Johan Baars: Mushroom cultivation for urban farming group april 2013


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Grundtvig workshop Food in the City April 2013, a project of Youmanitas Energy Farms.

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Johan Baars: Mushroom cultivation for urban farming group april 2013

  1. 1. Growing MushroomsJohan BaarsPlant Breeding
  2. 2. Ecological role of mushrooms Recycling carbonSoil organic matter(Global pool of organic carbon in soil)to a depth of 1 m: 1200-1550 x 1015gto a depth of 2 m: 2370-2450 x 1015gCarbon in livingorganisms560 x 1015gCarbon in theatmosphere760 x 1015gPlantsBacteria and fungi
  3. 3. Ecological role of mushrooms Pivotal role of fungi Aerobic degradation of lignin Ability to degrade soil humus
  4. 4. Poisonous& psychotropicOf Field Gardens& StumpsOf theForest FloorMedicinalmushroomsMost non-cultivable (Mycorrhizal) Most cultivablePosters of David Arora;
  5. 5. Agaricus arvensis Coprinus comatusInk CapPleurotus ostreatusOyster MushroomLentinus edodesShii-take Agaricus bisporusButton MushroomMushroom grown in Western World
  6. 6. Additional Mushrooms Grown in AsiaGanoderma lucidumVolvariella volvaceaAuricularia auriculaFlammulina velutipesenokitake
  7. 7. Additional Mushrooms Grown in AsiaPleurotuseryngiiPleurotus nebrodensis
  8. 8. Asian supermarkets are stacked withmushrooms
  9. 9. Mushrooms: Fungi Cultivatable species are saprotrophic organisms Living on dead organic materials Carbon, Nitrogen, P, macro-, micro minerals C/N 15-90 Water Selective Media (Substrates) Hygiene
  10. 10. Commercial Spawn ProductionStrains are vegetatively propagated
  11. 11. Inoculum for Substrate: SpawnAlso other carriers formushroom mycelium canbe used
  12. 12. Collection Plant Breeding Approximately 5000 strains >120 species Stored in liquid nitrogen Work collection on slant tubes Wild Lines: Agaricus bisporus > 200 Pleurotus spp. >200 Leninula edodes ca 80
  13. 13. New sporeless oyster mushroom
  14. 14. Lamellae sporelessmutantLamellae commercialvarietyTetrade
  15. 15. Introduction into the market
  16. 16. Cultivation systems; bottles
  17. 17. Cultivation systems; bags
  18. 18. Cultivation systems; bags
  19. 19. Toilet paper
  20. 20. Cultivation systems: logs
  21. 21. Cultivation systems; shelves
  22. 22. What is used as substrate? Cultivation of mushrooms has been recorded frommore than 250 different lignocellulosic wastes Examples: sawdust (preferably from deciduoustrees), bagasse, corn cobs, cottonseeds hulls, ricebran, bean straw and pods (and straws from otherlegumes), shredded cardboard, cereal straw,sunflower husks, stipes and heads, etc.
  23. 23. Substrates determine the species grown Woodlogs; Sawdust Composted Substrates Straw
  24. 24. Usually mixtures are made for optimalnutritional value to the mushroom For instance: Saw dust Starch based supplements (10 to 60 % dry weight)• such as wheat bran, rice bran, millet, rye, and maize Other supplements, added in lesser quantities, includecalcium carbonate (CaCO3), gypsum, and table sugar. Once the proper ratio of ingredients is selected, they arecombined in a mixer, with water added to raise themoisture content of the mix to about 60%
  25. 25. Substrate production Important to exclude unwanted fungi Two types of substrate treatments Composting in order to produce a selective substrate Pasteurising or sterilising substrates
  26. 26. Compost (Substrate) for button mushrooms Straw, Chicken/Horse manure, gypsum Composted in 2 phases Colonization: Phase III Indoor (Tunnels)
  27. 27. Crop Cyclemanure and straw -------------> crop of Agaricus bisporusweek number1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11composting colonization I colonization II primordia croppingphase I phase II inoculation casing airing flush 1 flush 2 flush 3> 70 C 45 C 24 C 20 C 70 Cspawn casing soilCentralizedIn TunnelsAt FarmsCrop length 6 weeks
  28. 28. Mushroom Production
  29. 29. Bulk Production of compost at CNCCNC Grondstoffen WalkroHooymans CompostSterckxCompost
  30. 30. Indoor Composting
  31. 31. Substrate ColonizationInoculatedColonizedafter 2 weeks
  32. 32. Mushroom production (filling)
  33. 33. Mushroom Production
  34. 34. HandpickingEach pickerharvests about 30-35 kg/hour
  35. 35. Mechanical harvest
  36. 36. To illustrate A short movie about growing white buttonmushroom (about 13 minutes)
  37. 37. Mechanical harvest6 minute movie
  38. 38. Oyster mushroom production6 minute movie
  39. 39. Problems in mushroom cultivation Pests (Insects, mites, nematodes) Fungal diseases Bacterial diseases Viral diseases
  40. 40. Crop protection Difficult issue Not many crop protection agents registered (small marketfor the crop protection industry) Problems with specificity (controling growth of pathogenicfungi in a fungal crop) Retail is very strict on residues of crop protection agents
  41. 41. Crop sizesContinent Mushroom production in 2010(tonnes)Production as % ofworld productionWorld (Total) 7,443,133Asia (Total) 5,122,059 68.8 %Europe (Total) 1,821,728 35.6 %Americas (Total) 432,399 8.4 %Oceania (Total) 49,508 0.9 %Africa (Total) 17,439 0.3 %Source; FAOStat
  42. 42. The market In Europe dominated by white button mushroom Huge production / low prices/fierce competition Limited initiatives for marketing ( Difficult to introduce new mushroom crops onto themarket (remain niche markets)