives, chapter 14, Moscow. I. A. Butenko, 2006 7. Moscou: Portrait de Ville, E. Essaian, 2007, pg. 43 village to that of the city.5” Libraries and cultural institutions played a major role in fulfilling this purpose, and their history is a reflection of wider phenomena within the Soviet Union. 2. From free-time to leisure There are little information on time-use patterns before the early sixties6, when reading was reported to be the most common free time activity, averaging almost 6 hours per person each week in 1961 (Murray, 1967). In the eighties, during perestroika, libraries enjoyed their peak of success, mainly for the availability of international news. Books were at the time widely considered to be a good investment and a privileged free-time activity - 19% of Russians read “ regularly”, 25% read 2-3 books per month, 21% read 2-3 books per year (Butenko, 1997). Political changes in the 1990s, when cultural activities were no longer tied to ideological constraints, brought government subsidies to be drastically reduced, and many facilities were forced to close. At the same time private enterprise was on the rise, and many of the services became available only to the affluent few, a process accelerated by the 1998 financial crisis that has not reverted since. The artificial homogeneity of the communist city then became evident; within a few years, a new class of wealthy Muscovites re-occupied the most central parts of the city, and a handful of agencies bought, parcel by parcel, the city’s center7, while most of the cities welfare networks were privatized (Bater, 1994). The Libraries are an exception within this panorama; being a hardly economically exploitable resource they have remained public and represent the last social “machine” still active in the city (Zaitsev, 2001). 3. Physical Heritage As a heritage of the old regime, libraries still carry spatial principles of the time, being part of a diversified infrastructure of “use” built of canteens, club rooms, music halls, sport centres and other facilities, for a society where possession was reduced to a minimum and private space eroded, sometimes to the size of a small bedroom. 23
  12. 12. In a lounge of a house-hold cooperative (Admiralteyskaya embankment), 1927-28 24 In a lounge of a students’ commune of the Water Transport Institute. The 1920s 25
  13. 13. 26 27
  14. 14. 28 29
  15. 15. 9. The Theology Of Tabula Rasa: Walter Benjamin And Architecture in The Age of Precarity, Pier Vittorio Aureli, Log 27, 2013 10. OMA / Rem Koolhaas, El Croquis, Issues 53 + 79, 2006 “Use” was rapidly substituted by ownership and as investment was diverted from communal facilities free time activities became more private, fragmented and wealth-related. The dispersion of leisure, its “liquid” condition is in this regard not dissimilar to that of labor9, a dispersion which is not only in space, but in time as well. The “well defined place in space and time” (Baburov, 1968) for free-time marks today the change that took place; leisure can now be everywhere, at any time. Already in 1989 Rem Koohlaas, when describing the project for the “Trés Grande Biblioteque” was stressing the irony of designing a temple for books and other media in a moment when culture was becoming less and less tied to material boundaries10, addressing the issue of the role of public cultural spaces in the age of digital information. Being designed as a machine engineered to serve a known amount of people in a very controlled environment, Moscow’s libraries face today a double issue: the problem of defining their role within a society very different from that which originated them, and a global change of the role of public libraries. As a stratified system that grew for over a century libraries occupy today places so diverse that each requires to be recognized as a specific element, the most evident feature that unites them being precisely their appearing “out of context” and “frozen”; elements of a former continuity in a fragmented city. 4. Current Issues Moscow’s library network compares very poorly with most library systems in the world. A comparison between the networks is possible with systems that share a similar condition - geographical or historical. Considering the Swedish , or Norwegian network, similar for historical reasons, shows the potential of a dispersed library network, while considering a quantitatively similar network - like the library system of Los Angeles - shows how a different management of the network could bring large improvements without substantial changes to the funding. Currently, the city budget for the library network is of 87.5 million Euro per year, 65% of which is spent on 30 personnel and only 2.2% is spent on the collections. The average of funding for collections in Europe is 15%,; considering that 10 to 15% of the collection should be replaced each year and that new acquisitions are vital for the success of a library, the situation of Moscow’s libraries media collections, although official data are unavailable, is very likely to be bad. 11. SVESMI research on Public Libraries, 2012 Paradoxically, the expenses per library in Moscow are in average with those of most European cities, but the results achieved are very poor; Amsterdam, for example invests on each user 4,5€, in Moscow, proportionally, each visitor costs to the city 43€. A research conducted in 201311 on a sample of 133 libraries reveals that at least one title among the top thirty best sellers of 2011 and 2013 was available in only half of the libraries and 70% of the libraries shares three distributors for the books paying the books at the shelf price. Problems extend to the accessibility of the network; not only it is not possible to borrow books and register at the library without a residence permit, but using the reading rooms is also forbidden for non residents in the city. Building a digital catalogue of the libraries media has been on the agenda for years, but since four different coding systems are in use, this operation involves the complete remaking of each library’s catalogue. The “local” dimension of the libraries, their small size, their even distribution in the city and their resistance to change - largely due to insufficient funding - constitutes a unique feature of Moscow’s library network, and a chance to address issues raised by two decades of development that have revolved almost entirely on housing and office space. Hosted in the ground floor of almost every architectural type the city has to offer, from beaux art complexes to early prefabricated structures, Stalinist kvartaly, 1950s kruschevky, and 1970’s towers, the 448 public “rooms” of the libraries are niches of heated public space waiting to be recognized, the strength of which lies beyond the circumstantial facts that make each library different, but in the repetition and equal distribution of functions throughout the city’s boundaries. This continuity, however, has evolved over the years in the sterile repetition of interiors, of activities 31
  16. 16. 7. Specialization in Moscow’s libraries began in the late 1980s, in the meantime the most advanced library systems in the world were abandoning them in favour of a “generalist” approach to the library program dictated with an agenda far from that of the population and with an anachronistic specialization that was out of date long before its application7. The lack of interest in the libraries since the fall of the Soviet Union, both of the municipality and of the market, where it has preserved for future use their physical space, has marked a distance between the citizens and one of the traditional public spaces of the metropolis. The suspension of the library system between its abstract monumentality and its decaying elements is a challenge that involves a vision for the services offered to the citizens and a perspective on the city’s public dimension. 32
