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Aqua97 Australian Aquaculture Industry profiles for selected species
 

Aqua97 Australian Aquaculture Industry profiles for selected species

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Aqua97 Australian Aquaculture Industry profiles for selected species

Aqua97 Australian Aquaculture Industry profiles for selected species

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    Aqua97 Australian Aquaculture Industry profiles for selected species Aqua97 Australian Aquaculture Industry profiles for selected species Document Transcript

    • Australian aquacultureIndustry profiles for selected species
    • Australian aquacultureIndustry profiles for selected species ABARE report to the Fisheries Resources Research Fund Debbie Brown Koenraad Van Landeghem Michael Schuele May 1997 e ABARE
    • AUSTRALZAN AQUACULTUREBrown, D., Van Landeghem, K. and Schuele, M. 1997, Australian Aqua-culture: Industry Projiles for Selected Species, ABARE, Canberra, May.Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource EconomicsGPO Box 1563 Canberra 2601Telephone +61 6 272 2000 Facsimile +61 6 272 2001Internet www.abare.gov.auABARE is a professionally independent government economic research agency.AcknowledgmentsThis report was prepared in the Fisheries Economics Section of ABARE. The authors wishto acknowledge the helpful information and comments provided by colleagues in ABAREand various state government organisations. The inclusion of much of the information in thisreport has been made possible by the willing cooperation of many researchers and industryorganisations whore~absisuanccthe authors gratefully a~knowledgc.The au~hors3lso:tcknowled~e ~ ~ - ~- nrovidcd on earlier drafts bv Lcanne Holmcs and Maria Ow31inska- . . ~. comments- 0- Section of A B A ~and Glen Huny of the ~ G a c u l t u r e E ~ ~Mania of the Fisheries ~conomicsand Fisheries Branch of the Department of Primary Industries and Energy.ABARE project 1418
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTUREContents1. Introduction 12. Overview of the status of Australian aquaculture 23. Crustaceans Prawns Freshwater crayfish4. Molluscs 26 Pearl oysters Edible oysters Abalone Mussels5. Fish 50 Salmonids 50 Tuna 60 Silver perch 63 Barramundi 66 Other fish 70 Eels 73 Aquarium fish 766. Other species 79 Microalgae 79 Crocodiles 79AppendixA Australian aquaculture production, by state 83References 94 ... 111
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTURETablesOverview1 Value of Australian aquaculture production2 Volume of Australian aquaculture production3 Value of Australian aquaculture production, by stateCrustaceans4 Number of commercial black tiger prawn farms5 Ponded area of black tiger prawn farms6 Australian black tiger prawn production7 Australian black tiger prawn hatchery sales8 Number and ponded area of commercial kuruma prawn farms9 Australian kuruma prawn production10 World production of kuruma and black tiger prawns11 Japanese imports of live prawns12 Number of yabby farms or permits13 Yabby growout production14 Number and ponded area of commercial redclaw farms15 Redclaw production16 Marron growout production17 Freshwater crayfish hatchery sales and valueMolluscs18 Number of pearl licences19 Value of Australian pearl production20 Australian pearl exports, by destination21 Number of Sydney rock oyster farms and area farmed22 Sydney rock oyster production23 Number of commercial Pacific oyster farms24 Pacific oyster production25 Other edible oysters production26 World oyster production, by species27 Australian oyster exports, by destination28 Hong Kong oyster imports29 Australian farmed abalone production30 Australian abalone exports3 1 Japanese abalone imports32 Number of mussel farms33 Farmed mussel production
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTURE34 Australian mussel exports, by product 4835 Australian mussel exports, by destination 48Fish36 Australian Atlantic salmon industry37 Australian exports of Atlantic salmon, by product38 Australian exports of Atlantic salmon, by destination39 Japanese imports of fresh Atlantic and Pacific salmon40 Taiwanese imports of chilled Atlantic and Pacific salmon41 World farmed salmon production42 Number of trout farms43 Trout production44 Australian trout exports, by product45 Australian trout exports, by destination46 Southern bluefin tuna fanning47 Japanese imports of southern bluefin tuna, by major supplier48 Commercial silver perch farming49 Silver perch production50 Number of commercial barramundi farms5 1 Farmed barramundi production52 Commercial production of freshwater fish53 Commercial freshwater fish hatchery production54 Australian eel exports, by product55 Australian eel exports, by destination56 Aquarium and ornamental fish production57 Australian exports of ornamental fish58 Australian exports of ornamental fish, by destination59 Australian imports of ornamental fishOther species60 Farmed crocodile outputAustralian production61 New South Wales aquaculture production 8362 Value of New South Wales aquaculture production 8463 Queensland aquaculture production 8564 Value of Queensland aquaculture production 8665 Western Australian aquaculture production 8766 Value of Western Australian aquaculture production 8867 South Australian aquaculture production 89
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTURE68 Value of South Australian aquaculture production 9069 Tasmanian aquaculture production 9170 Value of Tasmanian aquaculture production 9171 Victorian aquaculture production 9272 Value of Victorian aquaculture production 9373 Northern Territory aquaculture production and value 93
