Learning theories
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Learning theories

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    Learning theories Learning theories Presentation Transcript

    • J. WilliamsD. MorganG. SantiagoL. CalderoR. KingL. Lockner BEHAVIORIST THEORY Behaviorism Psychological Influences on Education
    • Behaviorism Prediction and control of human behavior in which introspection and/or independent thinking play no essential part in teaching Developed during the industrial revolution, modernism was the new focus Learning is purely an objective and experimental branch of natural science No line between man and animal Learn through positive and negative reinforcement (conditioning)
    • Students of Behaviorism Learn primarily through observation Pavlov, Skinner, and Bandura; key players in development of behaviorism theories Ex. Students rewarded for good behavior and punished for bad
    • The Behaviorist Theory: Behaviorism is a worldviewthat operates on a principle of “stimulus-response.”All behavior caused by external stimuli learnerresponds toenvironmental stimuli
    • Founders of the BehavioristTheory: Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) B.F. Skinner (1904-1990) Albert Bandura (1925-)
    • Ivan Pavlov Classical Conditioning: having a reflex in response to a stimulus. He conducted an experiment where he rang a bell every time he put food in front of dogs. The food caused the dogs to salivate. He eventually just rang the bell, and the dogs still salivated.
    • B.F. Skinner Operant conditioning: shaping behavior through the reinforcement of stimulus responses. Conducted an experiment using pigeons. When pigeons behaved in acertain way, their behavior wasrewarded. Rewarded behaviors will berepeated, behaviors withnegative responses will stop.
    • Albert Bandura The Social Contract Theory: People learn through observational modeling (copying observed behavior) He studied self-efficacy, one’s personal perspective of their ability to encourage their self to learn. Studied personality by analyzing one’s environment, behavior, and thoughts.
    • Behaviorism in practice today These theories are used in the classrooms of today, especially at the elementary school level In schools where behaviorism is practiced, they believe frequent objective testing is the best way to determine what students know. They reward students when they learn , even when they learn small things, because in behaviorism that is they key to successful teaching.