Chapter 6 Organizing the Business Enterprise Giovanni Calabro  @MyPlick
What is Organizational Structure? <ul><li>Specification of the jobs to be done within an organization and the ways in whic...
Determinants of Organization <ul><li>Every business needs structure to operate. Organizational structure varies according ...
Formal Organization expressed through an <ul><li>Organization Chart </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diagram depicting a company’s st...
The Organizational Chart Contemporary Landscape Services, Inc. President/Owner Mark Ferguson Retail Shop Manager Nursery M...
The Building Blocks of Organizational Structure <ul><li>The first step in developing the structure of any business, large ...
Specialization and Growth <ul><li>In a very small organization, the owner may perform every job.  </li></ul><ul><li>As the...
Departmentalization <ul><li>Departmentalization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process of grouping jobs into logical units </li></u...
Different method of Departmentalization <ul><li>Customer Departmentalization  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Departmentalization ac...
Departmentalization <ul><li>Geographic Departmentalization   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Departmentalization according to areas ...
Multiple Forms of Departmentalization 6 -  President Functional Departmentalization Geographical Departmentalization Produ...
Establishing the Decision-Making Hierarchy <ul><li>Who makes which decisions?   </li></ul>The answer almost never focuses ...
Developing a Decision-Making Hierarchy <ul><li>Assign Tasks :  Determine who can make decisions and specify how they shoul...
Performing Tasks <ul><li>Perform Tasks:  Implementing decisions that have been made.  This involves </li></ul><ul><li>Dele...
Fear of Delegating <ul><li>Many managers actually have trouble delegating tasks to others.  </li></ul><ul><li>This is espe...
Why do some small business managers have trouble delegating effectively? <ul><li>They feel that employees can never do any...
What can small business managers do to delegate effectively? <ul><li>Admit that they can never go back to running the enti...
Four reasons some managers in big companies don’t delegate as much or as well as they should: <ul><li>They fear that subor...
How can managers in big companies learn to delegate more effectively? <ul><li>All managers should recognize that they can’...
Distribute Authority:  Determine whether the organization is to be centralized or decentralized. <ul><li>Centralized Organ...
Flat Organizational Structure --Vertical Structure. <ul><li>Characteristic of decentralized companies with relatively few ...
Tall Organizational Structure -Vertical <ul><li>Characteristic of centralized companies with multiple layers of management...
Line and Staff Organization—Line do the mainline functions/Staff assist  6 -  Clark Equipment Corp. Staff Managers Line Ma...
Committee & Team Authority—Horizontal Organization—also becoming more popular. <ul><li>Authority granted to committees or ...
Basic Forms of Organizational Structure <ul><li>Organizations can structure themselves in almost an infinite number of way...
Functional Organization <ul><li>Form of business organization in which authority is determined by the relationships betwee...
Divisional Organization <ul><li>Organizational structure in which corporate divisions operate as autonomous businesses und...
Matrix Organization <ul><li>Organizational structure in which teams are formed and team members report to two or more mana...
Area Specialists Martha Stewart 6 -  Media Group Merchandising Group Matrix Organization at Magazines Books Internet Radio...
International Organization <ul><li>Approaches to organizational structure developed in response to the need to manufacture...
Organizational Design for the 21 st  Century <ul><li>Boundaryless Organizations  minimize or eliminate traditional boundar...
Virtual Organization 6 -  Contracted Manufacturing in Asia Contracted Administrative Services Contracted Distribution & Lo...
Informal Organization <ul><li>The  formal organization  of a business is the part that can be seen and represented in char...
Formal versus Informal Organizational Systems <ul><li>Informal Groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Groups of people who decide to...