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTURE1. IntroductionAquaculture is a rapidly growing Australian industry. Over the five years to1995-96 the value of aquaculture production increased by 77 per cent, and itscontribution to the total value of Australian fisheries production increasedsteadily to around 25 per cent. It is a diverse industry, with operations spreadthroughout all states of Australia.Reflecting the fact that it is a rapidly growing and changing industry, withmany diverse parts and many small operators, published data on the charac-teristics of and trends in the industry are quite limited. Most of the availableinformation relates only to particular states or to particular species.However, detailed and comprehensive information is vital if the potentialcontribution of aquaculture to the Australian economy is to be maxirnised.Policy makers, those involved in the industry and potential investors all needinformation on characteristics, trends and issues facing the industry.The aim in this report is to fill some of the information gaps, by identifyingthe key features of the industry and main issues affecting the outlook for asmany species as possible. For each species covered, the report contains adiscussion of industry structure (location and number of permits, farms andhatcheries), farm and hatchery production, key markets and issues affectingthe outlook. In addition to the major species currently being farmed inAustralia there are a wide range of species and a large number of operatorsinvolved for which there are no published data.
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTURE2. Overview of the status of AustralianaquacultureThe estimated gross value of aquaculture production in Australia in 1995-96was $399 million (table I), compared with the value of Australian wild marinefisheries production of $1262 million (ABARE 1996).The pearl industry is Australias most valuable aquaculture industry, worth anestimated $131 million in 1995-96. (It should be noted that this estimate doesnot include the value of production from the Northern Territory, which isconfidential because of the small number of producers). The next mostvaluable industries include Atlantic salmon ($59 million), edible oysters ($52million), tuna ($40 million) and prawns ($35 million). In addition to thesemajor products, around thirty other species are currently farmed in Australia.Cultured fish production is dominated by Atlantic salmon, followed bysouthern bluefin tuna and trout. Prawns remain the dominant crustaceanfarmed in Australia while oysters are the major mollusc farmed (table 2).The species cultured vary widely across the states, mainly reflecting differentclimatic conditions. For example, Atlantic salmon is farmed only in temperatewaters, mainly in Tasmania and Victoria. Other species, such as crocodiles,are confined to tropical regions, such as Queensland, the Northern Territoryand the north of Western Australia. The main species cultured by each stateare: edible oysters in New South Wales; prawns and pearl oysters inQueensland; pearl oysters in Western Australia; southern bluefin tuna andedible oysters in South Australia; and Atlantic salmon and edible oysters inTasmania. Data on the current product composition of aquaculture productionin the Northern Territory were not available because of the limited number ofoperations.Western Australia is the largest supplier of aquaculture products (mostly pearloysters) in Australia, with the value of its production in 1995-96 estimated tohave been $124 million or 31 per cent of Australian aquaculture production.Tasmania is the next biggest producer, while Victoria is the smallest (table 3).A more detailed analysis of production in the various states, by species, is givenin appendix A.The degree of export market orientation varies across species. For example,most pearls, farmed tuna and farmed kuruma prawns are exported, withkuruma prawns nearly all exported live to Japan. The main markets for these
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTUREI Value of Australian aquaculture production 1993-94 $omFishAtlantic salmon 48 000Trout 12 646Tuna 24 225Silver perch 422Barrarnundi 2 419Eels 600Other fish 78 1Ornamental fish 603Total 89 696CrustaceansPrawns a 22 563Freshwater crayfish 4 234Mud crabs 2Total 26 799MolluscsPearl oysters b 84 OM)Edible oysters 42 437Mussels 2 160Abalone naScallops naClams naTotal 128 597OtherCrocodiles 1 728Micro algae naOther c 47 265Total 48 993Total aquaculture 294 085a Includes some freshwater prawns farmed in New South Wales. b Does not include pearl production from theNallhern Territory which is included in Other section of the Other catecorv e Includes the hew of aouacultureproduction from ihe Northern Territory which could not be disaggregated ?or--ons of confidentiality fhr allyears, and the value of some Tasmanian and South Australian aquaculture species that could not be disaggregatedfor 1994-95 and 1995-96. p Preliminary. s Estimated. na Not available.Souwes: New South Wales Department of Agriculture and Fisheries; Northem Territory Department of PrimaryIndustry and Fisheries; Queensland Depanment of Primary Industries; Victorian Department of Conservation andNatural Resources; Tasmanian Depanment of Primary Industry and Fisheries; South Australian Research andDevelopment Institute; Rsheries Depanment of Western Australia; ABARE 1996.
