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# Teoremdemo&applicworkbook problem solving svtools

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### Teoremdemo&applicworkbook problem solving svtools

1. 1. Workbook of practice # 3Theorem demonstration & application SYSTEMIC AND VISUAL TOOLS FOR PROBLEM SOLVING PSVTOOLSTHEOREM DEMONSTRATION & APPLICATION SYSTEMIC ALGORITHMS ECOSYSTEMS MODELS AND ALGORITHMS
2. 2. 2 Problem solving PSVtools Problem solving Systemic Visual tools Systemic visual tools  Is a set of tool which helps to analize and visualize the problem situation from a variety of angles and perspectives which can expand , enlarge our vision and understanding of the nature , the structure and the system dynamics of the problem. Visual and Heuristic tools  Visual thinking can facilitate and improve the quality of analysis of the Problem Definition stage for Problem in the Problem Solving Process solving Skills developmentSVtools
3. 3. 3  Models FOR INFORMATION AND UNDERSTANDING / to facilitate PSVtools information and understanding Visual and  Models FOR PRACTICE / to facilitate Heuristic tools practice and exercises for Problem solving Skills  Models FOR APPLICATION/ to development facilitate application of tools and systems to customized study case  SVtools
4. 4. 4 PSVtools Visual and Heuristic tools for Problem solving Skills developmentSVtools
5. 5. 5 PSVtools PS Mapping© Free pd Is a Set of tools which helps to analize and visualize the problem situation from a variety of angles and perspectives . PSVtoolswhich can expand , enlarge our vision and understanding of the nature , Graphic the structure and the system dynamics of the problem. pd Visual thinking can facilitate and improve the quality of analysis of the Problem Definition stage in the Problem Systemic pd Solving Process.SVtools
6. 6. 6 PS SVtools PS SVtools© Free pd PD = free problem definition with your own words Graphic pd = problem Graphic definition with use of pd models Systemic pd = Problem definition with the use of Systemic pd Systemic dynamics toolsSVtools
7. 7. 7 The 10 systemic principles of PSV problem Every problem interacts solving with other problems and is therefore part of 1. Every problem situation has a structure- pattern of its elements : how they interact, influence a set of interrelated each other. problems, a system of problems." 2. When the structure- pattern is clear , understandable we are facing a Tame problem. When we are facing a problem situation with a Complexity—systems of complex structure- pattern we are facing a systems—is among the Wicked problem or ill structured problem. factors that makes some problem situations so 3. Each elements has a power and energy to influence and condition the other elements. resistant to analysis There are stronger elements and weaker and, more importantly, elements. to resolution." 4. Each problem situation has its dynamics. 5. Each problem situation is a system or a mess which has its physics and chemistry. 6. We need to map the structure, its chemistry and its dynamics , its physics in order to first simplify the wicked problem and to identify its pattern then to solve it.SVtools
8. 8. 8 7.Mapping is important for understanding and simplification. 10 systemic principles 8. Often the solution is in the Structure, Pattern or dynamics of the problem of PSVtools situation. 9. We need to identify the conflicting From atoms elements and contradictions to solve to the the problem. systems 10.Solutions are at the level of elements or group of elements : how they interact From messes with each other. Elements, groups, subgroups. to solutionsSVtools
9. 9. 9  Write a description of the problem in your Problem own words ? Solving SVtools The concept of messes : Every problem situation could be considered a Mess , that is a situation with high complexity and Where is the mess ? What is the mess ?SVtools
10. 10. 10  P roblems are to reality what atoms are to Map the tables. We experience tables, not atoms. problem Problems are abstracted from experience by situation mess analysis. We do not experience individual problems but complex systems of those that What is a mess ? are strongly interacting. I call them messes.  Because messes are systems of problems, they lose their essential properties when they are taken apart. Therefore, if a mess is disassembled, it loses its essential properties.  Furthermore, as in any system, if each part taken separately is treated as well as possible, the whole is not treated as well as possible. A system is more than the sum of its parts; it is the product of their interactions. If taken apart, it simply disappears. Then how can we formulate a mess without taking it apart?SVtools
