production unit—are naturally Hydroponics: Hydroponics is the produc-
appealing for niche marketing and tion of plants in a soilless medium whereby
green labeling. all of the nutrients supplied to the crop are
• Aquaponics can enable the produc- dissolved in water. Liquid hydroponic sys-
tems employ the nutrient ﬁlm technique
tion of fresh vegetables and ﬁsh pro-
(NFT), ﬂoating rafts, and noncirculating
tein in arid regions and on water-
water culture. Aggregate hydroponic sys-
limited farms, since it is a water
tems employ inert, organic, and mixed
media contained in bag, trough, trench,
• Aquaponics is a working model of pipe, or bench setups. Aggregate media
sustainable food production wherein used in these systems include perlite, ver-
plant and animal agriculture are miculite, gravel, sand, expanded clay, peat,
integrated and recycling of nutrients and sawdust. Normally, hydroponic plants
and water ﬁltration are linked. are fertigated (soluble fertilizers injected
• In addition to commercial appli- into irrigation water) on a periodical cycle
cation, aquaponics has become a to maintain moist roots and provide a con-
popular training aid on integrated stant supply of nutrients. These hydroponic
Related ATTRA nutrients are usually derived from synthetic
bio-systems with vocational agri-
Publications commercial fertilizers, such as calcium
culture programs and high school
nitrate, that are highly soluble in water.
Evaluating an biology classes.
However, hydro-organics—based on solu-
The technology associated with aquapon- ble organic fertilizers such as ﬁsh hydrosyl-
ics is complex. It requires the ability to ate—is an emerging practice. Hydroponic
Agricultural Business simultaneously manage the production recipes are based on chemical formula-
and marketing of two different agricultural tions that deliver precise concentrations of
products. Until the 1980s, most attempts mineral elements. The controlled deliv-
at integrated hydroponics and aquacul- ery of nutrients, water, and environmen-
ture had limited success. However, inno- tal modiﬁcations under greenhouse condi-
vations since the 1980s have transformed tions is a major reason why hydroponics is
aquaponics technology into a viable sys- so successful.
tem of food production. Modern aquaponic Nutrients in Aquaculture Eff luent:
systems can be highly successful, but they Greenhouse growers normally control the
require intensive management and they have delivery of precise quantities of mineral
special considerations. elements to hydroponic plants. However,
This publication provides an introduction to in aquaponics, nutrients are delivered via
aquaponics, it proﬁles successful aquaponic aquacultural efﬂuent. Fish efﬂuent contains
greenhouses, and it provides extensive sufﬁcient levels of ammonia, nitrate, nitrite,
resources. It does not attempt to describe phosphorus, potassium, and other second-
production methods in comprehensive tech- ary and micronutrients to produce hydro-
nical detail, but it does provide a summary ponic plants. Naturally, some plant species
are better adapted to this system than oth-
of key elements and considerations.
ers. The technical literature on aquaponics
provides greater detail on hydroponic nutri-
Aquaponics: Key Elements ent delivery; especially see papers cited in
and Considerations the Bibliography by James Rakocy, PhD.
A successful aquaponics enterprise requires Plants Adapted to Aquaponics: The
special training, skills, and management. selection of plant species adapted to hydro-
The following items point to key elements ponic culture in aquaponic greenhouses
and considerations to help prospective grow- is related to stocking density of ﬁsh tanks
ers evaluate the integration of hydroponics and subsequent nutrient concentration of
with aquaculture. aquacultural efﬂuent. Lettuce, herbs, and
Page 2 ATTRA Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture
specialty greens (spinach, chives, basil, and products to forms more available to plants
watercress) have low to medium nutritional prior to delivery to hydroponic vegetable
requirements and are well adapted to aqua- beds. Other systems deliver ﬁsh efﬂuent
ponic systems. Plants yielding fruit (toma- directly to gravel-cultured hydroponic veg-
toes, bell peppers, and cucumbers) have etable beds. The gravel functions as a “ﬂu-
a higher nutritional demand and perform idized bed bioreactor,” removing dissolved
better in a heavily stocked, well established solids and providing habitat for nitrifying
aquaponic system. Greenhouse varieties bacteria involved in nutrient conversions.
of tomatoes are better adapted to low light, The design manuals and technical docu-
high humidity conditions in greenhouses mentation available in the Resources sec-
than ﬁeld varieties. tion can help growers decide which system
is most appropriate.
Fish Species: Several warm-water and
cold-water ﬁsh species are adapted to recir- Component Ratio: Matching the volume
culating aquaculture systems, including of ﬁsh tank water to volume of hydroponic
tilapia, trout, perch, Arctic char, and bass. media is known as component ratio. Early
However, most commercial aquaponic sys- aquaponics systems were based on a ratio
tems in North America are based on tila- of 1:1, but 1:2 is now common and tank: ilapia is a
pia. Tilapia is a warm-water species that bed ratios as high as 1:4 are employed.
grows well in a recirculating tank culture. The variation in range depends on type of
Furthermore, tilapia is tolerant of ﬂuctuat- hydroponic system (gravel vs. raft), ﬁsh spe- species that
ing water conditions such as pH, tempera- cies, ﬁsh density, feeding rate, plant spe- grows well in a recir-
ture, oxygen, and dissolved solids. Tilapia cies, etc. For example, the Speraneo system culating tank cul-
produces a white-ﬂeshed meat suitable to described below is designed for one cubic ture.
local and wholesale markets. The literature foot of water to two cubic feet of grow bed
on tilapia contains extensive technical doc- media (pea gravel). Further, when shallow
umentation and cultural procedures. Bar- bed systems only three inches in depth are
ramundi and Murray cod ﬁsh species are employed for the production of specialty
raised in recirculating aquaponic systems greens such as lettuce and basil, the square
in Australia. footage of grow space will increase four
times. Depending on the system design, the
Water Quality Characteristics: Fish
component ratio can favor greater outputs of
raised in recirculating tank culture require
either hydroponic produce or ﬁsh protein.
good water quality conditions. Water qual-
A “node” is a conﬁguration that links one
ity testing kits from aquacultural sup-
ﬁsh tank to a certain number of hydroponic
ply companies are fundamental. Critical
beds. Thus, one greenhouse may contain
water quality parameters include dissolved
a multiple number of ﬁsh tanks and asso-
oxygen, carbon dioxide, ammonia, nitrate,
ciated growing beds, each arranged in a
nitrite, pH, chlorine, and other character-
istics. The stocking density of ﬁsh, growth
rate of ﬁsh, feeding rate and volume, and
related environmental ﬂuctuations can elicit Male tilapia ﬁsh. AARM
rapid changes in water quality; constant - Aquaculture & Aquatic
and vigilant water quality monitoring Resources Management
Asian Institute of
is essential. Technology, Thailand.
Biofiltration and Suspended Solids:
Aquaculture efﬂuent contains nutrients, dis-
solved solids, and waste byproducts. Some
aquaponic systems are designed with inter- Aquaponic Systems
mediate ﬁlters and cartridges to collect sus- Proﬁles of several aquaponic greenhouses
pended solids in ﬁsh efﬂuent, and to facili- are highlighted below as models of com-
tate conversion of ammonia and other waste mercially viable systems. Most of these
www.attra.ncat.org ATTRA Page 3
operations are featured in magazine articles fish can bring premium prices,
and conference proceedings. Some oper- particularly during winter months
ations offer technical assistance through in urban areas.
short courses, design manuals, and on-site • Bioﬁlters (sand beds with vegeta-
tours. Please refer to articles in the Sug- bles) that are alternately flooded
gested Reading list, the Resources sec- and drained with nutrient-laden ﬁsh
tion, and the Bibliography for in-depth tank water are called reciprocating
descriptions and technical details. bioﬁlters.