  17. 17. the 448 rooms of Moscow’s library The municipal libraries of the city are hosted in a variety of types, spread throughout the boundaries of the municipality. The construction of the network lasted over one century and grew - or shrank - according to political agendas, economical contingencies or exceptional events. This process crystallized a variety of moments of the city’s history; the interior architecture of the libraries and of their buildings is a manifestation of these events. Being a “top-down” institution, there have been few filters between the role of the libraries in the city and the political agenda behind it; this “stratification”, therefore, is not simply one of architectural styles or management, but one of contradictory roles that were assigned to the institution. Most historical narratives on the city develop around a pivotal year which determines a “before” and an “after” in the city in the XX century. This definition, although easily readable in the libraries management, does not apply when it comes to the physical presence of the library in the city; they have not disappeared nor been radically reformed, but rather faded, once their social role was no longer felt as a necessity in Russian society. This continuity of the system, not only historical, but geographical, is today the greatest strength of the network and makes it one of the few public elements of continuity besides the infrastructural networks. The classifications proposed and the architectural types shown describe the variety of structures hosting the libraries as they are visible today. 34 35
  18. 18. 36 37
  19. 19. 38 39
  20. 20. 40 41
  21. 21. 42 43
  22. 22. 44 45
  23. 23. 46 47
  24. 24. 48 49
  25. 25. 50 51
  26. 26. Round House n°1 The library is hosted in one of the two “round houses” existing in the city. Built in 1979 as part of a grand design envisioned for the 1980 Moscow Olympics, the round houses were to be part of a gigantic five ring logo of the olympics, to be seen from the airplanes landing in Moscow. The library is located on the ground floor of the building, on the south east side of the ring. Due to the terrain slope, the interior facade of the library is half submerged and only low windows appear in the courtyard. The ground floor of the building used to host services and public facilities for the inhabitants of the 936 flats of the building. Most of those places have now become shops, workshops or small offices while the library, although underused, maintains its collection accessible to the public. The libraries here - n°139 and children library n°29 - hold a collection of 116.000 items. Renovated in 2009, it hosts a variety of events, from fairy tales nights to music contexts open to users and neighbours. 53
  27. 27. The round house soon after construction in 1972 54 55
  28. 28. K7 K7s were the first generation of industrial housing, designed by the engineer Vitaliy Lagutenko. The first protoype was built in 1958 by DSK, a special purpose company built for the production of K7s. By the early 1960s a kruschevka could be built in 10-12 days, and inhabited within a month. Assembled like lego bricks - although some exceptions were made, and some were built in bricks - those buildings owed their success to their cheapness; interior partitions were 4cm thick, partitions between apartments were 8cm, elevators were discarded, and their low height is due to medical considerations, 5 stories being considered the maximum height allowable to walk. By the end of the 1960s K7s hosted 54% of the Russian population, and still house today 10% of the population of Moscow. Most K7s are now being demolished due to their fast deterioration, replaced by higher buildings. The living condition in the Khrushovka were terrible, and the project has been openly criticized, even by Lagutenko himself, although the comfortable neighbourhood dimension is often missed by the inhabitants of newer houses complexes. The process of demolition of the K7s involves the libraries directly since over 60 in the city are still hosted on the ground floor of K7s. K7 K7s were the �irst gene ing, designed by the en The �irst protoype was special purpose compa tion of K7s. By the ea could be built in 10within a month. Asse although some exceptio were built in bricks - th success to their cheap were 4cm thick, partiti were 8cm, elevators w low height is due to m stories being consider allowable to walk. By t hosted 54% of the rus house today 10% of th Most K7s are now bein fast deterioration, repl The living condition i terrible, and the pr criticized, even by Lag the comfortable neig often missed by the inh complexes. The proces involves the libraries the city are still hoste K7s. 57
  29. 29. P-44 A series P-44 (П-44) is the longest lasting housing product of Soviet Union and one of the most multiplied ones. Developed by DSK-1 in Moscow, buildings of the type had been built from 1979 up until the year 2000 and became an omni-present symbol of capital districts built in the 1980s and 90s. North and South Butovo, Kon’kovo, Krylatskoye, Mitino, Yasenevo and Zhulebino have been built almost solely with structures of that one type. P-44 was replaced by P-44T, P-44-K and P-44TM and those incarnations of the type remain the most popular building models in Moscow. The structure of the P44s allowed for a variety of services to be placed along its perimeter, the “variable profile” of the building was to assure a moderate densification of the services within the micro-rayon. P-44 A series P-44 (П-44) is ing product of Soviet U multiplied ones. De Moscow, buildings of from 1979 up until th an omni-present symb in the 1980s and 90s. Kon'kovo, Krylatskoye Zhulebino have been structures of that one by P-44T, P-44-K and Ptions of the type remai ing models in Moscow. allowed for a variety along its perimeter, th building was to assure of the services within t 59
  30. 30. 60 61
  31. 31. Kvartal Kvartals are the clearest manifestation on an architectural scale of the city envisioned and built with the “Stalinist” plan of 1935. Those blocks, usually styled in a classicist fashion, were to give the new image of the comunist metropolis; large roads up to thirty meters wide surrounded by a coherent motive of the façades. Kvartals replaced the old blocks of the city, three to four times smaller, and provided an image of order. Due to the housing emergency, however, those blocks often concealed portions of the older city within; being too expensive to be entirely replaced, portions of the old city fabric still exist behind those curtains, like corings from another epoch. Kvartals are the clearest manifestation on an architectural scale of the city envisioned and built with the “stalinist” plan of 1935. Those blocks, usually styled in a classicist fashion, were to give the new image of the comunist metropolis; large roads up to thirty meters wide surrounded by a coherent motive of the facades. Kvartals replaced the old blocks of the city, three to four times smaller, and provided an image of order. Due to the housing emergency, however, those blocks often conceiled portions of the older city within; being too expensive to be entirely replaced, portions of the old city fabric still exhist behind those curtains, like corings from another epoch. 63
  32. 32. 64 65