11. 11. 11 Problem situations Tame problems with structure easy to understand Ill – structured or Wicked problems with no definite formulation or structureSVtools
12. 12. 12 Is this problem a Tame problem ? Problem Easy to describe and analize ? situations ------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------- Tame problems with ------------------------------------------------------------- structure easy to understand Is this problem a Wicked problem ? With Complex messes and difficult to describe and analize ? Ill – structured or ------------------------------------------------------------- Wicked problems with ------------------------------------------------------------- no definite formulation ------------------------------------------------------------- or structure ------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------SVtools
13. 13. 13 Structures of problems Levels of Structuredness Problems could be well structured or ill structured. Tame problems are the most common problems that students solve in school,universities and training are well structured problems. They have a well defined initial state , a known goal state or solution. Ill structured problems , at the other end of the continuum , are the kinds of problems that are more often encountered in everyday and professional practice. They are also known as Wicked problems. They do not conform to the content domain being studied , so their solutions is neither predictable nor convergent. Ill structured problems are also interdisciplinary , that is , they cannot be solved by applying concepts and principles from a single discipline or domain. Often possess aspects that are unknown at all.SVtools
14. 14. 14 Problem First Statement messes • The problem is... Write your first statement of the problem The problem does • effects • effects The problems roots are...... • Roots • CausesSVtools
15. 15. 15 Mess exploration and analysis What are the questions that arise ? What are your questions ?SVtools
16. 16. 16 Mess exploration and analysis What are the questions that arise ? What are your • who originated What • When first was questions ? • who is responsible noted • What is the cause • When did it of the problem develop : places • What are the roots and events of it Who WhenSVtools
17. 17. 17 Mess exploration and analysis What are the questions that arise ? What are your • Where did it how • Why is questions ? happen • How was important • Places and originated • Why do you events • How did it want to solve it develop Where WhySVtools
18. 18. 18  There are four ways of treating problems: absolution, How to treat resolution, solution, and dissolution. problem  1. To absolve a problem is to ignore it and hope it will situations go away or solve itself.  2. To resolve a problem is to do something that yields Absolution an outcome that is good enough, that satisfies. Problem resolvers take a clinical approach to Resolution problems; they rely heavily on experience, trial and error, qualitative judgments, and common sense. Solution They try to identify the cause of a problem, remove or suppress it, and thereby return to a previous state. Dissolution  3. To solve a problem is to do something that yields the best possible outcome, that optimizes. Problem solvers take a research approach to problems. They rely heavily on experimentation and quantitative analysis.  4. To dissolve a problem is to eliminate it by redesigning the system that has it. Problem dissolvers try to idealize, to approximate an ideal system and thereby do better in the future than the best that can be done now.SVtools
19. 19. 19 How to define the structure of a problem The Waterfall DiagramSVtools
20. 20. 20 Four types of problems Wicked Tame Wicked Mess MessSVtools
21. 21. 21 Solutions structures Through Leadership Through ManagementSVtools
22. 22. 22 The Boston Matrix Problem definition Problem structure SolutionsSVtools
23. 23. 23 Where is your problem situation ? Where WhenSVtools
24. 24. 24 Wicked problems They look difficult , but…….with the proper tools we can tame them.SVtools
25. 25. 25 Tame or Wicked TAMES : Mistakes and errors easily defined WICKED :There is no single criteria to determine correctnessSVtools
26. 26. 26  Describe your problem : easy or Tame or difficult to identify errors and Wicked mistakes ? Identify errors and  ------------------------------------------- mistakes ------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------- -------------------------SVtools
27. 27. 27 Problems and solutions Defining is half solutionsSVtools
28. 28. 28 Can you see the solution ? Problems and ---------------------------------------------------------- solutions ---------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------- Defining is half --------------------------------------------------------- solutions One or many solutions ? One solutions or many ---------------------------------------------------------- solutions ? ---------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------------------------SVtools