• Reciprocating biofilters provide
The North Carolina State uniform distribution of nutrient-
University System laden water within the filtration
In the 1980’s Mark McMurtry (former medium during the ﬂood cycle, and
graduate student) and the late Doug Sand- improved aeration from atmospheric
ers (professor) at North Carolina State Uni- exchange during each dewatering
versity developed an aqua-vegeculture sys- with beneﬁts to both nitrifying bac-
tem based on tilapia ﬁsh tanks sunk below teria and plant roots.
ater con- the greenhouse ﬂoor. Efﬂuent from the ﬁsh • Dissolved and suspended organic
sump- tanks was trickle-irrigated onto sand-cul- materia ls accumulate rapidly
tured hydroponic vegetable beds located at in aquaculture systems and must
ground level. The nutrients in the irrigation be removed for efficient fish
an integrated aqua- water fed tomato and cucumber crops, and production.
vegeculture system the sand beds and plant roots functioned as • Previous integrated ﬁsh-vegetable
amounts to 1 per- a bioﬁlter. After draining from the beds, systems removed suspended solids
cent of that required the water recirculated back into the ﬁsh from the water by sedimentation in
in pond culture to tanks. The only fertility input to the system clariﬁers prior to plant application.
was ﬁsh feed (32 percent protein). Removal of the solid wastes resulted
tilapia yields. S ome f i nd i ng s a nd h i gh l i ght s of in insufﬁcient residual nutrients for
McMurtry’s research: good plant growth; acceptable fruit
yields had previously only been
• Beneﬁts of integrating aquaculture achieved with substantial supple-
and vegetable production are: mentation of plant nutrients.
1. conservation of water resources • Aquaeous nitrate concentrations in
and plant nutrients recirculating aquaculture can be
2. intensive production of fish adequately regulated when ﬁsh and
protein vegetable production are linked via
3. reduced operating costs relative
to either system in isolation. • Tomatoes may have also assimi-
lated nitrogen in organic amino
• Water consumption in an integrated
acid forms. In 1950 Gosh and Bur-
aqua-vegeculture system amounts to
ris (Utilization of nitrogenous com-
1 percent of that required in pond
pounds by plants. Soil Science.
culture to produce equivalent tilapia Vol. 70: 187-203) found that toma-
yields. toes utilize alanine, glutamic acid,
• Such low-water-use symbiotic sys- histidine, and leucine as effectively
tems are applicable to the needs as inorganic nitrogen sources.
of arid or semi-arid regions where • Research to determine the optimum
ﬁsh and fresh vegetables are in high ratio of ﬁsh tank to bioﬁlter volume
demand. on ﬁsh growth rate and water qual-
• Organic vine-ripened, pesticide- ity found that stocking density of
free produce and “fresh-daily” ﬁsh and plants can vary depending
Page 4 ATTRA Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture
on desired goal. The component tank-plus-hydroponic bed setup as a “node.”
ratios of the system may be manipu- This way, each node can operate indepen-
lated to favour ﬁsh or vegetable pro- dently of one another.
duction according to local market
Some aspects of the Speraneo system were
trends or dietary needs. Fish stock-
modeled after the aquaponics research at
ing density and feeding rates are
North Carolina State University, while oth-
adjusted to optimize water quality
ers are modiﬁed. The Speraneos employ
as inﬂuenced by plant growth rate.
hydroponic vegetable beds as “ﬂuidized
See the Bibliography on Aquaponics bed reactors,” but they use pea-grade river
in the appendix for a of list articles that gravel instead of sand. Tilapia are raised
resulted from the North Carolina research. in ﬁsh tanks, but the tanks are more con-
Aqua-vegeculture research at NCSU has veniently located above ground and tilapia
been discontinued because the technology hybrids adapted to cooler water tempera-
had evolved to the point where it is ready tures are grown. The reciprocating water
for grower application. The Department of cycle, PVC piping, and return-ﬂow water
Horticulture and the Cooperative Extension pumping methods were designed by Tom
Service at NCSU provide technical assis- and Paula to match their system. he Spera-
tance to aquaponic greenhouse growers in For years, Purina® ﬁsh chow at 40 percent neo system
North Carolina. protein was the primary fertility input, sup- was practi-
plemented with tank-cultured algae. Tila-
cal, productive, and
The Speraneo System pia in the Speraneo system are raised for
7 to 12 months, then harvested at one to wildly successful.
In the early 1990s, Tom and Paula Spe-
raneo—owners of S & S Aqua Farm near one-and-a-half pounds in size. Later, Tom
West Plains, Missouri—modiﬁed the North started adding small amounts of Planters
Carolina State method by raising tilapia in 2® rock dust on top of the gravel as a trace
a 500-gallon tank, with ﬁsh efﬂuent linked element supplement.
to gravel-cultured hydroponic vegetable S & S Aqua Farm has grown fresh basil,
beds inside an attached solar greenhouse. tomatoes, cucumbers, mixed salad greens,
Later, they expanded to a full-size commer- and an assortment of vegetable, herb, and
cial greenhouse. The Speraneo system was ornamental bedding plants in the aqua-
practical, productive, and wildly successful. ponic greenhouse. In the early 1990’s,
It became the model for dozens of commer- Tom and Paula were raising and selling
cial aquaponic greenhouses and high school basil for $12 a pound to gourmet restau-
biology programs. rants about four hours away in St. Louis,
Sadly, Tom Speraneo died in February Missouri. Following passage of the North
2004. Tom was a true pioneer in aqua- American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA),
ponics, and he was unfailingly generous however, Mexican imports of basil resulted
and helpful to others. Paula Speraneo in a market crash to $4 per pound, so they
and her family continue to run the green- dropped the St. Louis market. S & S Aqua
house and actively participate in aqua- Farm now grows a diverse variety of vege-
ponics technology transfer. The following table and herbs, selling locally at a farmers
notes describe the Speraneo system and market combined with direct sales out of
available resources. their greenhouse.
The commercia l-sca le solar g reen- Tom once calculated the farm produces 45
house at S & S Aqua Farm is 50 feet by to 70 pounds of produce for every pound of
80 feet, oriented East-West to create a tilapia, an impressive yield. However, Paula
south-facing slope. It contains six 1,200 explained this ﬁgure takes into account the
gallon ﬁsh tanks. Each tank is linked to cummulative yields of multiple vegetable
six one-foot-deep hydroponic beds ﬁlled crops raised during the 7 to 12 month time
with river gravel. Tom referred to each period required to raise ﬁsh to harvest.
www.attra.ncat.org ATTRA Page 5
at S&S Aqua Farms, West
Plains, Missouri. Photos
by Steve Diver, NCAT.
Page 6 ATTRA Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture
The component ratio favors vegetables over rearing tanks, and the aquacultural efﬂu-
ﬁsh yields in the Speraneo system. ent is linked to ﬂoating raft hydroponics.
