J. WilliamsD. MorganG. SantiagoL. CalderoR. KingL. Lockner BEHAVIORIST THEORY Behaviorism Psychological Influences on Education
Behaviorism Prediction and control of human behavior in which introspection and/or independent thinking play no essential part in teaching Developed during the industrial revolution, modernism was the new focus Learning is purely an objective and experimental branch of natural science No line between man and animal Learn through positive and negative reinforcement (conditioning)
Students of Behaviorism Learn primarily through observation Pavlov, Skinner, and Bandura; key players in development of behaviorism theories Ex. Students rewarded for good behavior and punished for bad
The Behaviorist Theory: Behaviorism is a worldviewthat operates on a principle of “stimulus-response.”All behavior caused by external stimuli learnerresponds toenvironmental stimuli
Founders of the BehavioristTheory: Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) B.F. Skinner (1904-1990) Albert Bandura (1925-)
Ivan Pavlov Classical Conditioning: having a reflex in response to a stimulus. He conducted an experiment where he rang a bell every time he put food in front of dogs. The food caused the dogs to salivate. He eventually just rang the bell, and the dogs still salivated.
B.F. Skinner Operant conditioning: shaping behavior through the reinforcement of stimulus responses. Conducted an experiment using pigeons. When pigeons behaved in acertain way, their behavior wasrewarded. Rewarded behaviors will berepeated, behaviors withnegative responses will stop.
Albert Bandura The Social Contract Theory: People learn through observational modeling (copying observed behavior) He studied self-efficacy, one’s personal perspective of their ability to encourage their self to learn. Studied personality by analyzing one’s environment, behavior, and thoughts.
Behaviorism in practice today These theories are used in the classrooms of today, especially at the elementary school level In schools where behaviorism is practiced, they believe frequent objective testing is the best way to determine what students know. They reward students when they learn , even when they learn small things, because in behaviorism that is they key to successful teaching.