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTURE3 Volume of Australian aquaculture production- salmonPirh .".mAtlantic 3118 3553 4118 4706 7285 7647Trout 1704 2 183 2015 2242 2 179 2498TunaSilver PerchBarramundiEels na na na na 1 1Other fish 1 30 17 42 20 187Ornamental fish na na na na na naTotal 4925 6044 6958 8 558 11 963 12925CrustaceansPrawns 94 1 898 1 129 1494 1 673 1 705Freshwater crayfish 138 171 207 392 336 243Mud crabs b b b b b bTotal 1099 1069 1336 1886 2 009 1948MolluscsPearl oystersEdible oystersMusselsAbaloneScallopsTotalOtherCrocodilesMicroalgaeOtherTotal aquaculture 14913 16 883 17 566 20 398 25 224 26 051a Includes some freshwater prawns farmed in New South Wales b Less than one tonne but included in the total.p Preliminary. na Not available. . .Sources: New South Wales Deomment of Aericulture and Fisheries: Northern Territorv Deoanmcnt of Prim-~- " ~ ~ ~~~InJuaty and F~rhcnes. u e ~ n r l u ~ d a n m e n t d l Pn~n;lryInJustncs; VlclJnJn Wpanment of Con,:rv~t~onanJ Q hpN:rluml Rcsource~. T3rmmun Ikpmntent of Pnnrq lnductry and H,hcnes. South Auctnlnn Rc.wsrrh ;mJlkrclopmrnt lnst~lulc. F~rhencr 1)epmmcnt of Wci1r.m Ausrrall3. AHARE 1996
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTURE3 Value of Australian aquaculture production, by stateNew South WalesVictoriaQueenslandWestern AustraliaSouth AustraliaTasmaniaNorthern Territoryp Preliminary.exports are Japan, Hong Kong and Taiwan. Farmed silver perch, edible oystersand yabbies are mainly sold domestically.The mix of aquaculture and wild catch in total production also varies acrossspecies. For some species, such as Atlantic salmon, all production is fromaquaculture. For others, such as abalone, wild catch dominates. There areimportant links between the aquaculture and wild catch industries for somespecies. For example, southern bluefin tuna farming is influenced by the quotafor tuna, which are caught as juveniles and grown out for sale.Although the issues influencing the outlook vary widely across species, thereare several broad issues that are important for many species. These broad issuesinclude the availability of suitable sites, disease risk, access to cost effectivefeed regimes, and the influence of environmental and other regulations.
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTURE3. CrustaceansPrawnsThe majority of aquaculture prawn production in Australia is of the black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon). Commercial production of the kuruma prawn (I?japonicus) is increasing annually with some farms that previously producedblack tiger prawns moving to kumma production and more recently new farms being set up specifically for kumma prawn production. There is also some production of the school prawn (Metapenaeus macleayi) and freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium australiense).Farming ofpenaeid prawns has undergone a rapid expansion in Australia sincethe first few tonnes were produced in 1984. Growth in output has beenparticularly strong for black tiger prawns, which account for over half of worldaquaculture production. In South East Asia, extensive investment intechnology in the 1970s and lower costs of production have supported the rapidrate of development of the aquaculture prawn industry.World cultured shrimp or prawn production increased from 0.4 million tonnesin 1986 to over 0.92 million tonnes in 1994 (FA0 1996a). The overall increasecame largely from the continuous increase in the culture of black tiger prawnfrom 0.33 million tonnes in 1991 to 0.5 1 million tonnes in 1994 (FA0 1996a).Black tiger prawns account for half of the worlds supply of farmed prawns.Black tiger prawnThe black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) is the major species in commercialprawn farming in Australia. The reasons for this include the availability ofexisting technology from South East Asia and the fact that this species is fastergrowing and is able to withstand wide changes in salinity. Production trialsusing other species ofpenaeid prawns have yielded slow growth rates, require-ment for high protein diets, harvesting difficulties and sensitivity to changesin salinity. Given current technology, the black tiger prawn is the mosteconomically viable prawn to culture in Australia (Lobegeiger, Taylor-Mooreand Gillespie 1994).The species is a tropical prawn and, while Queensland is the largest producer,the black tiger prawn is also farmed in northern New South Wales and the