Basil, lettuce, okra, and other crops have
Interest in the Speraneo system resulted
been raised successfully, with outstanding
in more than 10,000 visitors to the small
quality and yields.
farm in Missouri, including school children,
farmers, researchers, and government ofﬁ- The system components include: Four ﬁsh
cials. To handle requests for assistance, the rearing tanks at 7,800 liters each, clariﬁ-
Speraneos compiled a resource packet and ers, ﬁlter and degassing tanks, air diffus-
design manual with technical speciﬁcations ers, sump, base addition tank, pipes and
to establish an S & S Aqua Farm-style aqua- pumps, and six 400-square foot hydroponic
ponic system. The resource packet includes troughs totaling 2,400 sq. ft. The pH is
a 10-minute video and a list of supplies. monitored daily and maintained at 7.0 to
Response from growers to a practical design 7.5 by alternately adding calcium hydroxide
manual such as this was tremendous. The and potassium hydroxide to the base addi-
Speraneo system is now in use worldwide. tion tank, which buffers the aquatic system
The resource packet, which sells for $250, and supplements calcium and potassium
is available through: ions at the same time. The only other sup- ames Rakocy,
S & S Aqua Farm plemental nutrient required is iron, which PhD, and asso-
[Contact: Paula Speraneo] is added in a chelated form once every
ciates at the
8386 County Rd. 8820 three weeks.
University of the
West Plains, MO 65775 Tilapia are stocked at a rate of 77 ﬁsh per Virgin Islands (UVI)
417-256-5124 cubic meter for Nile tilapia, or 154 ﬁsh per
firstname.lastname@example.org developed a com-
cubic meter for red tilapia and cultured for
www.townsqr.com/snsaqua/index.html 24 weeks. The production schedule is stag- mercial-scale aqua-
gered so that one tank is harvested every ponic system that
six weeks. After harvest, the ﬁsh tank is has run continu-
Maturing Marvel immediately restocked. The ﬁsh are fed ously for more than
by Vern Modeland three times daily with a complete, ﬂoating ﬁve years.
The Growing Edge, May-June 1998 ﬁsh pellet at 32 percent protein. Projected
www.townsqr.com/snsaqua/0905ssaf.pdf annual ﬁsh production is 4.16 metric tons
The Genius of Simplicity for Nile tilapia and 4.78 metric tons for
by John Wesely Smith red tilapia.
The Growing Edge, Winter 1993-94 In one notable experiment the UVI
www.townsqr.com/snsaqua/0502ssaf.pdf researchers compared the yields of a leafy
Bioponics—Revolution in Food Grow- herb (basil) and a fruiting vegetable (okra)
ing: Missouri Aquafarmer Discovers grown in aquaponic vs ﬁeld production sys-
Huge Beneﬁts in Trace Elements tems. Basil and okra were raised in raft
by David Yarrow hydroponics. Yields of aquaponic basil
Remineralize the Earth, December 1997 were three times greater than ﬁeld-grown,
www.championtrees.org/topsoil/ while yields of aquaponic okra were 18
bioponics.htm times greater than ﬁeld-grown. Based on
a market price in the U.S. Virgin Islands
of $22 per kg for fresh basil with stems,
The University of the Virgin researchers calculated gross income poten-
Islands System tial. The aquaponic method would result in
James Rakocy, PhD, and associates at the $515 per cubic meter per year or $110,210
University of the Virgin Islands (UVI) devel- per system per year. This compares to ﬁeld-
oped a commercial-scale aquaponic system produced basil at $172 per cubic meter
that has run continuously for more than ﬁve per year or $36,808 per year for the same
years. Nile and red tilapia are raised in ﬁsh production area. When fish sales
www.attra.ncat.org ATTRA Page 7
are included, the aquaponic system ista6web/pdf/676.pdf
yields $134,245. (1) PowerPoint presentation; 49 pages
Like McMurtry, researcher Rakocy sees
integrated water reuse systems as a viable
solution to sustainable food production in Aquaponics: Integrated Technology
developing countries and arid regions— for Fish and Vegetable Production in
such as the Caribbean Islands—where fresh Recirculating Systems
water is scarce. James Rakocy, University of the Virgin
To provide in-depth technical support, the Islands
UVI research team offers a week-long short USDA Ministerial Conference and Expo on
course on aquaponics each year at the UVI Agricultural Science and Technology
agricultural experiment station. The UVI PowerPoint presentation; 69 slides
short course is the premier educational http://ffas.usda.gov/icd/stconf/session2/
training program available to farmers in the session%202d/02-rakocy_ j-2D%202nd_
world. In addition to aquaponics, UVI spe- ﬁles/frame.htm
cializes in greenwater tank culture, a recir-
ike culating aquaculture system. The Freshwater Institute System
McMurtry, The Freshwater Institute in Shepherdstown,
Rakocy has published extensive research
reports and several Extension Service bul- West Virginia—a program of The Conser-
Rakocy sees inte- letins on recirculating aquaculture and vation Fund, an environmental non-proﬁt
grated water reuse aquaponics. See the Bibliography in the organization—specializes in aquaculture
systems as a viable appendix for citations to articles and papers research and education. Fresh spring water
by Rackocy. is an abundant resource in the Appala-
solution to sustain-
chian region. However, protection of spring
able food produc- Contact: water quality as it relates to aquaculture
tion in develop- efﬂuent is viewed as a vital component of
James Rakocy, PhD
ing countries and University of the Virgin Islands this technology.
arid regions—such Agriculture Experiment Station For years, the institute has specialized in
as the Caribbean RR 1, Box 10,000 cold-water recirculating aquaculture systems
Islands—where Kingshill, St. Croix raising trout and arctic char. The institute
fresh water is scarce.
U.S. Virgin Islands 00850-9781 helps Appalachian farmers set up two types
340-692-4020 of aquaculture systems: (a) an indoor, high-
email@example.com tech recirculating tank method and (b) an
http://rps.uvi.edu/AES/Aquaculture/ outdoor, low-tech recirculating tank method.
aqua.html Treatment of aquaculture efﬂuent prior to
http://rps.uvi.edu/AES/Aquaculture/ its return to the natural stream ﬂow led
aquaponics.html to collaborative research with USDA-ARS
Especially see: scientists in Kearneysville, West Virginia,
on integrated hydroponic-fish culture
Update on Tilapia and Vegetable Pro- systems. Trials at the institute’s green-
duction in the UVI Aquaponic System houses showed that nitrogen, phosphorus,
James E. Rakocy, Donald S. Bailey, R.
and other nutrients in aquaculture efﬂu-
Charlie Shultz and Eric S. Thoman page
ent can be effectively removed by plants
676-690. In: New Dimensions on Farmed
grown in NFT hydroponics or constructed
Tilapia: Proceedings of the Sixth Inter-
national Symposium on Tilapia in Aqua-
culture, Held September 12-16, 2004 in In the mid-1990s, the institute implemented
Manila, Philippines. an aquaponic demonstration program based
Proceedings paper: 15 pages on a Sperraneo-style gravel-cultured sys-
http://ag.arizona.edu/azaqua/ista/ista6/ tem. Tilapia is raised as a warm-water ﬁsh
Page 8 ATTRA Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture
species. Hydroponic crops include basil, Cabbage Hill Farm designed and continues
lettuce, and wetland plants. to operate a simple recirculating aquaponic
To provide technical assistance to farmers system. Cabbage Hill Farm promotes edu-
and high school biology teachers, the insti- cation on aquaponics and hosts greenhouse
tute published a series of publications on interns. Tours are available.
recirculating aquaculture and aquaponics. Tilapia ﬁsh and leaf lettuce are the main
The Freshwater Institute Natural Gas Pow- products of the Cabbage Hill Farm system,
ered Aquaponic System—Design Manual is a though basil and watercress are also grown
37-page manual published by the institute in smaller quantities. In addition to hydro-
in 1997. Included are diagrams and pho- ponics, water passes through a constructed
tos, details on greenhouse layout and aqua-
reed bed outside the greenhouse for addi-
ponic production, parts list with suppliers
tional nutrient removal.
and cost, estimated operating expense, and
further informational resources. Aquaponics—Preserving the Future is a video
Please note the institute no longer pro- ﬁlm documenting the research and dem-
onstration of aquaponics at Cabbage Hill
vides direct technical assistance to farm-
ers on aquaponics. Instead, it has made Farms. The cost is $18. abbage Hill
the aquaponics design manual and related Farm pro-
Cabbage Hill Farm
publications on recirculating aquaculture 205 Crow Hill Road motes edu-
and aquaponics ava i lable a s free Mount Kisco, NY 10549 cation on aqua-
Web downloads. ponics and hosts
The Freshwater Institute 914-241-8264 FAX greenhouse interns.