  33. 33. lation as well as that of the boundaries of the city. Their role as propaganda machines is, at this point, very clear: library purges had taken place at least four times, and over 60% of the collections were not accessible to the public. Quantitative History of the Libraries 1890-2013 The construction of the library in Moscow took place almost entirely in the XX century. Pre-revolutionary Moscow could count on collections accessible to the public, however the low degree of alphabetization and the central location of those libraries made them approachable only to a wealthy minority. Since 1918, the number of libraries in the city grows while their role is redefined and bounded to other cultural networks - schools, clubs, universities. tsar Nicholas II V. Lenin A. Rykov J. Stalin G. Malenkov N. Kruschev Andropov and Kernenko Gorbachev L. Brezhnev • 1999 The State Duma confirmed the appointment of Vladimir Putin as Prime Minister of Russia. • 2012 Russian presidential election, Vladimir Putin wins, earning 63.6 percent of the vote. • 1992 A Federation Treaty is signed by 15 Russian republics The Supreme Soviet confirmed the dissolution of the Soviet Union • 1972 Brezhnev and U.S. President Nixon sign an arms control agreement • 1968 Armed action taken by Soviet Union and allies to keep Czechoslovakia firmly in Soviet bloc and to reverse liberalization measures. • 1956 Khrushchev denounces Stalin in “secret speech” to 20th Party Congress. • 1953 Death of Stalin. Leadership taken over by Malenkov, Molotov and Khrushchev. • 1946 - 1950 Kremlin walls and battlements restored • 1941 June: Germany invades Soviet Union. • 1935 First stage of Moscow metro opened. • 1927 End of NEP and approval of first quinquennial plan • 1923 Communists demolish Cathedral of Saint Basil the Blessed • 1917 March 16 Abdication of Nicholas II and formation of the Provisional Government • Capital is moved from St. Petersburg to Moscow • 1901 Socialist Revolutionary Party founded • 1906 Duma Russia’s first elected parliament is founded 8 •1921 March Lenin announces the New Economic Policy . Following Krupskaia’s reform of 1922 the growth in number of the libraries follows steadily that of the popu- 9 7 If the years of war see most libraries converted to hospitals, the post war period, under the leadership of Nikita Kruschev, becomes the moment of maximum expansion of the network. The library system will enjoy in those years, between 1960 and 1970, its golden age; many libraries are opened in the ground floors of prefabricated housing blocks and their role becomes that to serve a second generation of comunist citizens. For those born • 1982 Brezhnev dies and is replaced by Andropov 10 • 1980 Olympic Games held in Moscow 11 Y. Luzhkov S. Sobyanin 6 250 5 200 4 150 3 100 2mil 50 libs 1890 1918 1924 66 1935 1950 1960 1972 1980 67 1990 2000 2013
  34. 34. 11 square meters/inhabitant number of libraries inhabitants 1980 11,0 1960: As the city grows in low density prefabricated housing, the ground floor of Moscow becomes more and more public: every microrayon hosts a library, the number of cbs and branches rises to 400 within 1960. 1920 9,5 9 1953: a Minister for the Libraries is pointed, under direct supervision of the Ministry of Culture. The number of Libraries grows rapidly to 300. 8 1912 7,4 1935: over 220 libraries operate in Moscow, all under strict control of the Ministry of Culture. 1922 7,4 square meter per capita 3 100 2mil 50 libs 1961 6,4 1925 5,9 1926 5,8 1930 5,5 1931 5,2 1939 1934 4.137.000 4,2 1940 4,1 principle of centralization proves to be unrealistic during the years of the NEP. The central system continues to operate 88 libraries, but many more are open in the city. 1910: the public Libraries in Moscow could count on ca 985.000 books in 65 libraries, 12 of which managed by the city, counting on 31 librarians , with a budget of 7000 rubles for the large libraries and 500 for the small ones 1941-1945: The number of operating libraries is drastically reduced during the “ Great Patriotic War”, many being bombed or converted to hospitals. 1959 5.032.000 1950 4,2 1924: Public libraries are reduced to 80 1901: although plans were to have one library every 1000 literate people (estimated around 200.000 in Moscow), only 41 libraries were active in the city. 1926 2.019.500 1897 1.038.625 1890 1918 1924 68 1935 1950 2010: 426 Public Libraries operate in Moscow, 168 of which are children Libraries, under 36 centralized library systems. 4500 librarians are employed in the city, serving 2.5 million users, lending around 50 million books per year. 1989 8.967.332 1970 6.941.961 1917: On the eve of the revolution, 180 libraries operate in the city, 76 of which are free public libraries and an additional 40 private institutions which provided library service. The centralization of the system begins under the guidance of A. Piskunov. 1919: The 4 150 1971 9,3 2002 10.382.754 1979 7.850.509 1924 6,2 6 250 1975: The city operates 437 free public libraries, united in 33 CBG (Central Library Systems) 1966 8,2 1923 6,8 5 200 1991: As the Soviet Union falls, the three principles that restrained the 453 libraries existing at the time (partiinost, spetskhran and censorship) fall with it. 1976 10,3 10 7 2013 11.794.000 1985 11,4 1960 1972 under the regime, the priority is no longer mere alphabetization, but the formation of convinced marxist-leninst citizens. The libraries nature adapts to that of their new environment, stretching from the wide halls of the Stalinist blocks to the more modest rooms of the standardized houses. As the government compensates the chronicle lack of private space with a more developed welfare system, the libraries become extensions of the houses, covering the need for activities that the tiny K7 apartments could not allow. During Perestroika, although the libraries collections had been purged numberless times, the libraries granted access to some international publications and enjoyed a period of active participation to the city’s life. Since 1991, although the number of libraries has not being reduced, its growth ceased to follow that of the population, while no strategy to reform the system has been proposed since recently. The changes in the libraries over the last years appear to be related to the ability or interest of the librarians while no clear plan is readable though the various reforms that have involved them in the past twenty years; as the libraries become more and more the “houses” of the librarians, the population diverts its attention from them. 1980 69 1990 2000 2013
  35. 35. THE ZERO DEGREE OF THE LIBRARY The role of the libraries as “places” has been in the past ten years a topic of studies mainly in Scandinavian countries, where advanced welfare systems are facing questions common to all cultural institutions in times of digitalization. The Swedish and Norwegian library systems share the spatial principles of the Muscovite network: a large amount of medium to small libraries, evenly spread in the major cities12. Sweden and Norway enjoy today two of the world’s most advanced library systems, with over 60% of the population using the libraries regularly. Scandinavian and soviet network shared from the 1930s a similar history; where social-democratic positions in Sweden paved the way for a strong welfare state, Russian communism was building a lifestyle that did not revolve around private properties - and relationsbut on collective rituals and places. Reforms allowed libraries in Sweden to develop an identity as an institution less bound to ideological constraints, while Moscow’s libraries once missing all the range of services that completed them - sport centres, clubs, study circles, canteens et cetera - struggle to define their role. Revealing the “grade 0” of Moscow’s libraries is an operation of clearance of the historical stratification and of the ideological positions that the libraries have been carrying, reading them as a diversity of spaces with a flexible program, united by their neutrality and ability to interact with over services and places within their reach. The operation allows to develop a unity of the system and show what it can accomplish as a whole. Neutrality, therefore, is not intended here as the absence of a program or role, but as a condition where all the possible developments are implicit within their physical space, a first step in order to bind the libraries to their physical context. 12. In 2012 Sweden ran 289 Library networks and over 2000 libraries in the country with an overall collection of 44 milion books. 60% of the population uses the library regularly, a number growing to 95% for children aged 5 to 13. (Thomas, 2004) 70 71