29. 29. 29 Solutions One solution Many sequential solutions Can you see a clear ending point of the solution ?-- ------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------ The first solution ------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------SVtools -
30. 30. 30 Problems gaps Gaps Lacks Walls Blocks Cages Boxes Conflicts ContraddictionsSVtools
31. 31. 31 Modellling problem Easy to model Difficult to modelSVtools
32. 32. 32 Levels of Analysis Easy to analize Difficult to analizeSVtools
33. 33. 33 Sequential activity process Which activities When Where • activity activity implement • activity definition planning • activity activity ation • activitySVtools
34. 34. 34 Problem start ? ? solving Path Where is your problem solving Path ? The starting point ? The ending point ? ? ? ? Serching your Roadmap to solutions ? ? solutions?SVtools
35. 35. 35 Write a second  Write a second statement of the problem problem situation according to statement the Tame/Wicked paradigm. Considering the  This problem is a new information acquired and  Tame problem : Tame/Wicked paradigm , write a  Wicked problem : second statement of the problem definition.  Wicked mess :  Mess :SVtools
36. 36. 36 Write a second  Write a second statement of the problem problem situation according to statement the Tame/Wicked paradigm. Considering the  Is a Tame problem because : new information acquired and Tame/Wicked  Is a Wicked problem because : paradigm , write a second statement  Is aWicked mess because : of the problem definition.  Is a Mess because :SVtools
37. 37. 37 Write a second  Write a second statement of the problem problem situation according to statement the Tame/Wicked paradigm. Considering the  Is a Tame problem because : new information ------------------------------------------------- acquired and ---------------------------------------------- Tame/Wicked paradigm , write a ---------------------------------------------- second statement ---------------------------------------------- of the problem ---------------------------------------------- definition. ---------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------SVtools
38. 38. 38 Write a second  Write a second statement of the problem problem situation according to statement the Tame/Wicked paradigm. Considering the  Is a Wicked problem because : new information ------------------------------------------------- acquired and ---------------------------------------------- Tame/Wicked paradigm , write a ---------------------------------------------- second statement ---------------------------------------------- of the problem ---------------------------------------------- definition. ---------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------SVtools
39. 39. 39 Draw a second problem statement Wicked problem Draw a map of your problem , considering the model on your right.SVtools
40. 40. 40 Draw a second How many Are there More than problem correct any one statement views of the ideological Interventio problem are constrains ? n point Draw a map of possible ? possible ? your problem , considering the Political Logical or Resistance to model on your Constrains ? illogical multi Change ? right. valued Economic Morer than Difficulty to Constrains ? one solution ? indentify the Roadmap to solution ?SVtools
41. 41. 41 Draw a second problem statement Draw a map of your problem , considering the model on your right. Wicked problem and social messesSVtools  Wicked problem and social messes
42. 42. 42 Draw a second problem Draw the problem situation using a statement metaphor Utilize the model gaps metaphors Metaphors on your right lacks metaphors One or more than one block metaphor wall metaphor loss metaphor box metaphorSVtools
43. 43. 43 Problem Solving mapping One or more scenarios possible ?SVtools
44. 44. 44  Gaps metaphor Gaps Problem situations are often caused by interactions of diffrent kinds of Gaps. Per formance Gaps Identity Gaps Resources Gaps It is very important to identify the Gaps and build bridges in order to overcome the specific Gaps.SVtools
45. 45. 45  Gaps and Lacks metaphors Gaps or lacks  What kinds of Gaps or Lacks in Problem situations are often caused by your problem situation ? interactions of diffrent kinds of Gaps.  Structure gaps or lacks ? Per formance Gaps  Elements gaps or lacks ? Identity Gaps  Interaction gaps or lacks ? Resources Gaps  Field gaps or lacks ? It is very important to identify the Gaps or lacks and build bridges in order to overcome specific Gaps.SVtools