Shepherdstown, WV www.cabbagehillfarm.org
Selected Web Publications from The The New Alchemy Institute
Freshwater Institute The New Alchemy Institute in East Fal-
• Suggested Management Guidelines mouth, Massachusetts, conducted research
for An Integrated Recycle Aquacul- on integrated aquaculture systems during
ture – Hydroponic System the 1970s and 1980s. Although the insti-
tute closed in 1991, New Alchemy pub-
• The Freshwater Institute Natural
lications on greenhouse production and
Gas Powered Aquaponic System -
aquaponics provide historical insight to
the emerging bioshelter (ecosystem green-
• 880 Gallon Recycle Aquaculture houses) concept and are still a valuable
System Installation Guide resource for technical information. The
• Linking Hydroponics to a 880 Gal- Green Center, formed by a group of for-
lon Recycle Fish Rearing System mer New Alchemists, is again making these
• Operators Manual for 880 - Recycle publications available for sale. The Web
System site has a section featuring for-sale articles
on aquaculture and bioshelters (integrated
The Cabbage Hill Farm System systems). A selection of past articles is
Cabbage Hill Farm is a non-proﬁt organi- available online.
zation located about 30 miles north of New Contact:
York City. The foundation is dedicated
to the preservation of rare breeds of farm The Green Center
animals, sustainable agriculture and 237 Hatchville Rd.
local food systems, and aquaponic East Falmouth, MA 02536
greenhouse production. www.vsb.cape.com/~nature/greencenter/
www.attra.ncat.org ATTRA Page 9
in Western Australia.
Photos by Joel Malcolm,
Page 10 ATTRA Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture
Especially see: In Australia, barramundi (Lates calcari-
fer) and Murray cod (Maccullochella peelii
An Integrated Fish Culture Hydro-
peelii) ﬁsh species have been adapted to
ponic Vegetable Production System recirculating aquaculture and aquaponics
by Ronald D. Zweig systems. The stocking densities for these
Aquaculture Magazine, May-June 1986. ﬁsh species is higher than tilapia, which
www.vsb.cape.com/~nature/greencenter/pdf/ in turn results in greater hydroponic sur-
zweig.pdf face under production. Several references
Summary of Fish Culture Techniques are provided on these fish species and
in Solar Aquatic Ponds aquaponic systems in the Resources and
by John Wolfe and Ron Zweig Bibliography sections.
Journal of The New Alchemists, 1977
www.vsb.cape.com/~nature/greencenter/pdf/ Organic Aquaculture
j6ponds.pdf Organic production of crops and livestock in
the United States is regulated by the Depart-
Miscellaneous Systems ment of Agriculture’s National Organic Pro-
gram, or NOP. The NOP is an organic
Instead of locating the ﬁsh and vegetable rganic pro-
certiﬁcation and marketing program that
components in separate containers inside a duction
ensures foods and food products labeled
greenhouse, ﬁsh production can be located of crops
as “organic” meet universal standards and
in outdoor tanks or adjacent buildings. The
guidelines for organic production. Produc- and livestock in
efﬂuent simply needs to be delivered to tion inputs used in organic production— the United States
hydroponic vegetable beds. such as feed and fertilizers—must be of nat- is regulated by the
In warm climates, hydroponic vegetable ural origin and free of synthetic materials.
Department of Agri-
beds may be located outside. As an exam- A farm plan, documentation of inputs and
production methods, and farm inspection culture’s National
ple, the Center for Regenerative Studies
at California State Polytechnic University- are required to obtain “certiﬁed organic” Organic Program, or
Pomona implemented an outdoor integrated status. This process allows farm products NOP.
bio-system that links: (a) a pond contain- to be labeled and sold as organic.
ing treated sewage wastewater stocked with Organic trout, tilapia, salmon and other ﬁsh
tilapia and carp; (b) water hyacinth—an species are raised in Europe, Australia, and
aquatic plant very efﬁcient at sucking up Israel using production standards devel-
nutrients—covering 50 percent of the water oped by international organic certiﬁcation
surface area; the plant biomass generated agencies. However, organic aquaculture
by water hyacinth is used as feedstock was not clearly deﬁned in the NOP and the
for compost heaps; (c) nearby vegetable lack of organic aquaculture guidelines has
gardens irrigated with nutrient-laden hampered the growth of a domestic organic
pond water. aquaculture industry in the United States.
In addition to locating the ﬁsh and vegetable The ATTRA publication Evaluating an
components in separate containers, ﬁsh and Aquaculture Enterprise contains a section on
plants can be placed in the same container organic aquaculture. It states that accred-
to function as a polyculture. For exam- ited organic certifying agencies can cer-
ple, plants sit on top of ﬂoating polystyrene tify organic aquaculture operations, but the
panels with their roots hanging down into products are not allowed to carry the USDA
the water that ﬁsh swim around in. Mod- organic label.
els include the Rackocy system, solar-algae In fact, Quality Certiﬁcation Services in
ponds (see literature by Zweig and Klein- Florida has certiﬁed about a dozen organic
holz), and the solar-aquatic ponds, or Liv- aquaculture operations in the U.S. and
ing Machines, made popular by John Todd abroad under a private label. AquaRanch,
at Ocean Arks International. an aquaponic greenhouse in Illinois, set
www.attra.ncat.org ATTRA Page 11
a precedent for the aquaponics industry Vegetable Production and Integrated Pest
by obtaining organic certiﬁcation for its Management for Greenhouse Crops.
hydroponic produce through Indiana Cer-
Building and equipping a commercial-sized
tiﬁed Organic. Meanwhile, AquaRanch
aquaponic greenhouse can cost $10,000
markets its greenhouse-raised tilapia as
to $30,000, depending on the system
design and choice of components. Due to
To address the issue of organic aquacul- the highly technical nature of aquaponics
ture, the National Organic Standards Board and the expense associated with green-
(NOSB) established an Aquatic Animals house production, prospective growers are
Task Force in June 2000. In 2003, a sec- advised to thoroughly investigate production
ond group—The National Organic Aquacul- methods and market potential. A sequence
ture Working Group (NOAWG), comprised of considerations and learning opportunities
of 80 aquaculture professionals and related geared to evaluating an aquaponic green-
stakeholders—formed to provide further house enterprise are listed below.