  36. 36. 1. Scandinavian Experiences 13. Global Librarianship. Public Libraries in Developed countries: a success story from Scandinavia, by Barbro Thomas, 2004 15. PLACE - Public Libraries Arenas for Citizenship studies the libraries role in promoting community and building social capital. The origin of the library network lay, in Sweden, in the parish libraries,t born as an enforcement of the church law of 1686, according to which the clergy was responsible to teach reading “so that the children may with their own eyes see God’s holy laws and commands”. By the end of the XIX century parish libraries, incapable or unwilling to cope with the challenges of a new time, were being gradually substituted. The new actors in the development of the library network became then popular movements -labour and peasentry organizations- often animated by a left-wing agenda, which introduced new contents in their “study circle libraries”. These groups established and for a long time ran a nationwide network that played an important role in the democratic process. The study circle library movement promoted contents beyond the religious restrains of their parish predecessors; by the 1930s 3000 libraries proposed to their public philosophy, literature, politics, fiction and poetry, ranging from Marx to Jack London. In the 1950s these libraries were gradually absorbed by local authorities, paving the way for the present public library landscape13. Between the 1950s and the 1970s the growth of the libraries was huge; the overall media collection passed from 1.5 milion to 24 millions and circulation almost doubled. In the meantime, the architecture of the libraries was undergoing structural changings; the number of libraries was reduced from the over 3000 study circle libraries to around 1000, until a new left reformist wave in the 1970s, lead by young librarians, inverted, once again, the trend; libraries were to be the medium of a culture for all, and education was regarded as the mean for the lower classes to raise their social condition. The number of libraries in Sweden is today above 2500 for a population of less the 10 milion. The country is considered to have one of the most advanced library systems, which, although touched by cuts in the early nineties, still functions as a fundamental social tool for its citizens. In Norway the role of libraries as public spaces is currently being developed through a series of projects related to the PLACE15 program. The program studies the role of libraries in building community values by providing free public space, services, and a sense of 72 16. How do public libraries function as meeting places? Svanhild Aabo, Ragnar Audunson, Andreas Varheim, 2009 17. Use of Library space and the Library as space, Svanhild Aabo, Ragnar Audunson, 2012 ownership from the community. Statistics show that the libraries in Norway are used as public spaces to a great extent and that around 60% of the users do not visit the library to borrow books, films or other library material during their visits, but use it as a meeting space (ABM-utvikling, 2008). Ragnar Adunson, founder of the place project, identifies six categories of meetings that are held in Libraries: libraries as community squares, where acquaintances happen randomly; libraries as places where people are exposed to diversity; libraries as a public sphere; libraries as places for joint activities with friends and families; libraries as meta meeting places and libraries as virtual meeting places16. The public role of the libraries became evident during the research as patterns of behaviour were revealed; users would frequently bend the rules, personalizing their space, consuming food and frequently interacting within the premises of the libraries (McKechnie et al. 2012). The design of the libraries physical spaces played a major role in these behaviours. A similar study conducted in a British University (Bryant et al., 2009) revealed that the free plan area was the most widely used in the premise, and that diverse activities co-existed within it. 2. Libraries as places, books as objects 19. It has been announced that funds for public libraries will be raised by 50% from 2014, and that digital cataloguing of all the collections will be completed within 2015. http://www.mn.ru/moscow_people/20130830/355164966.html History of librarianship shows how the focus of libraries has been in the past mainly oriented towards the number of media in the collections. Most of the libraries in the world still publicize their institution with a quantitative statement of kind; the more books, the more comprehensive the coverage. Development in information technology is influencing this standard heavily; the British Library, in its 2020 statement reckons that within 7 years 75% of new books will be published in digital versions, Amazon sold in the last years more kindles then Harry Potter books. The Scandinavian stories illustrate how book collections and their renewal19 have been an important tool, although not the only one, in granting the libraries success. Equal attention has been placed in studying the libraries as ecologies, their user’s habits and the patterns of behaviour. Although most libraries in Moscow still offer incomplete collections - authors such as Tolstoy, Kant or 73
  37. 37. 20. Lenin’s wife, Krupskia, when asked for reasons why Kant should be censored, replied: ”The Masses do not read Kant”. Robert Rogers, Censorship and Libraries in the soviet Union A Journal of Library History, Philosophy, and Comparative Librarianship Vol. 8, n°1, 1973 19. Each library in Sweden receives special funds for the government besides ordinary grants to renew their collection. On average each library receives 700 free books a year to add to their collection. (Thomas, 2009) James still miss from some library shelves, a reminder of censorship laws from over 70 years ago20 - Moscow’s network is currently undergoing changes reforming their databases, digitalizing their contents and upgrading their collections, which have been degrading since the early 1990s19. These reforms are inevitable and open chances to work on the public functions of those spaces and on the historical significance of their current archives. David Pearson, director of Culture, Heritage and Libraries for the City of London foresees a future where public libraries will share more traits in common with museums - libraries as museums of marginalia - the value of books shifting from their pure content to their totality as objects, where collections will not be valued solely by their numbers but by the history of their items. Pearson reminds how, although most librarians shudder at the thought of libraries transformed into museums, many museums have renewed their civic role by proposing different ways of exploring their archives and using their spaces. At the same time, with more and more content being available online, the choice of users tends to be more oriented towards the closest library rather then to a content specific one. This choice is influencing the development of libraries in Scandinavian countries (Thomas, 2012), where specialized public libraries have now disappeared after reforms undertaken in the 1980s, and efforts go in the direction of unifying research libraries with general public ones- as in the case of the towns of Harnosand and Visby, where under the same roof municipal and University libraries coexist (Thomas 2004). the temporary institution of “private” domains, together with the small size of Moscow’s libraries makes them the ideal continuation of the private space of the homes and a service to larger and less specialized public areas. 74 75 3. The Neutral Library Lofland (1998), studying cities and urban life, classifies spaces in three categories; a public realm, where interaction is between strangers; a parochial realm, where the main form of relation is communal, and private realm, where interactions happen between people who know each other. When observing the use of public libraries, those three categories seem to exist within the same building; private activities are carried out within micro private spaces defined by the users, often personalized, yet the institution is accessible to all, and interactions happen as soon as people divert their attention from their private activity. The appropriation of space and
