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Workbook #1SYSTEMIC AND VISUAL TOOLS FOR PROBLEM SOLVING
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FIRST PART PROBLEM SOLVING SV TOOLSF.Lotito / SVtools
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Problem Models FOR INFORMATION AND solving UNDERSTANDING / to facilitate information and understanding SVtools Models FOR PRACTICE / to facilitate practice and exercises Visual and Models FOR APPLICATION/ to facilitate Heuristic tools application of tools and systems to customized study case for Problem solving Skills PS SVtools development Is a discovery tool which helps to analize and visualize the problem situation from a variety of angles and perspectives which can expand , enlarge our vision and understanding of the nature , the structure and the system dynamics of the problem. Visual thinking can facilitate and improve the quality of analysis of the Problem Definition stage in the Problem Solving Process. F.Lotito / SVtools
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Problem solving SVtools Visual and Heuristic tools for Problem solving Skills developmentF.Lotito / SVtools
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The 10 systemic principles of Problem solving Every problem interacts with other problems 1. Every problem situation has a structure- pattern of its elements : how they interact, influence and is therefore part of each other. a set of interrelated problems, a system of 2. When the structure- pattern is clear problems." , understandable we are facing a Tame problem. When we are facing a problem situation with a complex structure- pattern we are facing a Complexity—systems of Wicked problem or ill structured problem. systems—is among the factors that makes some 3. Each elements has a power and energy to influence and condition the other elements. problem situations so There are stronger elements and weaker resistant to analysis elements. and, more importantly, to 4. Each problem situation has its dynamics. resolution." 5. Each problem situation is a system or a mess which has its physics and chemistry. 6. We need to map the structure, its chemistry and its dynamics , its physics in order to first simplify the wicked problem and to identify its pattern then to solve it.F.Lotito / SVtools
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10 systemic 7.Mapping is important for principles of understanding and simplification. PS From the atom to the 8. Often the solution is in the table Structure, Pattern or dynamics of the problem situation. From messes to 9. We need to identify the conflictin solutions elements and contradictions to solve the problem. 10.Solutions are at the level of elements or group of elements : how they interact with each other. Elements, groups, subgroups.F.Lotito / SVtools
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1. Problem solving actions and performances are highly conditioned by Creative capabilities and Innovation skills Creative power : the power to dream, to think. to conceive, to envision Innovative power : the power to implement new ideas , hints Problem solving power : the power to solve problems with creative and innovative ideas and skills.F.Lotito / SVtools
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Write a description of the problem in your Problem own words ? Solving SVtools The concept of messes : Every problem situation could be considered a Mess , that is a situation with high complexity and Where is the mess ? What is the mess ?F.Lotito / SVtools
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P roblems are to reality what atoms are to Map the tables. We experience tables, not atoms. problem Problems are abstracted from experience by situation mess analysis. We do not experience individual problems but complex systems of those that What is a mess ? are strongly interacting. I call them messes. Because messes are systems of problems, they lose their essential properties when they are taken apart. Therefore, if a mess is disassembled, it loses its essential properties. Furthermore, as in any system, if each part taken separately is treated as well as possible, the whole is not treated as well as possible. A system is more than the sum of its parts; it is the product of their interactions. If taken apart, it simply disappears. Then how can we formulate a mess without taking it apart?F.Lotito / SVtools
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Problem situations Tame problems with structure easy to understand Ill – structured or Wicked problems with no definite formulation or structureF.Lotito / SVtools
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Is this problem a Tame problem ? Problem Easy to describe and analize ? situations ------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------- Tame problems with ------------------------------------------------------------- structure easy to understand Is this problem a Wicked problem ? With Complex messes and difficult to describe and analize ? Ill – structured or ------------------------------------------------------------- Wicked problems with ------------------------------------------------------------- no definite formulation ------------------------------------------------------------- or structure ------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------F.Lotito / SVtools
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Structures of problems Levels of Structuredness Problems could be well structured or ill structured. Tame problems are the most common problems that students solve in school,universities and training are well structured problems. They have a well defined initial state , a known goal state or solution. Ill structured problems , at the other end of the continuum , are the kinds of problems that are more often encountered in everyday and professional practice. They are also known as Wicked problems. They do not conform to the content domain being studied , so their solutions is neither predictable nor convergent. Ill structured problems are also interdisciplinary , that is , they cannot be solved by applying concepts and principles from a single discipline or domain. Often possess aspects that are unknown at all.F.Lotito / SVtools
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Problem First Statement messes • The problem is... Write your first statement of the problem The problem does • effects • effects The problems roots are...... • Roots • CausesF.Lotito / SVtools
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Mess exploration and analysis What are the questions that arise ? What are your questions ?F.Lotito / SVtools
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Mess exploration and analysis What are the questions that arise ? What are your • who originated What • When first was questions ? • who is responsible noted • What is the cause • When did it of the problem develop : places • What are the roots and events of it Who WhenF.Lotito / SVtools
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Mess exploration and analysis What are the questions that arise ? What are your • Where did it how • Why is questions ? happen • How was important • Places and originated • Why do you events • How did it want to solve it develop Where WhyF.Lotito / SVtools
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There are four ways of treating problems: How to treat absolution, resolution, solution, and dissolution. problem 1. To absolve a problem is to ignore it and hope it will situations go away or solve itself. 2. To resolve a problem is to do something that yields Absolution an outcome that is good enough, that satisfies. Problem resolvers take a clinical approach to Resolution problems; they rely heavily on experience, trial and error, qualitative judgments, and common sense. Solution They try to identify the cause of a problem, remove or suppress it, and thereby return to a previous state. Dissolution 3. To solve a problem is to do something that yields the best possible outcome, that optimizes. Problem solvers take a research approach to problems. They rely heavily on experimentation and quantitative analysis. 4. To dissolve a problem is to eliminate it by redesigning the system that has it. Problem dissolvers try to idealize, to approximate an ideal system and thereby do better in the future than the best that can be done now.F.Lotito / SVtools
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How to define the structure of a problem The Waterfall DiagramF.Lotito / SVtools
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Four types of problems Wicked Tame Wicked Mess MessF.Lotito / SVtools
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Solutions structures Through Leadership Through ManagementF.Lotito / SVtools
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The Boston Matrix Problem definition Problem structure SolutionsF.Lotito / SVtools
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Where is your problem situation ? Where WhenF.Lotito / SVtools
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Wicked problems They look difficult , but…….with the proper tools we can tame them.F.Lotito / SVtools
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PROBLEM SOLVING SV TOOLS END OF PART ONE IF INTERESTED IN PART 2 AND 3 WRITE TO FEL.LOTITO@TISCALI.ITF.Lotito / SVtools
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