guidance and clariﬁcation to the NOSB. 1) Aquaponic greenhouses yield two food
The 81-page white paper published by products. To evaluate greenhouse prof-
ue to the NOAWG in May 2005 provides historical itability, obtain typical yields and mar-
highly tech- notes and documents on this topic as well ket prices for hydroponic vegetables and
as the currently proposed recommenda- ﬁsh, and investigate local and regional
tions to NOSB, accessible through the Aqua markets and related point of sales.
of aquaponics and KE Government Documents collection at Retail sales directly out of your green-
the expense asso- http://govdocs.aquake.org/cgi/content/ house or roadside stand might be an
ciated with green- abstract/2005/801/8010170. ideal situation, but this will depend on
house production, To provide guidance to the large volume of your location.
prospective growers documents, reports, and organic production 2) Aquaponics is one method of hydropon-
are advised to standards surrounding the issue of organic ics, and hydroponics is one method of
thoroughly inves- aquaculture, the National Agricultural greenhouse production. Consider lower-
tigate production Library published an 80-page bibliography, cost and simpler alternatives. Bag cul-
Organic Aquaculture, through the Alterna- ture of greenhouse vegetables—raising
tive Farming Systems Information Center. plants in polyethylene grow bags ﬁlled
Organic Aquaculture with compost-based potting mixes—is a
AFSIC Notes #5 simple and productive way to get started
Stephanie Boehmer, Mary Gold, Stephanie in greenhouse vegetable production.
Hauser, Bill Thomas, and Ann Young You may quickly ﬁnd that your biggest
Alternative Farming Systems Informa- challenge is weekly marketing of fresh
tion Center, National Agricultural Library, produce rather than successful produc-
USDA tion of vegetables. This includes labor
to harvest vegetables, grading and pack-
ing with brand name labels, post-harvest
handling methods to maintain superior
quality, and quick delivery of perishable
Evaluating an Aquaponic produce to established markets.
Enterprise 3) Read technical and popular literature
For general information and supplies asso- on recirculating aquaculture and aqua-
ciated with greenhouse vegetable produc- ponics to become familiar with produc-
tion, see the ATTRA resource list Green- tion methods, yields, and market prices
house Vegetable Production and Greenhouse for fresh fish and hydroponic vege-
& Hydroponic Vegetable Production Resources tables. The Web Resources listed
on the Internet. Complementary ATTRA below provide quick access to reading
publications include Organic Greenhouse material, diagrams and images, and
Page 12 ATTRA Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture
related details. The Bibliography in the Appen- saying, “Get the engine running ﬁrst, then adjust the
dix provides access to in-depth research and carburetor,” can be aptly applied to aquaponic
technical data. start-up greenhouses.
4) Visit an aquaponic greenhouse to gain ﬁrst-hand
observations. Take lots of pictures to document References
the system components and how they relate to 1. Rakocy, James E., Donald S. Bailey, R. Charlie
one another. Keep in mind that aquaponic growers Shultz and Eric S. Thoman. 2004. Update
are busy people with a considerable investment in on tilapia and vegetable production in the
time and resources to establish their businesses. UVI aquaponic system. p. 676-690. In: New
5) Attend a short course. There are three prominent Dimensions on Farmed Tilapia: Proceedings
aquaponic short courses in North America, offered of the Sixth International Symposium on Tila-
by University of the Virgin Islands, (2) Aquacul- pia in Aquaculture, Held September 12-16,
ture International (3) in North Carolina, and Grow 2004 in Manila, Philippines.
Power (4) in Wisconsin. Cornell University co-hosts
2. University of the Virgin Islands—Short Course on
a recirculating aquaculture short course in associa-
tion with The Freshwater Institute. (5)
6) Obtain one or two aquaponic training manuals to UVIShortCourse.html
acquire detailed technical speciﬁcations. The Cab-
bage Hill video ($18) can provide a quick overview 3. Aquaculture International—Short Course on
of an aquaponic system. The Desktop Aquapon- Aquaponics
ics Booklet ($15) and the Introduction to Aquapon- www.aquacultureinternational.org
ics DVD ($50) from Nelson/Pade Multimedia are 4. Grow Power—Short Course on Aquaponics
another good starting point. When you are ready www.growingpower.org
to explore a commercial system, the design man- 5. Cornell University—Short Course on Recirculating
uals from S&S Aqua Farm ($250) in Missouri
and Joel Malcolm’s Backyard Aquaponics ($95)
in Western Australia contain in-depth techni-
cal specifications, illustrations, and parts lists
(6–7). The Web Resources section lists additional 6. S&S Aqua Farm—Design Manual
training manuals and technical documentation. www.townsqr.com/snsaqua/
7) Hire an agricultural consultant to acquire expert index.html
advice and consultation, and to shorten the time 7. Joel Malcolm—Backyard Aquaponics
and risk involved getting started. A few consultants Design Manual
with expertise in aquaponics are listed in the Agri- Western Australia
culture Consultants section below. firstname.lastname@example.org
8) Participate on the Aquaponics E-mail Discussion www.backyardaquaponics.com
Group. E-mail discussion lists have become the
modern town square. This is where practitioners, Resources
scientists, specialists, and business people all share
resources, supplies, and production methods. The E-mail Discussion Lists for
e-mail list is hosted by Paula Speraneo with S&S Aquaponics - Hydroponics - Aquaculture
Aqua Farms. The archives are publicly accessible,
and serve as a treasure trove of technical informa- Aquaponic E-Mail List
tion and farmer-to-farmer exchange. See below. Paula Speraneo of S & S Aqua Farm in
9) Lastly, avoid the “inventor’s urge” to re-invent the Missouri hosts the Aquaponics E-Mail List on the
wheel. Successful aquaponic greenhouse opera- Internet. The Aquaponics List is a prominent source
tors have already ﬁgured out the system compo- of technology transfer and resource sharing on all
nents and methods of production, based on years of aspects of aquaponics: hydroponics, aquaculture, ﬁsh
research and experience. Pick one of the existing species, supplies, practical solutions, and resources.
models and duplicate it insofar as possible. The old The e-mail archives are a key source of information.
www.attra.ncat.org ATTRA Page 13
To subscribe, send an email request to: Phone: +61 (02) 9905 9933
email@example.com Fax: +61 (02) 9905 9030
To view Web e-mail archives, go to:
Aquaponics List—2002 Onwards
http://mid-south.net/pipermail/ Practical Hydroponics & Greenhouses is a bi-
aquaponics_mid-south.net/ monthly magazine dedicated to soilless culture and
greenhouse production. Articles proﬁle soilless
Aquaponics List—Before 2002 culture and greenhouse enterprises from around the
http://www.i55mall.com/aquaponics/ world. It also reports on new products, research and
Hydroponics and Aquaculture development, and industry news. Back issues are a
E-Mail List valuable resource. The award-winning magazine is
now online as an exact digital copy of the print
A number of e-mail lists on hydroponics and aqua- edition, using DjVu technology. Subscription: $60
culture are scattered among the Internet hosting sites Australian/year.
like YahooGroups.com, MSN.com, and
Topica.com. Aquaculture Magazine
P.O. Box 1409
Arden, NC 28704
Trade Magazines 828-687-0011
Aquaponics Journal 828-681-0601 FAX
Nelson/Pade Multimedia 877-687-0011 Toll-Free
P.O. Box 1848 firstname.lastname@example.org
Mariposa, CA 95338 www.aquaculturemag.com
email@example.com Aquaculture Magazine is the trade magazine for
www.aquaponicsjournal.com aquaculture and ﬁsh culture. It publishes a regular
issue every two months, an Annual Products Guide
Aquaponics Journal is the quarterly journal from
Nelson/Pade Multimedia. It has become a promi- each summer and The Buyers Guide and Industry
nent source for articles, reports, news, and supplies Directory each December. Subscription: $19/year;
for the aquaponics industry. Back issues are a val- back issues $5.
ueable resource, available in print or as e-ﬁles. Print Grower Talks
Subscription, $39/year; E-Subscription, $29/year. www.growertalks.com
The Growing Edge Magazine Greenhouse Management & Production
New Moon Publishing www.greenbeam.com
P.O. Box 1027
Corvallis, OR 97339-1027 Greenhouse Grower
541-757-8477 Greenhouse Product News
541-757-0028 Fax www.gpnmag.com
The Growing Edge is a bi-monthly trade magazine www.was.org/main/
on high-tech gardening systems like hydroponics, summary.asp?page=magazine
bioponics, aquaponics, and ecologically based pest
management. Past articles are an important source Aquafeed.com
of technical information on aquaponics, bioponics, http://aquafeed.com
and organic hydroponics. Subscription: $27/year;
back issues $5 each.