  38. 38. Libraries n°139-29 Libraries n°139-29 356 square meters available, 165 accessible to the public 356 square meters available, 315 accessible to the public The library is hosted in one of the two “round houses” existing in the city. Built in 1979 as part of a grand design envisioned for the 1980 Moscow Olympics, the round houses were to be part of a gigantic five ring logo of the Olympics, to be seen from the airplanes landing in Moscow. The library is located on the ground floor of the building, on the south east side of the ring. Due to the terrain slope, the interior facade of the library is half submerged and only low windows appear in the courtyard. The ground floor of the building used to host services and public facilities for the inhabitants of the 936 flats of the building. Most of those places have now become shops, workshops or small offices while the library, although underused, maintains its collection accessible to the public. The libraries here n°139 and children library n°29 - hold a collection of 116.000 items. Renovated in 2009, it hosts a variety of events, from fairy tales nights to music contexts open to users and neighbours. The Round House Library is located in a micro-rayon that has maintained its original characteristics almost unchanged since its construction. The round houses offer to their inhabitants a closed garden, easily controlled by the tenants, where children can play freely without supervision as the local community assures constant control over the courtyard. The round garden contained within hosts playgrounds, car parks and greenery accessible directly by the inhabitants but open to the rest of the micro-rayon community by four large gates distributed along the perimeter. The domain of the library can stretch easily to the garden, engaging the surrounding spaces with open air activities; the library can be seen as a large open courtyard and a covered niche, where the inner ecology of the Round House enriches the public space of the local community. oid: 494-499
  39. 39. Library n°35 257 square meters available, 142 accessible to the public oid: 488 Library n°36 - Tolstoy Library - in the Domodilovo district was opened in 1931 and named after J. Stalin. It was one of the few libraries active during the war, and became one of the largest in Moscow in the early 1960, when, after being renamed Tolstoy library, was holding a collection of over 150.000 books. Hosted in a Stalinist kvartal, the library offers to the public generous rooms, with ceilings up to five meters in height. The large courtyards of the block, accessible yet hidden from the street, hold within fragments of the pre-soviet city, in this case dense XIX century fabric. Today, the library holds a collection of 53.000 items available for its 8000 users. Library n°35 257 square meters available, 225 accessible to the public
  40. 40. Library n°175 323 square meters available, 156 accessible to the public oid:464 Library n°175 is located in the Cheryomuski district of Moscow. The library was opened in 1958, soon after the construction of its building. Hosted in one of the first generation K7s, this space shares with all other first generation Krushevky buildings an uncertain future; scheduled to be demolished by 2012, thousands still survive in the city. The replacement of prefabricated structures from the 1950s and 1960s is among the most controversial issues the city is facing today, where the need for replacement of those structures is evident, the new generation of buildings raises many concerns, their height been often tripled while the services provided to the neighbourhood is progressively eroded. The library provides 65.000 items between books and magazines to its users. Library n°175 323 square meters available, 240 accessible to the public
  41. 41. 802 square meters available, 346 accessible to the public Library n°151 oid : 280 Library n°151 was instituted in 1980 and moved to the current building in 1984. It holds a collection of 43.000 books and has subscriptions to around 50 periodicals. Located in the remote Kapotnya rayon in the south east of Moscow, the library is built as a single story prefabricated building, an extension to the profile of a P44 tower from the late 1970s. The variable profiles of the buildings allowed for a great versatility of the ground floor spaces, and used to host a variety of public services. Library n°151 802 meters available, 695 accessible to the public
  42. 42. Library n°95 502 square meters available, 290 accessible to the public oid: 426 The library was built between 1955 and 1959, it is one of the last buildings designed by the soviet architect Ivan Zholtovsky. Zholtovsky’s work spans from the early days of the soviet Moscow when he was, together with Schushev, assigned by Lenin the task to prepare the urban plan for Moscow - a plan to be dismissed by Stalin in 1932 - till his experiences with prefabricated structures in the 1960s. This classicist structure maintains in the library most of the original furniture, although the interiors have undergone many transformations over the years. Due to the very small number of visitors - not more then two or three people a day the library is facing eviction. Library n°95 502 square meters available, 420 accessible to the public
  43. 43. Library n°128 1205 square meters available, 550 accessible to the public oid: 85 The original collection of Library n° 128 was instituted in 1953 and moved to the current structure in 1973. Located in the north-east of the city, it is part of an almost unaltered micro-rayon built following the 1972 plan, offering freely accessible recreation grounds, courts and playgrounds in the inside. Located on the edge of the micro-rayon the library is an elegant single story structure, where the flexible structural plan has allowed for a series of subdivisions over the years. The library has access and view to the large green “mat” of the micro-rayon, where the low maintenance has allowed greenery to develop freely among niches of sport facilities and open air services. No data are available regarding the collection or the number of users. Library n°128 1205 square meters available, 1000 accessible to the public
  44. 44. Library n°22 136 square meters available, 81 accessible to the public oid 424 Library Ivan Zabelina hosts a collection of around 40.000 books acquired both through the cbs and through independent agreement with publishers. It is located in the south western Obrushevky area of the city. Library n°22 136 square meters available, 109 accessible to the public
  45. 45. Library n°48 278 square meters available, 146 accessible to the public oid: 004 Named after H. C. Andersen for the 200th anniversary of the authors death, Library number 48 was established in the early thirties, probably in 1932. The library specializes in children literature with a collection of 30.000 books. Library n°48 278 square meters available, 226 accessible to the public
