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Johan Baars: Mushroom cultivation for urban farming group april 2013
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Johan Baars: Mushroom cultivation for urban farming group april 2013



Grundtvig workshop Food in the City April 2013, a project of Youmanitas Energy Farms.

Grundtvig workshop Food in the City April 2013, a project of Youmanitas Energy Farms.



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Johan Baars: Mushroom cultivation for urban farming group april 2013 Johan Baars: Mushroom cultivation for urban farming group april 2013 Presentation Transcript

  • Growing MushroomsJohan BaarsPlant Breeding
  • Ecological role of mushrooms Recycling carbonSoil organic matter(Global pool of organic carbon in soil)to a depth of 1 m: 1200-1550 x 1015gto a depth of 2 m: 2370-2450 x 1015gCarbon in livingorganisms560 x 1015gCarbon in theatmosphere760 x 1015gPlantsBacteria and fungi
  • Ecological role of mushrooms Pivotal role of fungi Aerobic degradation of lignin Ability to degrade soil humus
  • Poisonous& psychotropicOf Field Gardens& StumpsOf theForest FloorMedicinalmushroomsMost non-cultivable (Mycorrhizal) Most cultivablePosters of David Arora; http://www.gmushrooms.com/Posters/
  • Agaricus arvensis Coprinus comatusInk CapPleurotus ostreatusOyster MushroomLentinus edodesShii-take Agaricus bisporusButton MushroomMushroom grown in Western World
  • Additional Mushrooms Grown in AsiaGanoderma lucidumVolvariella volvaceaAuricularia auriculaFlammulina velutipesenokitake
  • Additional Mushrooms Grown in AsiaPleurotuseryngiiPleurotus nebrodensis
  • Asian supermarkets are stacked withmushrooms
  • Mushrooms: Fungi Cultivatable species are saprotrophic organisms Living on dead organic materials Carbon, Nitrogen, P, macro-, micro minerals C/N 15-90 Water Selective Media (Substrates) Hygiene
  • Commercial Spawn ProductionStrains are vegetatively propagated
  • Inoculum for Substrate: SpawnAlso other carriers formushroom mycelium canbe used
  • Collection Plant Breeding Approximately 5000 strains >120 species Stored in liquid nitrogen Work collection on slant tubes Wild Lines: Agaricus bisporus > 200 Pleurotus spp. >200 Leninula edodes ca 80
  • New sporeless oyster mushroom
  • Lamellae sporelessmutantLamellae commercialvarietyTetrade
  • Introduction into the market
  • Cultivation systems; bottles
  • Cultivation systems; bags
  • Cultivation systems; bags
  • Toilet paper
  • Cultivation systems: logs
  • Cultivation systems; shelves
  • What is used as substrate? Cultivation of mushrooms has been recorded frommore than 250 different lignocellulosic wastes Examples: sawdust (preferably from deciduoustrees), bagasse, corn cobs, cottonseeds hulls, ricebran, bean straw and pods (and straws from otherlegumes), shredded cardboard, cereal straw,sunflower husks, stipes and heads, etc.
  • Substrates determine the species grown Woodlogs; Sawdust Composted Substrates Straw
  • Usually mixtures are made for optimalnutritional value to the mushroom For instance: Saw dust Starch based supplements (10 to 60 % dry weight)• such as wheat bran, rice bran, millet, rye, and maize Other supplements, added in lesser quantities, includecalcium carbonate (CaCO3), gypsum, and table sugar. Once the proper ratio of ingredients is selected, they arecombined in a mixer, with water added to raise themoisture content of the mix to about 60%
  • Substrate production Important to exclude unwanted fungi Two types of substrate treatments Composting in order to produce a selective substrate Pasteurising or sterilising substrates
  • Compost (Substrate) for button mushrooms Straw, Chicken/Horse manure, gypsum Composted in 2 phases Colonization: Phase III Indoor (Tunnels)
  • Crop Cyclemanure and straw -------------> crop of Agaricus bisporusweek number1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11composting colonization I colonization II primordia croppingphase I phase II inoculation casing airing flush 1 flush 2 flush 3> 70 C 45 C 24 C 20 C 70 Cspawn casing soilCentralizedIn TunnelsAt FarmsCrop length 6 weeks
  • Mushroom Production
  • Bulk Production of compost at CNCCNC Grondstoffen WalkroHooymans CompostSterckxCompost
  • Indoor Composting
  • Substrate ColonizationInoculatedColonizedafter 2 weeks
  • Mushroom production (filling)
  • Mushroom Production
  • HandpickingEach pickerharvests about 30-35 kg/hour
  • Mechanical harvest
  • To illustrate A short movie about growing white buttonmushroom (about 13 minutes)
  • Mechanical harvest6 minute moviehttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8vxkBVTdzRQ
  • Oyster mushroom production6 minute moviehttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AiNW0Y42xiM
  • Problems in mushroom cultivation Pests (Insects, mites, nematodes) Fungal diseases Bacterial diseases Viral diseases
  • Crop protection Difficult issue Not many crop protection agents registered (small marketfor the crop protection industry) Problems with specificity (controling growth of pathogenicfungi in a fungal crop) Retail is very strict on residues of crop protection agents
  • Crop sizesContinent Mushroom production in 2010(tonnes)Production as % ofworld productionWorld (Total) 7,443,133Asia (Total) 5,122,059 68.8 %Europe (Total) 1,821,728 35.6 %Americas (Total) 432,399 8.4 %Oceania (Total) 49,508 0.9 %Africa (Total) 17,439 0.3 %Source; FAOStat
  • The market In Europe dominated by white button mushroom Huge production / low prices/fierce competition Limited initiatives for marketing (http://www.mushroomidea.co.uk/) Difficult to introduce new mushroom crops onto themarket (remain niche markets)