Practical Hydroponics & Greenhouses
P.O. Box 225
Narrabeen, NSW 2101 Australia
Page 14 ATTRA Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture
Aquaponic Books and Videos Gordon Creaser
5431 S. Bracken Court
Nelson/Pade Multimedia, publisher of Aquaponics
Winter Park, FL 32792
Journal, offers booklets, DVDs, videos, and educational
curricula on aquaponics, hydroponics, and aquaculture.
See their Web page for details. Contact: GordonCreaser06@aol.com
Nelson/Pade Multimedia www.gordoncreaser.com
P.O. Box 1848 Mark R. McMurtry
Mariposa, CA 95338 PMB 267
209-742-6869 1627 W. Main St.
firstname.lastname@example.org Bozeman, MT 59715-4011
Agricultural Consultants for Nelson/Pade Multimedia
Integrated Hydroponics and [Contact: John Pade and Rebecca Nelson]
Aquaculture P.O. Box 1848
AquaRanch Industries, LLC Mariposa, CA 95338
[Contact: Myles Harston] 209-742-6869
404 D. East Lincoln St. email@example.com
P.O. Box 658 www.aquaponics.com
Flanagan, IL 61740 S&S Aqua Farms
309-208-5230 [Contact: Paula Speraneo]
815-796-2978 8386 County Rd. 8820
309-923-7479 FAX West Plains, MO 65775
Fisheries Technology Associates, Inc.
[Contact: Bill Manci]
506 Wabash Street Aquaculture Associations
Fort Collins, CO 80522-3245 Aquacultural Engineering Society
firstname.lastname@example.org American Tilapia Association
Future Aqua Farms Limited The Alternative Aquaculture
[Contact: Carla MacQuarrie] Association
RR2, Site 1a, Box 26 www.altaqua.com
Head of Chezzetcook, NS
Directory of Aquaculture Associations
Canada B0J 1N0
Aquaculture Network Information Center (AquaNIC)
Aquaculture Directories and Resource
Global Aquatics USA, Inc. Collections
505 Aldino Stepney Rd.
Aberdeen, MD 21001 USA National Agricultural Library—Alternative
443-243-8840 Farming Systems Information Center
410-734-7473 FAX The Alternative Farming Systems Information Center
email@example.com (AFSIC) at the National Agricultural Library,
www.growﬁsh.com a program of USDA-ARS, provides extensive
www.attra.ncat.org ATTRA Page 15
aquaculture resource listings. Organic Aquaculture Recirculating Aquaculture Systems—Index
(AFSIC Notes No. 5), published in January 2005,
Aquaculture Network Information Center
is an important new publication from AFSIC that
addresses the potential of organic aquacultural
products; it also contains a section on
Regional Aquaculture Center Publications—
Aquaculture Network Information Center (AquaNIC)
• Organic Aquaculture http://aquanic.org/publicat/usda_rac/
• Aquaculture-Related Internet Sites and Documents fact.htm
• Directory of Aquaculture Related Associations and • Center for Tropical and Subtropical Aquaculture
Trade Organizations • North Central Regional Aquaculture Center
• Directory of State Aquaculture Coordinators and • Northeastern Regional Aquaculture Center
• Southern Regional Aquaculture Center
• Automated Searches on General Aquaculture
Topics • Western Regional Aquaculture Center
AFSIC, NAL, USDA-ARS Aqua KE
10301 Baltimore Ave., Room 132 http://govdocs.aquake.org
Beltsville, MD 20705-2351 Aqua Ke, or Aquaculture Knowledge Environment,
301-504-6559 is a database and documents library featuring full-
301-504-6409 Fax text access to aquaculture articles and government
firstname.lastname@example.org reports. The library is organized by themes for brows-
www.nal.usda.gov/afsic/index.html ing of aquacultue topics. The database provides
The Aquaculture Center—Educational Resources keyword, author, and title search capacity for hun-
Virginia Tech University dreds of scientiﬁc journals via a portal to Stanford
www.fw.vt.edu/ﬁsheries/Aquaculture_ University’s HighWire Press database.
Center/educational_resources.htm Environmentally Friendly Aquaculture Digital
Virginia Tech offers aquaculture eduational cur- Library
ricula, fact sheets, and PowerPoint presentations, National Sea Grant Library
including a section on recirculating aquaculture. http://nsgd.gso.uri.edu/aquadig.html
Proceedings of the Recirculating Aquaculture Con- The National Sea Grant Library (NSGL) contains a
ference held in Roanoke, VA, in 1996, 1998, 2000, complete collection of Sea Grant funded work. The
2002, and 2004 are available in CD-ROM, and NSGL maintains a bibliographical database con-
hard copies (except for 1996); inquire with Ms. Terry taining over 36,000 records that can be searched by
Rakestraw (email@example.com) in the Food Science & author-keyword or browsed by topic. Selected items
Technology Department. include proceedings from recirculating aquaculture
Aquaculture Network Information Center conferences and related documents. The Environ-
(AquaNIC) mentally Friendly Aquaculture Digital Library is
http://aquanic.org/index.htm a topic-oriented portal to NSGL, organized by
AquaNIC is the gateway to the world’s electronic
resources for aquaculture information. Especially see
the extensive resource listing on recirculating aqua-
culture systems, and the complete listing of publica-
tions from the Regional Aquaculture Centers.
Page 16 ATTRA Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture
Aquaponic Resources on the Web A 10-page reprint article, originally published in
Journal of Agricultural Mechanization (1997). It
Selected Publications from Southern describes a low cost (less than $600) recirculating
Regional Aquaculture Center (SRAC) aquaculture-hydroponic system suitable for use in
laboratory settings, including a materials list with
Recirculating Aquaculture Tank Production Sys- approximate cost of materials to set up a 350-gallon
tems: Integrating Fish and Plant Culture aquaponic unit.