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Organizing the business enterprise | Giovanni Calabrò

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Organizing the business enterprise | Giovanni Calabrò

  1. 1. Chapter 6 Organizing the Business Enterprise Giovanni Calabro @MyPlick
  2. 2. What is Organizational Structure? <ul><li>Specification of the jobs to be done within an organization and the ways in which they relate to one another. This allows the organization to achieve its goals. At some organizations the structure is rigid, at other it is more flexible. </li></ul>Giovanni Calabrò @MyPlick
  3. 3. Determinants of Organization <ul><li>Every business needs structure to operate. Organizational structure varies according to a firm’s mission, purpose , and strategy . </li></ul><ul><li>Size, technology , and changes in environmental circumstances also influence structure. </li></ul>Although all organizations have the same basic elements, each develops the structure that contributes to the most efficient operations. Giovanni Calabrò @MyPlick
  4. 4. Formal Organization expressed through an <ul><li>Organization Chart </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diagram depicting a company’s structure and showing employees where they fit into its operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The formal Organization chart also reflects the </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chain of Command </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reporting relationships within a company </li></ul></ul>Giovanni Calabrò @MyPlick
  5. 5. The Organizational Chart Contemporary Landscape Services, Inc. President/Owner Mark Ferguson Retail Shop Manager Nursery Manager Landscape Operations Manager Buyer Office Manager Buyer Supervisor Residential Manager Commercial Manager 6 - Giovanni Calabro @MyPlick
  6. 6. The Building Blocks of Organizational Structure <ul><li>The first step in developing the structure of any business, large or small, involves two activities: </li></ul><ul><li>Specialization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determining who will do what </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Departmentalization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determining how people performing certain tasks can best be grouped together </li></ul></ul>Giovanni Calabro @MyPlick
  7. 7. Specialization and Growth <ul><li>In a very small organization, the owner may perform every job. </li></ul><ul><li>As the firm grows, however, so does the need to specialize jobs so that others can perform them. </li></ul><ul><li>Adam Smith in 1776 discovered if each of ten workers did all the steps of making pins each could make 200 a day. By specialization the group could make 48,000 a day. </li></ul><ul><li>Remember also that organizations can overdo specialization. Why? </li></ul>Giovanni Calabro @MyPlick
  8. 8. Departmentalization <ul><li>Departmentalization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process of grouping jobs into logical units </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Profit Center  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Separate company unit responsible for its own costs and profits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cost Center </li></ul><ul><li>Some company operations do not generate profits </li></ul>Giovanni Calabrò @MyPlick
  9. 9. Different method of Departmentalization <ul><li>Customer Departmentalization  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Departmentalization according to types of customers likely to buy a given product </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Product Departmentalization  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Departmentalization according to specific products being created </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Process Departmentalization  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Departmentalization according to production processes used to create a good or service </li></ul></ul>Giovanni Calabrò @MyPlick
  10. 10. Departmentalization <ul><li>Geographic Departmentalization   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Departmentalization according to areas served by a business </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Functional Departmentalization  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Departmentalization according to groups’ functions or activities </li></ul></ul>Giovanni Calabro @MyPlick
  11. 11. Multiple Forms of Departmentalization 6 - President Functional Departmentalization Geographical Departmentalization Product Departmentalization Giovanni Calabrò @MyPlick Vice President Marketing Vice President Production Vice President Finance Texas Plant Manager Oregon Plant Manager Florida Plant Manager Consumer Products Industrial Products Consumer Products Industrial Products Consumer Products Industrial Products
  12. 12. Establishing the Decision-Making Hierarchy <ul><li>Who makes which decisions? </li></ul>The answer almost never focuses on an individual or even on a small group. The more accurate answer usually refers to the decision-making hierarchy. Giovanni Calabro @MyPlick
  13. 13. Developing a Decision-Making Hierarchy <ul><li>Assign Tasks : Determine who can make decisions and specify how they should be made. </li></ul><ul><li>Give the authority to make decisions and the responsibility or obligation to make them. Authority and responsibility go hand in hand. </li></ul>Giovanni Calabrò @MyPlick
  14. 14. Performing Tasks <ul><li>Perform Tasks: Implementing decisions that have been made. This involves </li></ul><ul><li>Delegation   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assignment of a task, responsibility, or authority by a manager to a subordinate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accountability  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liability of subordinates for accomplishing tasks assigned by managers </li></ul></ul>Giovanni Calabrò @MyPlick
  15. 15. Fear of Delegating <ul><li>Many managers actually have trouble delegating tasks to others. </li></ul><ul><li>This is especially true in small businesses where the owner-manager started out doing everything. </li></ul>Giovanni Calabro @MyPlick
  16. 16. Why do some small business managers have trouble delegating effectively? <ul><li>They feel that employees can never do anything as well as they can. </li></ul><ul><li>They fear that something will go wrong if someone else takes over a job. </li></ul><ul><li>They lack time for long-range planning because they are bogged down in day-to-day operations. </li></ul><ul><li>They sense they will be in the dark about industry trends and competitive products because of the time they devote to day-to-day operations. </li></ul>Giovanni Calabrò @MyPlick
  17. 17. What can small business managers do to delegate effectively? <ul><li>Admit that they can never go back to running the entire show and that they can in fact prosper—with the help of their employees. </li></ul><ul><li>They must learn to let go. </li></ul>Giovanni Calabro @MyPlick