  46. 46. A NEW Library geography The libraries seen as a single entity build a continuity that enables to read specific aspects of the growth of the city - the shift from the dense wooden city of the early XX century to the monumental interventions of the Stalinist era, the development of prefabricated structures in the late 1950s or the most recent Euro-remont fashion while disregarding another - the specific value of each piece in its context and its role in the public realm. This role is one to be re-found, since the libraries have developed into a closed and self referential system, that not only doesn’t interact with its context, but struggles to work coherently. The street life described by Benjamin, Bulgakov or Rodchenko in the 1930s embodies this idea of a local community sharing routines and places in the open. This reality changed when streets and squares became “decorations” to the strictly functional purpose of the streets envisioned in the 1935 plan. The public spaces were then identified with the large forest-parks, surrounded by public services for culture and leisure- Gorky park with its air balloon, the library and other amenities. The development of the post-war period brought life to the court yards of kvartals and to the wide green surfaces of the microrayons, as the functional elements of the houses were spread not in the apartments, but in the block as a whole. The issue of contemporary public spaces is pressing since the changes in the management of the districts and the arrival of new Muscovites in areas that had over time developed as micro-villages is changing the geography of those areas. 92 93
  47. 47. 1. “Gardens, parks of leisure and culture, water basins and fountains” 1. The text is held at the manuscript section of the Museum of the History of Moscow n the Barsov fund 2. In “Mosca, 1900-1950: Nascita di una capitale”, De Magistris, 1994, extract from a speach by J. Stalin in 1935 XVI century Moscow covered barely two thirds of the surface available, the remaining land was a rural landscape, intervaled by few unpaved roads. The “List of gardens and palaces in Moscow and in the villages of Moscow’s districts” of 17051 lists the various gardens and parks that enchanted the villagers of the region. From the Kremlin gardens to the Vasil’evskij in the white city, Dutch baroque style inspired the most celebrate designs of the time. The XVIII century left Moscow with new parks and gardens, the bul’var ring and a variety of aristocratic gardens, creating a collection of closed microcosms in the city. The following centuries saw this landscape develop into an extremely rich system of parks, forests and gardens within the city’s boundaries. (to the right, a plan of Moscow in 1700 from the David Rumsay map collection) “In Future Moscow, in the city of happy people, once imaginable only in utopic stories, vast areas will be occupied by gardens, parks of leisure and culture, water basins and fountains”. Today 2.345 hectares of large parks, 748 of neighbourhood parks, 126 of gardens and 1.080 of bul’var form the “green sea” that covers 4,3% of the municipality’s surface (Frattini, 2007). The 1935 plan introduced in the city vast green areas, enhancing its radial structure in an attempt to control the development of industrial areas. Those large green areas often coupled “parks of leisure and culture” with vast unmaintained forests, stretching into the city from the forest surrounding it. The double nature - urban and wild - of these parks is of great importance for the ecology of Moscow. The densification of the city in the past years has left many neighbourhoods facing the paradox of large green areas that are virtually inaccessible due to their lack of services; understanding the role of those ecologies as public spaces means giving value, thus protecting, one of the most visible heritages of the soviet era. The proximity of the libraries with forests, large parks and water courses is one to be explored; while those areas are vital as low maintenance reserves, the libraries can adapt in order to become their portals. 94 95
  48. 48. 2. Moscow’s metro The connection of the libraries with the metro lines is one that works on a temporal basis. The social geography of the city with its artificially maintained diversity was dismantled very rapidly in the early 1990s; this meant a change not only in the social panorama, but in the use that the public transport was to bear. The hours spent in the metro lines have almost doubled only in the past five years, as workers cover more and more miles on a daily basis. Libraries can offer a service for this time, if the different branches of the network were to be understood on the basis of transport; a cbs based on abstract municipality boundaries can hardly embrace a community that is built not only on residents, but changes throughout the day. The liveliness of the libraries, depends largely on their ability to serve this wider public. The recognizability of the libraries as systems such as this, in terms both of architecture and service is necessary if the libraries are to be truly open. 3. Blocks and super blocks Microrayons and kvartals were built as a system where each part was necessary for the functioning of the whole; canteens and laundries, club rooms and sport facilities, libraries and museums, cinemas and theatres were highly specialized public rooms built for a purpose and functioning as one entity. As those connections fade, new can be found. The maps proposed are a draft for a series of local systems that can bring together the existing facilities. 4. New Geographies Large scale networks, such as the metro lines, local services- police stations, hospitals, schools - and vast natural ecologies were discovered through the mapping of the libraries surroundings. Forty-eight 500m by 500m corings were used as a sample unit to measure the potential connections between those three ecologies, revealing a hidden web of opportunities. 96
  49. 49. 98 99
  50. 50. 100 101
  51. 51. cinem sp school 075 ol 8’ co lle ge 8’ nsko opre snen skay aaa Za m os kv or ets ka ya theatre ege coll 156/234 school met ro 1 3’ Mo sco wr ive r zevs irya -Tim 102 103 museum y lle ni ns zhsk o-R izh ska ya Ka lu ka ya ko -R izh s zh s Ka lu ya 8’ ya 6-4Л 13-3 co lle ge vska school eska lnich 8’ yaze ukho vsko -Tim ir school 10’ 280 Youza riv er Soko Library n°59 and n°101 museum Cherkizovskiy pond 058 Le sev aya Ko lt 9-A 3-3 -Kra sn ol ya 6-4Л 13-3 Library H.C. Andersen 004 Kaluzhsko-Rizhskaya ho Taga metro museum 061/062 metro ho eska lnich Soko Library Jurgenson ool 8’ sc college ko -T cinema sc Youza riv er Serp zhsk o-Ri zhsk aya Library A. N. Tolstoy school 8’ 6-2 zhsk o-R izh ska ya Ka lu 274 r va ul' b oy stn a Str ma 3’ kaya 8’ ki ya ive 8k ter cen ort Kalu sev aya Ko lt 9-A 3-3 school 080 ukho vsko metro Serp zhsk o-Ri zhsk aya theatre 7’ museum 5’ cine er riv Library n°34 488 w sco school Kalu school Mo 497 Library n°219 039 cinema 10’ theatre Mo school 8’ 6-2 8-2 8k S2 353 Library n°151 ma 3’ cine 8’ Cherkizovskiy pond 156/234 school Library n°80 and n°149 Library A. Chekhov cinema 274 oskv oret ska Library A. N. Tolstoy ya 075 er riv school school school 5’ 090 Zam 058 cinema 488 museum college school 423/424 Library n°11 and n°22 cinema ’ w sco school ’ r8 te cen ort sp Samad Vurgun pond 096 10 a1 em cin 5’ 403/418 school ev N oy lsh Bo school ro r ve ri e rv se re 080 metro school nd museum po iy ich od ov theatre 7’ 039 er riv et n tu Se 403/418 Library n°219 school Library n°8 026 cinema 10’ 497 school Mo m a Koltsevay 6 3-4 -4 32 w sco ’ school 14 r ive Moscow river school ya vska File school school 015 school school 390 school metro Library n°161 489 w co 9 school -3 metro Library n°34 and n°68 5 a1 em ’ cin y 10 it ers univ er riv os M Library n°34 Library n°41 Library n°8 metro school wr sco metro kaya -Pokrovs Arbatsko 007/025 ve ri school 397 er riv 261 ve er es rr n 390 a Koltsevay Library n°27 tu Se Library n°171 Library n°41 college w sco Ly metro school Library A. T. Twardowski er riv a ay nsk metro metro Library n°36 school school school vs school school school Library n°127 217 353 w sco Mo �ield theatre 8’ 362 college cinema li ub 444 Izmaylovo Park Library n°12 Izmaylovo Park aya insk Library n°87, n°122 and n°124 Library n°30 school school 158 school kaya File 489 Mo 471 007/025 metro vs okro Academician Korolyov Street o-P tsk Library n°161 Library n°47 252 Arbatsko-Pokrovskaya Serebryano-Vinogradnyy pond Arbatsko Kalin metro metro kaya -Pokrovs 8-2 6 244/253 Dmitrovskiy park 159 S2 cinema 0’ museum 4 a Arb school Library n°97 Mo y1 Kaluzhsko-Rizhskaya