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Notes on DNA and DNA structure
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Notes on DNA and DNA structure

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Notes on DNA and DNA structure Notes on DNA and DNA structure Presentation Transcript

  • DNA STRUCTURE
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sf0YXnAFBs8&feature=related
    History of DNA
  • http://www.dnalc.org/home.html
    Deoxyribonucleic Acid
    DNA  is a complex molecule found in all living things.
    The primary function of DNA is tostore and transmit genetic information  that tells cells which proteins to make and when to make them.
  • In 1953, James Watson and Francis Crick proposed a model for the DNA molecule that consisted of two nucleotide chains that wrap around each other to form a double spiral. This shape is called a double helix.
  • An idea about size:
     An average cell nucleus is about 6 micrometers in diameter.
      The total length of the DNA in the human genome is 1.8 meters.
      There must be several levels of coiling and supercoiling in DNA.
  • Chromosome:         a coiled, double rod-shaped form of condensed DNA that forms during cell division.
  • DNA BASE PAIRS
  • Using Models
    What is a model?
    Why is modeling important to scientists?
    What are the advantages and/or disadvantages of using models?
  • Build a Model of DNA using candy:
  • KEY:
    Sugar – Twizzler (5 per side)
    Phosphate- Marshmallow (5 per side)
    Bases:
    Adenine (A) – orange jelly
    Thymine (T) – mango jelly
    Cytosine (C) – grape jelly
    Guanine (G) - strawberry jelly
    Task 1: Build a Model of DNA using candy.
    Note: Use string as backbone of ladder
    Task 2: Label the plate of your candy DNA .
  • Guide questions: Write your answers in
    your notebook.
    Draw and label your DNA candy model.
    What molecules make up the sides of the ladder?
    a. What molecules make up the rung (at the middle) of the ladder? b. How do the molecules in the rungs pair up? c. What side molecule are they attached to?
    What is the sequence (code) of your DNA model?
  • DNA MODEL
    A molecule of DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) is composed of two backbones and four types of chemical bases.
    Side of the Ladder:
    • A chain of phosphate groups and sugars forms the sides of the ladder.
    • Each sugar molecule in the ladder provides an
    attachment site for one of the chemical bases.
    Steps of the ladder:
    The four types of chemical bases are: adenine, thymine, cytosine and guanine. They usually are represented by their first letters: A, T, C and G.
  • The bases form pairs in a very specific way:
    A pairs with T,
    C pairs with G.
    • The DNA sequence is the consecutive order of bases on one side, or strand, of the
    twisted ladder.
    • The other strand has a complementary sequence determined by the base
    pairing rules.
  • DNA Model Kit
    Steps:
    Construct support stand. Attach 3 legs to black 4-prong center and attach long green straw.
    Construct 12 sets of sugar + base combination.
    Attach a base (A,T, C, G) to a black 3-prong center.
    Construct 6 pairs of sugar + base combination. Insert 6 white 2-prong centerpiece to the long green straw. Connect each sugar and N-base combination to the white center. Note base pairings (A-T, C-G).
    Construct phosphate group. Attach 2 yellow connectors to each end of red 2-prong center to make 6 sets. Connect the phosphates to each end of the sugars (black center).
    End the chain. Attach a red center to the end of the sugars (end).
    Make a double helix. Twist the chain by turning each white center and sliding it along the long green straw.
    Legend:
    Support:
    1 Long Green Straw Support stand
    3 2” straw Support stand
    1 black 4-prong center Support stand
    Bonds (Connectors):
    White 2-prong center (Sugar to base
    and Sugar to Phosphate connector)
    Yellow (Sugar to phosphate connector)
    Nitrogen bases:
    Blue straw Adenine (A)
    Red straw Thymine (T)
    Grey Cytosine (C)
    Green Guanine (G)
    Sugars:
    Black 3-prong center
    Phosphate Group:
    Red 2-prong center
    Base Pairs:
    A----T
    C----G
  • ADDITIONAL NOTES:
    The specific matching of the base pairs, A with T and C with G, provides a way for exact copies of DNA to be made.
    To make exact copies of DNA, the double helix ladder is untwisted and separates the two strands.
    Next, two new strands are made by reading each side of the DNA ladder, one step (base) at a time. At each step, the matching base fills in (with its associated sugar and phosphate) to complete the rung and lengthen the new DNA strand.
    When the process is complete, there are two identical DNA double helices, each containing one original and one new strand.
    Copying of DNA is an important part in making new cells. Before a cell divides, it first duplicates its DNA so that the new cell will have the same genetic information.
    The specific base pair matching during replication ensures that exact DNA copies are made.