SRAC Publication No. 454
http://srac.tamu.edu/tmppdfs/ The Freshwater Institute Publications Index
6807933-454fs.pdf Shepherdstown, West Virginia
Recirculating Aquaculture Tank index.html
Production Systems: An Overview of Critical
Considerations • Suggested Management Guidelines for An Inte-
SRAC Publication No. 451 grated Recycle Aquaculture – Hydroponic System
http://srac.tamu.edu/tmppdfs/ • The Freshwater Institute Natural Gas Powered
6807933-451fs.pdf Aquaponic System - Design Manual
Recirculating Aquaculture Tank Production Sys- • 880 Gallon Recycle Aquaculture System
tems: Management of Recirculating Systems Installation Guide
SRAC Publication No. 452
http://srac.tamu.edu/tmppdfs/ • Linking Hydroponics to a 880 Gallon Recycle Fish
• Operators Manual for 880 - Recycle System
Recirculating Aquaculture Tank
Production Systems: Component Options Aquaculture on Cat Beach
SRAC Publication No. 453 HTML
Tank Culture of Tilapia
SRAC Publication No. 282
http://srac.tamu.edu/tmppdfs/ A 10-page booklet with directions on establishing a
6807933-282fs.pdf small aquaponic system, including a parts list. The
HTML version contains additional photos that illus-
Selected Aquaponic Training trate system components and greenhouse production.
Materials and Design Manuals OneSeedling.com
S&S Aqua Farm www.oneseedling.com
www.townsqr.com/snsaqua/index.html Paul and Bonnie Range, homesteaders in Texas,
Design manual with speciﬁcations offer two aquaponic manuals: Small Unit Aqua-
ponics Manual and Simpliﬁed Aquaponics Manual
Backyard Aquaponics for $20 each.
Barrel-Ponic (aka Aquaponics in a Barrel)
Design manual with speciﬁcations By Travis W. Hughey
A Prototype Recirculating Aquaculture- www.aces.edu/dept/ﬁsheries/education/documents/
Hydroponic System barrel-ponics.pdf
By Donald Johnson and George Wardlow
University of Arkansas, Department of Agricultural General Aquaponic Resources on the Web
and Extension Education The Essence of Aquaponics—Index to
AgriScience Project Aquaponics Mail Group Topics
www.attra.ncat.org ATTRA Page 17
The Essence of Aquaponics Web site of Pekka Nygard Integrated Systems of Agriculture and
and Stefan Goës in Sweden provides an index to Aquaculture
key topics (aquaponics, ﬁsh, ﬁsh feed, plants, plant Aquaculture in the Classroom, University of Arizona
nutrition, water, bioﬁlters, greenhouses, mainte- http://ag.arizona.edu/azaqua/extension/Classroom/
nance, economics, links, literature) posted on the Aquaponics.htm
Aquaponics Mail Group (see e-mail resources above).
Aquaponics Library Aquaculture on the Web
http://aquaponicslibrary.20megsfree.com/Index.htm Greenhouse Tilapia Production in
Enhancing Student Interests in the Agricultural
Louisiana State University
Sciences through Aquaponics
by G.W. Wardlow and D.M. Johnson
University of Arkansas, Department of Agricultural
and Extension Education
www.uark.edu/depts/aeedhp/agscience/aquart.pdf Recirculating Aquaculture Systems -- Teacher’s
Resource Web Site
Aquaponics - The Theory Behind
by Wilson Lennard
Gippsland Aquaculture Industry Network
www.growﬁsh.com.au/ The Urban Aquaculture Manual
content.asp?ContentId=1060 by Jonathan Woods
ADM - Turning Waste into Growth
Practical Hydroponics & Greenhouses, May-June
2000 Regional Aquaculture Centers sponsored
by the Extension Service
Northeastern Regional Aquaculture Center
Practical Hydroponics & Greenhouses, November-
North Central Regional Aquaculture Center
Practical Hydroponics & Greenhouses,
www.hydroponics.com.au/back_issues/issue83.html Southern Regional Aquaculture Center (SRAC)
Young’s Greenhouses, Texas
Practical Hydroponics & Greenhouses, Western Regional Aquaculture Center (WRAC)
January-February 2000 www.ﬁsh.washington.edu/wrac/
Center for Tropical and Subtropical Aquaculture
Aquaponics Proves Proﬁtable in Australia www.ctsa.org
Aquaponics Journal, First Quarter, 2002.
Aquaculture Network Information Center
Fisheries Publications at Texas A&M
Developing an Aquaponic System
Aquaponics Journal, July-August 1999
www.bagelhole.org/?page=250 Southern Regional Aquaculture Center Publica-
tions at Texas A&M
by Tom Osher
Page 18 ATTRA Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture
Scientiﬁc Journals on Aquaculture Wastewater- Fed Aquaculture Systems: Status
Aquaculture (Elsevier journal) and Prospects
www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00448486 by Peter Edwards
Aquaculture and Aquatic Resources Management Pro-
Aquacultural Engineering (Elsevier journal) gram, Asian Institute of Technology
Aquaculture International (Springer journal) Readings3New.pdf
www.springerlink.com/link.asp?id=100128 World Fish Center
Aquaculture Research (Blackwell journal) www.worldﬁshcenter.org
www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/are Ecological Engineering (Elsevier journal)
Integrated Bio-Systems on the Web Ecological engineering has been deﬁned as the
Internet Conference on Integrated Bio-Systems design of ecosystems for the mutual beneﬁt of
in Zero Emissions Applications humans and nature. Speciﬁc topics covered in the
www.ias.unu.edu/proceedings/icibs/ journal include: ecotechnology; synthetic ecology;
Demonstrating Ecological Engineering for bioengineering; sustainable agroecology; habitat
Wastewater Treatment in a Nordic Climate reconstruction; restoration ecology; ecosystem
using Aquaculture Principles in a Green- conservation; ecosystem rehabilitation; stream
house Mesocosm and river restoration; wetland restoration and
by Bjorn Guterstam and Lasse Forsberg construction; reclamation ecology; non-renewable
Internet Conference on Integrated Bio-Systems in resource conservation.
Zero Emissions Applications Wastewater-fed Aquaculture in Temperate
www.ias.unu.edu/proceedings/icibs/bjorn/paper.htm Climates - Nutrient recycling with Daphnia
The design of living technologies for waste
4th International Conference on Ecological Engineer-
ing for Wastewater Treatment, June 1999, Aas Norway
by John Todd and Beth Josephson
Internet Conference on Integrated Bio-Systems in
Zero Emissions Applications
Internet Conference on Material Flow Analysis Bibliography on Aquaponics
of Integrated Bio-Systems The following bibliography contains selected literature
www.ias.unu.edu/proceedings/icibs/ic-mfa/ citations on aquaponics and integrated hydroponics-
Study of Agriculture-Aquaculture Ecological aquaculture published in trade magazines and sci-
Economic System With Nutrient Flow Analy- entiﬁc journals. Collectively, these articles provide
sis (Surface Aquaponics) an instant library on aquaponics. They are provided
by Song Xiangfu, et al. here as an important time saver to those seeking tech-
Internet Conference on Material Flow Analysis of nical and popular information on this topic. Univer-
Integrated Bio-Systems sity libraries carry scientiﬁc journals (e.g., Aquacul-
www.ias.unu.edu/proceedings/icibs/ic-mfa/song/ ture International, Aquacultural Engineering) and trade
paperv2.html magazines (Aquaculture, Greenhouse Management
and Production), and they offer on-site photocoping
Phytoremediation of Aquaculture Efﬂuents services to library visitors. Inter-Library Loan is a
by Paul Adler service available through most local libraries, and can
Internet Conference on Material Flow Analysis of provide photocopies of articles for a small fee.
Please note The Growing Edge, Aquaponics Journal,
and Practical Hydroponics & Greenhouses are the most
relevant trade magazines for aquaponics, recirculating
aquaculture, hydroponics, and related topics,
www.attra.ncat.org ATTRA Page 19
including farmer proﬁles. However, they are relatively The Speraneo System
new and less widely distributed in university libraries.