46. 46. 46  Lacks metaphor Lacks We often lack System Integrator whose key function is to connect the individual or group of individuals, clients, partners, to the Community of reference. We need System Integrators.SVtools
47. 47. 47  System Integrators System Integrator Problems may be originated by lacking of System Integrators. A systems integrator is a person or company that specializes in bringing together component subsystems into a whole and ensuring that those subsystems function together, a practice known as System Integration. Systems integrators may work in many fields but the term is generally used in the information technology (IT) field, the defense industry, or in media.SVtools
48. 48. 48 Sustainable scales  Scale metaphor metaphors Sustainable Scale is about how the physical size of the global economy creates an unprecedented and potentially disastrous impact on the life support services of global ecosystems and human civilization. What is the "Scale Problem"? Scale problems refer to the threats posed by economic activities to global life support systems such as the atmospheric ozone layer’s protection against ultraviolet radiation, and the carbon cycle’s provision of climate stability. Human economic activities are now threatening these natural systems at both the local and global levels, for the first time in the history of the planet. (See Understanding Scale for an introduction to scale concepts and the dynamics of relevant ecosystems).SVtools
49. 49. 49 Sustainable scales  Scale metaphor metaphors What Lacks or Gaps in your sustainable scale situation ? Is there a balance ? Is the ecosystem empty ? Is it full ?SVtools
50. 50. 50 Sustainable Is your problem situation in a Scales Sustainable Scale unbalance ? problem The limits and the dangers of wild growthSVtools
51. 51. 51 Sustainable Is your problem situation in a Scales Sustainable Scale unbalance ? problem What is the "Scale Problem"? Scale problems refer to the threats posed by economic activities to global life support systems such as the atmospheric ozone layer’s protection against ultraviolet radiation, and the carbon cycle’s provision of climate stability. Human economic activities are now threatening these natural systems at both the local and global levels, for the first time in the history of the planet. (See Understanding Scale for an introduction to scale concepts and the dynamics of relevant ecosystems).SVtools
52. 52. 52 Psycological blocks Psycological blocks Is the perception of the problem situation filtered by a Psycological Block ? Psycological block or Emotional block alter our perception of the true nature of the problem situation .SVtools
53. 53. 53  Psycological Blocks Psycological blocks Balance between Instinct and Analysis Overuse of Instinct or Analysis generate Mental BlocksSVtools
54. 54. 54 Tunnel metaphor Tunnel metaphor Is your problem swituation in a Tunnel ? Can you get through the tunnel ? How ?SVtools
55. 55. 55 Tunneling  Consider a particle with energy E in the inner region of a one- dimensional potential well V(x). (A potential well is a Tunneling potential that has a lower value in a certain region of space than in the neighbouring regions.) In classical mechanics, if E < V (the maximum height of the potential barrier), the Quantum Tunneling : particle remains in the well forever; if E > V , the particle escapes. In quantum mechanics, the situation is not so The phenomenon of simple. The particle can escape even if its energy E is below tunneling, which has no the height of the barrier V , although the probability of escape is small unless E is close to V . In that case, the particle may counterpart in classical tunnel through the potential barrier and emerge with the physics, is an important same energy E. consequence of  The phenomenon of tunneling has many important quantum mechanics applications. For example, it describes a type of radioactive decay in which a nucleus emits an alpha particle (a helium nucleus). According to the quantum explanation given independently by George Gamow and by Ronald W. Gurney and Edward Condon in 1928, the alpha particle is confined before the decay by a potential. For a given nuclear species, it is possible to measure the energy E of the emitted alpha particle and the average lifetime of the nucleus before decay. The lifetime of the nucleus is a measure of the probability of tunneling through the barrier--the shorter the lifetime, the higher the probability.SVtools
56. 56. 56 Tunneling Quantum Tunneling : The phenomenon of tunneling, which has no counterpart in classical physics, is an important consequence of quantum mechanicsSVtools
57. 57. 57 Box metaphor Are you in the Box ? What kind of Box ? Emotional Box ? Organizational Box ? Cognitive Box ? Leadership Box ? Management Box ?SVtools
58. 58. 58 The Box Thinking inside the Box Thinking outside the Box Thinking the BoxSVtools