ya Mo sco wr ive r en gard drov skiy Soko lnich eska Aleks an ya aya Serpukhovsko-Timiryazevsk 32-4 sit Library A. T. Twardowski 11-3 museum ive r museum 261 kaya sport center -A college Library n°101 Library n°36 Moscow river school museum metro school sport center �ield school 012/013 museum 479 035 Koltse vaya 3-9 202 bli u Ly Library n°98 un r va a ay nsk Library n°64 078 cinema metro Library n°121 metro metro ul' �ield theatre 0’ y1 sit r ive un er riv 464 Library n°128 cinema Library n°30 school school Library n°81 and n°112 Udaltsouskiye pond Library n°14 Library n°175 093 Library n°28 d w sco metro 494/499 Berezovaya Roshcha park school 051 school Mo metro metro 447 kiy ep ’ school 085 metro es ka ya metro re et 10 metro Arbatsko-Pokrovskaya ich st ver w ri sco a Filevskay us 031 ko ln Mo 2’ ool school museum metro on Library n°77, n°160 and n°184 school Russian State Library cinema So 129/134/141/142 sch Library n°23 and n°33 so a 3’ cinem Library n°29 and n°43 Nezhinskiy park ko va 021/089 museum school Library n°120 Library n°29 Ko ny on school alt b yy dn cinema 187/228 391 school Ud ru op ist Berezovaya Roshcha park metro 024 Ch school un Set Library n°99 school Library n°87 344 sch Library n°74 and n°214 theatre 060 11-34 rve ese rr e riv 059 ich es ka college a 10’ school school 173/174 r 9 -3 14 Teplyy Stan reserve metro sk ay a t 172 bul'var ko ln 408 426 re e 171 Sreten skiy school iry az ev st school theatre im ov a Library n°248 nskaya Lyubli rp uk ho vs Ul ya n Library Turgenev Sirenevyy bul'var Se iy a 339 ’ a8 em cin metro Ka luz hsk o-R izh ska ya itr metro Library n°28 So 113 school Dm school Library n°12 za r Library n°59 Ya u Library n°95
  52. 52. Veteranov park 140 081 131 Dzhamgarovskiy park 078 105 471 Izhorskiy park 082 220/222 208 Chermyanka river Dmitrovskiy park 121 Yeniseyskaya street Natural ecologies - parks, gardens rivers ponds and streams 118 116 Severnoye Tushino Park Chicherina street 210 518 519 223 Geroyev Pan�ilovtsev street Druzhby Park 213 206 Likhoborka river Likhoborka ecologic park 520 Turistskaya street 102 103 514 430/505 Novogorskiy forestpark 517 Novoposelkovaya park 508 509 Penyaginskiy pond Losinyy Ostrov forestpark Rechnogo Vokzala Park Yana Raynisa bul'var 515 Botanical Garden of Science’s Academy Bolshoy Golovinskiy pond 098 Reservoir Khimki basin Malyy Golovinskiy pond Verkhniy Golovinskiy pond Skhodnya river Bolshoy Sadovyy pond 427 165 516 Penyaginskaya park 507 Moskva river 510 146 151 Ostankino Park 125 VDNKh Ostankinskiy pond Pokrovskoye-Streshnevo park 511 Nemanskiy park 217 Dubki Park 120 157 Kibalchicha street 214 Putyayevskieye pond 232 388 Khabarovsk street Zvezdnyy bul'var 069/072 073 377 235 Golyanovskiy pond Kazenyy pond Gorenskiy forestpark Putyayevskieye pond Marshala Katukova street 233 443 Stroginskiy bul'var 170 231 Raketnyy bul'var 219 143 Novopodmoskovny lane 152 128 Academician Korolyov Street Dubovaya forest Moskovskoy Forestpark 474 436 433 434 096 Shchukino park Samad Vurgun pond 090 155/230 154 092 162 Sirenevyy bul'var 114 Shchukino district Cherkizovskiy pond Leningrad Avenue 124 091 Marshala Biryuzova street Zhivopisnaya bay Kosmonavta Kamanova square 076 127 113 130/468 Savelovskogo Vokzala square 378 174 173 171/172 159 158 064 070 021/089 442 Yamskogo street 093 435 452 M. S. University botanical garden Miuss Square 016 Generala Karbysheva bul'var 002 020 065 Graden ring Karetnyy park 028/033 Tishinskaya Square Strastnoy bul'var 061/062 346/347/369 Rozhdestvenskiy bul'var Sretenskiy bul'var Lefortovskiy park 059/060 Reserve Krylatskiye Hills 475 Chistoprudnyy bul'var 053 012/013 Tverskoy bul'var 1905 park Kvasnogvardeyskiye pond 365 184 246 018 447 Taynitskiy garden Novyy Arbat street Aleksandrovskiy garden Stalevarov street 489 491 252 244/253 448 492 Krasnokursantskiy avenue Terletskiy Forestpark 010 Krasnaya Presnya park Fileviskiy park 1st May park Izmaylovo Park 250 Pokrovskiy bul'var 048 035 255 036 030 031 058 Aviamotornaya street Gogolevskiy bul'var 039 488 Perovskiy Park 057 147 150 051 Rogozhskoye pond 364 188 Pryamikova park Voroshilovskiy park 416/490 Mazilovshiy pond Romashkovskiy park 229 180 202 Serebryano-Vinogradnyy pond Novoslobodskaya street Berezovaya Roshcha park Berzarina street 201 176 453 Yegerskiy pond 003 Festivalnyy Park 440 444 Rublevskiy park Sokolniki Park Izmaylovskiy bul'var 156/234 226 438 367 161 175 179 Pan�ilov street Troitse-Lykovskaya �loodplan 256 Rogozhskiy Val street 368 149 Pobedy park Kremenchugskaya street Verkhnyaya Khokhlovka street 454 Bolshoy Novodevichiy pond 160/242 497 Komsomolskiy alley 389 370 334 033 Gorky park 349 Kuskovskiy Forestpark 245 Zhitnaya street 026 Setun river 182 191 Bolshoy Grafskiy pond 023 Dovzhenko pond 371 396 Setun river reserve 276 Serpukhovskaya square 197 Serpukhovskiy Val street Nezhinskiy park 402 Moscow University botanical garden 494/499 238 336 Sadki pond 251 Ramenka river 259 196 Gagarinskiy park Kuzminkiy forestpark 338 356/422 502 50th Anniversary of October park Ramenka river Dmitriya Ulyanova street Krupskoy street 326/393 357 Leninskiy alley Garibaldi street 198/263 354 Armavirskiy square 330 399 479 Bolshoy Ochakovkiy pond 409 504 275/279 Cheremushkinskiy pond 340 Udaltsouskiye pond MKAD 284 391 353 500 498 501 Ochakovka river Kuzminskiy forestpark 463 424 423 Samorodinka river 296 Korobkovo garden Vorontsovskiy park Sadovniki park Troparevskiy forestpark 503 Borovika park Pechatnikiy pond Dyusseldors�kiy park 277 374 261 358 Chobotovskaya forest 264 Bratislavskiy park Ruzskaya street 272 268 262 Donetskaya street 271 Borovskoye highway 199 Troparevskiy reserve 406/407 Kakhovskiye pond 362 Myachkovskiy bul'var Novocherkasskiy bul'var 283 Chernomorskiy bul'var 361 Moscow's 850th anniversary park 281 Chertanovkiye pond 269 315 Chertanovka river 462 307 412 Klyuchevaya basin Brateyevskiy park 375 419 305 304 Teplyy Stan reserve 403/418 291 Zhulebinskiy forestpark 328 339 Ochakovka river Navershka river 333 Topolevaya park Lyublinskiy park 426 Vernadskogo alley 332 60th years of October avenue Ramenki pond 496 Yeseninskiy bul'var Volzhskiy bul'var 282 kapotniskiy forest
  53. 53. The main lane of the Kirov Park, August 1937 106 Swimmers on the Moscow rivers, 1920s 107
  54. 54. Parks and forests Kuzminkiy forestpark Losinyy Ostrov forestpark Topolevaya park Lyublinskiy park 284 151 152 406/407 231 Kazenyy pond Yauza river 375 Zhulebinskiy forestpark 332 333 328 Ulyanovskie forestpark Butovskiy forestpark 330 481 421 311 Kuzminskiy forestpark 108 500m 109 500m
  55. 55. 399 161 175 Rublevskiy park 367 296 Moscow river Moscow river 159 158 Sadovniki park Bolshoy Sadovyy pond Bittseviskiy forestpark 403/418 Moskovskoy Forestpark 475 Terletskiy Forestpark Izmaylovo Park 069/072 073 Ochakovka river Raketnyy bul'var 092 Kibalchicha street 503 Putyayevskieye pond 233 154 226 Sokolniki Park 362 Yauza river Yegerskiy pond 160/242 110 500m 334 Kuskovskiy Forestpark Troparevskiy reserve 111 500m
  56. 56. Reserve Krylatskiye Hills Penyaginskaya park 416/490 346/347/369 Troitskiy forestpark Pobedy park Ochakovka river 482 510 503 365 Berezovaya Roshcha park 113 Izhorskiy park 501 Fileviskiy park Samorodinka river 362 021/089 Moscow river Troparevskiy forestpark 492 093 105 358 364 Voroshilovskiy park Troparevskiy reserve 121 Shmelevkiy forest 50th Anniversary of October park Gagarinskiy park Dzhamgarovskiy park 338 MKAD 292 461 500 Korobkovo garden 208 Leninskiy forest 479 463 Chobotovskaya forest Perovskiy Park 494/499 188 269 Novogorskiy forestpark Veteranov park Nezhinskiy park Vorontsovskiy park 078 471 409 082 M. S. University botanical garden 452 424 423 508 Dmitrovskiy park 147 150 125 Dubki Park Pryamikova park 500m 517 Novoposelkovaya park 113 500m