  18. 18. Four reasons some managers in big companies don’t delegate as much or as well as they should: <ul><li>They fear that subordinates don’t really know how to do the job </li></ul><ul><li>They fear that a subordinate might “show the manager up” in front of others by doing a superb job </li></ul><ul><li>They desire to keep as much control as possible over how things are done </li></ul><ul><li>They simply lack the ability to effectively delegate to others </li></ul>
  19. 19. How can managers in big companies learn to delegate more effectively? <ul><li>All managers should recognize that they can’t do everything themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>If subordinates can’t do a job, they should be trained so that they can assume more responsibility in the future. </li></ul><ul><li>Managers should recognize that if a subordinate performs well it also reflects favorably on the manager. </li></ul><ul><li>A manager who simply doesn’t know how to delegate should seek specialized training in how to divide up and assign tasks to others. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Distribute Authority: Determine whether the organization is to be centralized or decentralized. <ul><li>Centralized Organization   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization in which most decision-making authority is held by upper-level management </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Decentralized Organization   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization in which a great deal of decision-making authority is delegated to levels of management at points below the top This is the current trend. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Span of Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of people supervised by one manager </li></ul></ul>Giovanni Calabrò @MyPlick
  21. 21. Flat Organizational Structure --Vertical Structure. <ul><li>Characteristic of decentralized companies with relatively few layers of management and relatively wide spans of control </li></ul>Typical Law Firm Relatively wide span of control 5 - Giovanni Calabrò @MyPlick Chief Partner Partners Associates
  22. 22. Tall Organizational Structure -Vertical <ul><li>Characteristic of centralized companies with multiple layers of management and relatively narrow spans of control </li></ul>United States Army 5 - Relatively narrow span of control. At lower levels, where tasks are similar and simpler, span of control widens. Giovanni Calabrò @MyPlick General Colonels Majors Captains & Lieutenants Warrant Officers Sergeants Corporals Privates
  23. 23. Line and Staff Organization—Line do the mainline functions/Staff assist 6 - Clark Equipment Corp. Staff Managers Line Managers Forks & Small Earthmovers Division Trucks Division Tools Division Purchasing Materials Handling Fabrication Painting Assembly Sales Distribution Human Resources Department Engineering Department
  24. 24. Committee & Team Authority—Horizontal Organization—also becoming more popular. <ul><li>Authority granted to committees or work teams involved in a firm’s daily operations </li></ul>Giovanni Calabro @MyPlick
  25. 25. Basic Forms of Organizational Structure <ul><li>Organizations can structure themselves in almost an infinite number of ways based on the specialization, departmentalization , or decision-making hierarchies. </li></ul><ul><li>The four basic forms of organizational structure that reflect the general trends followed by most firms are: </li></ul><ul><li>Functional </li></ul><ul><li>Divisional </li></ul><ul><li>Matrix </li></ul><ul><li>International </li></ul>Giovanni Calabrò @MyPlick
  26. 26. Functional Organization <ul><li>Form of business organization in which authority is determined by the relationships between group functions and activities </li></ul>Company Structured Around Basic Business Functions Marketing Department Operations Department Finance Department Giovanni Calabrò @MyPlick
  27. 27. Divisional Organization <ul><li>Organizational structure in which corporate divisions operate as autonomous businesses under the larger corporate umbrella </li></ul>Food Service Division Infant Foods Division Condiments Division Star-Kist Tuna Division Pet Foods Division Frozen-Foods Division Misc. Products Division Division: Department that resembles a separate business in producing and marketing its own products Giovanni Calabro @MyPlick HEINZ
  28. 28. Matrix Organization <ul><li>Organizational structure in which teams are formed and team members report to two or more managers </li></ul><ul><li>A matrix is a highly flexible form that is readily adaptable to changing circumstances. </li></ul><ul><li>Matrix structures rely heavily on committee and team authority. </li></ul><ul><li>Some companies use the matrix organization as a temporary measure to complete a specific project. The end of the project usually means the end of the matrix. </li></ul>Giovanni Calabrò @MyPlick
  29. 29. Area Specialists Martha Stewart 6 - Media Group Merchandising Group Matrix Organization at Magazines Books Internet Radio/ Newspaper Network/ Cable TV K-mart Line Sears Paint Catalog Line Specialty/ Retailing Cooking Entertainment Weddings Crafts Gardening Home Holidays Children
  30. 30. International Organization <ul><li>Approaches to organizational structure developed in response to the need to manufacture, purchase, and sell in global markets </li></ul>CEO Retail Division A Retail Division B International Division Latin America Europe Asia
  31. 31. Organizational Design for the 21 st Century <ul><li>Boundaryless Organizations minimize or eliminate traditional boundaries and structures. </li></ul><ul><li>Team Organizations having little or no underlying functional hierarchy and rely almost exclusively on project-type teams. </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual Organizations have little or no formal structure. They typically have only a handful of permanent employees, a very small staff, and a modest administrative facility. </li></ul>Giovanni Calabro @MyPlick
  32. 32. Virtual Organization 6 - Contracted Manufacturing in Asia Contracted Administrative Services Contracted Distribution & Logistics Contracted Sales & Marketing <ul><li>Accounting </li></ul><ul><li>Human Resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Finance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management </li></ul></ul>Giovanni Calabro @MyPlick Core Organization
  33. 33. Informal Organization <ul><li>The formal organization of a business is the part that can be seen and represented in chart form. </li></ul><ul><li>The informal organization within which people do their jobs in different ways and interact with other people in ways that do not follow formal lines of communication. </li></ul>The informal organization is sometimes just as powerful, if not more powerful, than the formal structure. Giovanni Calabrò @MyPlick
  34. 34. Formal versus Informal Organizational Systems <ul><li>Informal Groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Groups of people who decide to interact among themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Grapevine   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Informal communication network that runs through an organization </li></ul></ul>Giovanni Calabrò @MyPlick
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