Durham, Deni. 1992. Low-tech polycultural yields,
For a complete list of articles and back issues
high proﬁt. Small Farm Today. June.
available through these trade magazines, see the
publisher’s Web sites:
Modeland, Vern. 1993. Aquafarming on a budget.
The Growing Edge
BackHome. Summer. p. 28–31.
Modeland, Vern. 1998. The Ozarks’ S&S aqua farm.
www.aquaponicsjournal.com/BackIssues.htm The Ozarks Mountaineer. June-July.
Practical Hydroponics & Greenhouses
www.hydroponics.com.au/back_issues.html Modeland, Vern. 1998. Maturing marvel: S&S Aqua
Farm. The Growing Edge. Vol. 9, No. 5 (May-
June). p. 35–38.
North Carolina State University
McMurtry, M.R., et al. 1990. Sand culture of vegeta- Rich, Doug. 1998. Closed system opens markets.
bles using recirculating aquacultural efﬂuents. The High Plains Journal. Vol. 115, No. 34.
Applied Agricultural Research. Vol. 5, No. 4. August 24. p. 1–A.
(Fall). p. 280–284. Smith, John Wesley. 1993. The genius of simplicity.
McMurtry, Mark Richard. 1992. Integrated Aqua- The Growing Edge. Vol. 5, No. 2. (Fall).
culture-Olericulture System as Inﬂuenced by p. 40–44, 70.
Component Ratio. PhD. Dissertation, North Thompson, Nina. 1993. Fish + plants = food. Mis-
Carolina State University. UMI, Ann Harbor, souri Conservationist. August. p. 28.
MI. 78 p.
Yarrow, David. 1998. A food production revolution:
McMurtry, M.R., D.C. Sanders, and P.V. Nelson. Missouri aquafarmers discover huge beneﬁts
1993. Mineral nutrient concentration and in trace elements integrated with hydroponics.
uptake by tomato irrigated with recirculating Remineralize the Earth. Spring-Fall, No. 12-
aquaculture water as inﬂuenced by quantity of 13. p. 38–43.
ﬁsh waste products supplied. Journal of Plant
Nutrition. Vol. 16, No. 3. p. 407–409.
The Rakocy System and Related Papers
McMurtry, M.R., et al. 1993. Yield of tomato irri- Rakocy, J., R.C. Shultz, D.S. Bailey, E.S. and
gated with recirculating aquacultural water. Thoman. 2004. Aquaponic production of
Journal of Production Agriculture. Vol. 6, No. tilapia and basil: comparing a batch and stag-
3. (July-September). p. 428–432. gered cropping system. Acta Horticulturae.
McMurtry, M.R., D.C. Sanders, and R.G. Hodson. Vol. 648. p. 63–69.
1997. Effects of bioﬁlter/culture tank volume www.actahort.org/books/648/648_8.htm
ratios on productivity of a recirculating ﬁsh/ Rakocy, James E., Donald S. Bailey, R. Charlie Shultz
vegetable co-culture system. Journal and Eric S. Thoman. 2004. Update on tila-
of Applied Aquaculture. Vol. 7, No. 4. pia and vegetable production in the UVI aqua-
p. 33–51. ponic system. p. 676–690. In: New Dimen-
McMurtry, M.R., D.C. Sanders, J.D. Cure, R.G. Hod- sions on Farmed Tilapia: Proceedings of the
son, B.C. Haning, and P.C.S. Amand. 1997. Sixth International Symposium on Tilapia in
Efﬁciency of water use of an integrated ﬁsh/ Aquaculture, Manila, Philippines.
vegetable co-culture system. Journal of the http://ag.arizona.edu/azaqua/ista/ista6/
World Aquaculture Society. Vol. 28, No. 4. ista6web/pdf/676.pdf
Rakocy, James E., Donald S. Bailey, Eric. S. Thoman
Sanders, Doug, and Mark McMurtry. 1988. Fish and R. Charlie Shultz. 2004. Intensive tank
increase greenhouse proﬁts. American Veg- culture of tilapia with a suspended, bacterial-
etable Grower. February. p. 32–33. based, treatment process. p. 584–596. In:
Page 20 ATTRA Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture
New Dimensions on Farmed Tilapia: Proceed- Rakocy, J.E., J.A. Hargreaves, and D.S. Bailey.
ings of the Sixth International Symposium on 1993. Nutrient accumulation in a
Tilapia in Aquaculture. recirculating aquaculture system integrated
http://ag.arizona.edu/azaqua/ista/ista6/ with hydroponic vegetable gardening, p. 148–
ista6web/pdf/584.pdf 158. In: J.K. Wang (ed.) Techniques for Mod-
ern Aquaculture, Proceedings Aquacultural
Rakocy, J.E., D.S. Bailey, J.M. Martin and R.C.
Engineering Conference. American Society
Shultz. 2003. Tilapia production systems for
for Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, MI.
the Lesser Antilles and other resource-limited,
tropical areas. In: Report of the Subregional Rakocy, James E., Thomas M. Losordo, and Michael
Workshop to Promote Sustainable Aquaculture P. Masser. 1992. Recirculating Aquaculture
Development in the Small Island Developing Tank Production Systems: Integrating Fish and
States of the Lesser Antilles. FAO Fisheries Plant Culture. SRAC Publication No. 454.
Report No. 704 Southern Region Aquaculture Center, Missis-
www.fao.org/DOCREP/006/Y4921E/ sippi State University. 6 p.
Rakocy, J.E., and A. Nair. 1987. Integrating ﬁsh cul-
Rakocy, James E. 1998. Integrating hydroponic ture and vegetable hydroponics: Problems and
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300 North Zeeb Road
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vations on a ﬁsh production system that incor- Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346
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and Environmental Biology, Environmental Head, William. 1986. An Assessment of a Closed
Science and Engineering, University of Califor- Greenhouse Aquaculture and Hydroponic Sys-
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UMI, Ann Harbor, MI. 87 p.
integrated aquaculture-hydroponic systems can pro-
vide critical access to research data and literature MacQuarrie, Carla Dawn. 2002. Computational
reviews. For example, the Speraneos in Missouri and Model of an Integrated Aquaculture-
Gordon Watkins in Arkansas used Mark McMurtry’s Hydroponic System. MS Thesis, Daltech-
dissertation from North Carolina State University as Dalhousie University. UMI, Ann Harbor, MI.
a guide in the design of their systems. The UMI Pro- 127 p.
Quest Digital Dissertations database (see below) pro-
McMurtry, Mark Richard. 1992. Integrated Aqua-
vides public Web access to titles and abstracts, via
culture-Olericulture System as Inﬂuenced by
keyword and author search. Print copies are avail-
Component Ratio. PhD Dissertation, North
able for sale, ranging from $38 to $47 for unbound
Carolina State University. UMI, Ann Harbor,
or softcover editions. Land-grant university librar-
MI. 78 p.
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text access to recent documents via the ProQuest Dis- Rakocy, James Edward. 1980. Evaluation of a
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Culture. PhD Disseration, Auburn University.
UMI, Ann Harbor, MI. 129 p.
Seawright, Damon Eurgene. 1995. Integrated Aqua-
culture-Hydroponic Systems: Nutrient Dynam-
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Singh, Sahdev. 1996. A Computer Simulation Model
for Wastewater Management in an Integrated
(Fish Production-Hydroponics) System. PhD
Dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and
State University. UMI, Ann Harbor, MI.
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