  57. 57. Streets and boulevards Borovika park Dyusseldors�kiy park Strastnoy bul'var 261 061/062 Rozhdestvenskiy bul'var Sretenskiy bul'var 059/060 262 Chistoprudnyy bul'var Donetskaya street 264 Bratislavskiy park 053 012/013 Tverskoy bul'var 199 Myachkovskiy bul'var Novocherkasskiy bul'var 283 Pokrovskiy bul'var 048 Moscow's 850th anniversary park 018 281 Gogolevskiy bul'var Moscow river 462 Brateyevskiy park 114 Pan�ilov street Altufeuskiy pond Novoyasenevsky avenue 124 404/405 Marshala Biryuzova street Lianozovskiy forestpark 167 438 Lianozovskiy park 132 Yasnogorskaya street 440 444 410 420 378 Berzarina street 166/168 Altufyevskoye highway Yasenevskiye forestpark 129/134/141/142 081 Zhitnaya street 436 454 Navershka river 276 Shchukino park Shchukino district Gorky park 197 434 336 Sadki pond MKAD VDNKh 196 Academician Korolyov Street 504 Kosmonavta Kamanova square Leningrad Avenue Dubovaya forest Volzhskiy bul'var 114 091 474 217 500m 219 Zvezdnyy bul'var 115 500m
  58. 58. 374 076 271 Moscow University botanical garden 127 Savelovskogo Vokzala square Borovskoye highway 128 272 065 Graden ring Karetnyy park Novoslobodskaya street 268 064 070 Raketnyy bul'var Yamskogo street Vernadskogo alley 518 519 356/422 120 Ramenka river Novopodmoskovny lane Turistskaya street Krupskoy street Chicherina street Miuss Square 210 206/213 002 514 430/505 Yana Raynisa bul'var 357 Leninskiy alley 340 238 Garibaldi street Yeseninskiy bul'var Nemanskiy park Khvoynaya park 130/468 388 003 Festivalnyy Park 377 Marshala Katukova street 60th years of October avenue 443 Stroginskiy bul'var 433 244/253 Generala Karbysheva bul'var 245 252 Aviamotornaya street 442 435 Verkhnyaya Khokhlovka street 426 Dmitriya Ulyanova street 447 339 Taynitskiy garden Aleksandrovskiy garden 396 Serpukhovskaya square Serpukhovskiy Val street 322 402 30th anniversary of Victory park 028/033 Tishinskaya Square 162 030 Sirenevyy bul'var 1905 park Kvasnogvardeyskiye pond 179 036 010 Izmaylovskiy bul'var Krasnaya Presnya park 201 176 184 229 180 116 174 173 171/172 500m Chernomorskiy bul'var 361 Novyy Arbat street Stalevarov street 117 500m
  59. 59. 10km 039 326/393 026 488 Komsomolskiy alley 023 491 Zhivopisnaya bay 391 251 402 031 035 TroitseLykovskaya �loodplan 051 489 Bolshoy Novodevichiy pond 275/279 Moscow River 259 1km 154 016 020 Youza river 118 Setun river Dovzhenko pond 497 494/499 Setun river reserve 371 389 165 223 448 058 131 246 233 462 Brateyevskiy park 119
  60. 60. Verkhniy Golovinskiy pond Bolshoy Golovinskiy pond 103 137 102 140 368 202 182 191 Likhoborka ecologic park Chermyanka river Serebryano-Vinogradnyy pond Likhoborka river Bolshoy Grafskiy pond 353 Mazilovshiy pond 287 303 143 354 118 116 Cheremushkinskiy pond 324 Severnoye Tushino Park 520 515 Komeyevskiye pond 313 256 314 098 090 319 Rogozhskoye pond Kirovogradskiye pond 507 096 Samad Vurgun pond 500m 511 Reservoir Khimki basin 297 291 Tsaritsynskiye pond 509 Borisovskiy pond 307 Skhodnya river 315 304 427 Gorodnya river 516 Chertanovka river 120 121 Putyayevskieye pond
  61. 61. Altu�ievskoe highway 131 Dmitrovskiy district Bibirevo district ghway way high rov Dmit 78 Severnoye Medvedkovo district Ostas hkov skoe hi 471 D A MK Districts analyzed 080 075 Timiryazevskiy district Ostankinskiy district y hwa v hig itro Dm ety evo s tre et 217 rem Aeroport district She 096 Len ing rad 090 Preobrazhenskoye district ave nu e 156/234 Vostochnoye Izmaylovo district hway e hig Izmaylovskiy bul'var vsko elko 171/172/173/174 Sch Shchukino district 113 202 a kay ays Khoroshevskiy district vom Per 021/089 et en m nk ba m Basmanny district ay ae stre t s ra St yb no 061/062 Krasnoselskiy district Sre ten skiy 059/060 187/228 var Basmanny district ru op ist Zele t Val street ree Zemlyanoy Mok Garden Ring 244/253 252 y hwa v hig asto 058 Perovo district zi Entu 085 t en m 024 nk Balchug ba m ae ay 448 Lefortovo district Tagansky district e sk 051 sh t Ku 274 Arbat district u Ra ue ven vA uzo 488 hov aya st 447 007/025 489 ar l'v 035 Sh u aven nyy bu 031 ey Ivanovskoye district 012/013 yy dn Presnenskiy district all ay ighw ov h ziast Entu bul' Ch Tverskoy district 015 Se r 'va ul m en Narod na t skiy distric ine ov sk nogo Kuu s Meshchan Opolc 093 ky ovs mit 158 159 Izmaylovo district t heni ya st reet 444 eet str Dorogomilovo district m nk ba m ye ch t en vi de ya ka 497 Khamonviki district s ov m �il os M o ov 026 eN Th t e re st Troparevo-Nikulino district 397 494/499 Donskoy district r aven ue Aminevskoe highway 464 339 po l av enu y le al Seb asto ky ns ni Le 60 ye Leninsky avenue 426 e ars of Octobe Gagarinskiy district Nagatinskiy district Lomonosovskiy district 353 s ya ska n me et Lublin stre lo Ko 423/424 et tre Akademicheskiy district 457 261 Maryino district Pr ofs oy u zn ay as tre et Obruchevskiy district 362 D KA M Passage number 5467 Obruchevskiy district Kapotnya district 280 403/418
  62. 62. Microdistrict life in 1972 124 Winter jim class in the micro-district, 2007 125
  63. 63. 1st RING way igh 252 Presnenskiy district vh sto ia tuz En 244/253 e km an Troparevo-Nikulino district 497 Kuus in t treet Arbat district Krasnoselskiy district 096 Le lle y 113 ky a Troparevo-Nikulino district an km 397 en t 3rd RING t mb 035 090 tr ee hy e 026 494/499 en Am Khamonviki district Tagansky district ue ns evi c da ven iy as 058 ovo d gra ni eN y alle Le Th ky ovs mit Sh nin oy Val s treet st re e ena s Arbat district Zemlyan ay a �il m os M 024 051 ng Garden Ring 059/060 Meshchanskiy district 004 en Ri Gard Sretenskiy bul'var 007/025 Mira avenue 093 ov sk Mok 021/089 nt hova ya s tree t mb Tverskoy district 031 Khoroshevskiy district e ya ska 1929 012/013 ar ul'v yb S u sh 061/062 Lefortovo district Ra yb no st tra dny Arbat district 039 pr u r 'va ul sto Ch i 447 Basmanny district Op ol Na ro d no go 444 Shchukino district ay ighw 2nd RING eh sko inev ch Donskoy district 489 rs ye a 126 60 Basmanny district Dorogomilovo district sto ba Se 353 464 Akademicheskiy district la ve nu e er tob Oc of rs ye a of 015 274 339 60 Se 488 Oc tob m er en ov sk ave nu e ay ae t Ku po m av en e nu Ave ov uz ue ba nk m en t 1972 Akademicheskiy district 127 Akademicheskiy district
  64. 64. av en ue lle y Le ni ns ky ky a Le ni ns 423/424 426 Gagarinskiy district Schelkovskoe highway Lomonosovskiy district 156/234 Vostochnoye Izmaylovo district 158 Preobrazhenskoye district 479 Obruchevskiy district Vostochnoye Izmaylovo district Zelenyy avenue Vostochnoye Izmaylovo district 171/172/173/174 Pro 261 fsoy uzn Izmaylovskiy bul'var aya st 085 159 et 403/418 n stre Perovo district ree t Obruchevskiy district Ivanovskoye district Lubli Konkovo district way igh ov h iast uz Ent Maryino district 408 187/228 Nagatinskiy district y Teply 391 aya nsk 075 362 y lle a ky n Le Izmaylovo district s in 202 eet str Timiryazevskiy district 128 m rvo Pe Obruchevskiy district 129 et tre s ya ka ays me lo Ko Dmitrov highway 080 Stan t stree
  65. 65. Passage number 5467 Dmitrov highway Dmitrovskiy district 78 280 471 Kapotnya district Bibirevo district Altu�ievskoe highway 141 130 131
  66. 66. dwellings Evolution of neighbourhood services dwellings Dwelling and services garages garages church dwellings hospital kiosks Volumes pro�ile Freely accessible and gated areas post of�ice bar school museum bank pharmacy library PRESENT SITUATION bar bank post of�ice shops shops kindergarten post of�ice loundry school museum canteen pharmacy library library services: bank of�ices shops restaurant pharmacy kindergarten 132 PLANNED SITUATION 100m club canteen pharmacy bar library shop laundry post of�ice Ground �loors 133 50m
  67. 67. dwellings Evolution of neighbourhood services dwellings dwellings garages garages shop Dwelling and services dwellings shop dwellings dwellings dwellings school bar school Volumes pro�ile Freely accessible and gated areas supermarket shops supermarket shops library bar bank post of�ice of�ices PRESENT SITUATION school bank restaurant pharmacy laundry bank post of�ice bar library library club shop shop shop canteen 134 laundry canteen library club post of�ice garage works PLANNED SITUATION shop club post of�ice bar 100m supermarket Ground �loors 135 100m

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