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTURENorthern Territory. Both the Queensland and New South Wales prawn farmingindustries have been in operation for over ten years.Structure of the black tigerpmwn industryIn 1995-96 there were thirty commercial prawn farms operating in Australia:24 in Queensland (from 25 permits); four in New South Wales (from ninepermits); and two in the Northern Territory (table 4). Although there is noaquaculture production of prawns in Western Australia, there is some interestin establishing farms for growing black tiger prawns at Exmouth.The industry is dominated by a small number of large producers. In 1995-96,83 per cent of total production was accounted for by 42 per cent of farms. Onefarm accounted for 34 per cent of total production.In Queensland, black tiger prawn farms are situated along the coast betweenBrisbane and Cooktown. The total ponded area is currently around 302hectares (table 5). In Queensland, because of climatic conditions, farmers areable to produce two crops a year, whereas farmers in New South Wales are4 Number of commercial black tigerprawnfarms no. no. no. no. no. no.New South Wales 7 5 6 6 6 4Queensland 21 22 23 23 21 24Northern Temtory na na na na 1 2Total 28 27 29 29 28 30na Not available.Sources: New South Wales Depmment of Agriculture and Fisheries; Queensland Department of PrimalyIndustries; Northern Territory Department of Primary Industry and Fisheries; Australian Prawn FarmenAssociationC Ponded area of black tiger prawn farms a ha ha ha ha ha haNew South Wales 50 53 64 67 89 60Queensland 181 215 216 250 224 302Northern Territory na na na na na 20Total 23 1 268 280 317 413 382a Includes commercial and noncommercial farms, na Not available for confidentiality reasons.Soumes: New South Wales Depmrnent of Agriculture and Fisheries; Queensland Department of PrimaryIndustries; Nonhem Territory Department of Primary Industry and Fisheries. 7
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTURElimited to a single crop each year. Most of the farms in New South Wales arelocated on the Clarence River in the north of the state. There is also a largefarm on the Richmond River at North Ballina. The total area of operationalponds is currently 60 hectares.There are currently two farms in operation in the Northern Territory andinterest has been expressed in establishing a large third farm in the next twoyears, bringing potential production in the Northern Territory to around 500tonnes a year (L. Evans, Australian Prawn Farmers Association, personal com-munication, May 1996). Over the past seven years, three ventures haveattempted unsuccessfully to farm prawns in the Northern Territory due to poorsite selection. However, in the past few years prawn farming has been attractingincreased interest frominterstate investors who already have successful prawnfarm overations (Northern Territorv Department of Primary Industry andThe total ponded area used for black tiger prawn farming has risen from anestimated 231 hectares in 1990-91 to an estimated 382 hectares in 1995-96(table 5). The ponded area is not equivalent to the area stocked as more thanone crop a year can be produced in north Queensland.Black tiger prawn production and valueQueensland is the largest producer of farmed black tiger prawns, accountingfor around 75 per cent of total Australian production in 1995-96 (table 6).f j Australian black tiger prawn productionVolume t t t t t tNew South Wales 184 183 267 264 213 232Queensland 755 715 830 1 184 1339 1 104Northern Territory na na na na na 140Total 939 898 1097 1448 1552 1476Value $000 $OOO $OOO $000 $OOO $000New South Wales 1 977 1775 3 156 3 225 2 521 2 890Queensland 8222 8 350 10 157 16 043 17 499 14 800Northern Territory na na na na na 1900Total 10 199 10 125 13 313 19268 20020 19590p Prel~#rltnary No1 ava~lnblefor confidenl~nl~l) na re;,un,.5hun.e.r New Sourh Wsles 1)epwIvnent o f Agncullure and R,henes. Qucen*laml lkp3nrncnl uf P n m qIndu,lnei. Northern Ternlory l k p a n ~ n e n of Pnoran Indu,lry and Rqhencr 19Yb. Aulral~anPrsun Fx~vullvr lAssociation.
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTUREBetween 1990-91 and 1995-96, production increased by 46 per cent inQueensland and 26 per cent in New South Wales. Estimated production in theNorthern Territory in 1995-96 was 140 tonnes (Northern Territory Departmentof Primary Industry and Fisheries).The total value of Australian black tiger prawn production has nearly doubledbetween 1990-91 and 1995-96, with the rise dominated by the increase in valuein Queensland (80 per cent). The value of production rose by 46 per cent inNew South Wales.Hatchery production and valueAustralian black tiger prawn culture depends on a supply of wild broodstockprawns caught by trawlers off Cairns. The number of hatcheries has increasedslowly from five in 1990-91 (all located in Queensland) to nine in 1995-96(table 7). Six hatcheries are associated with growout farms.The Australian Institute of Marine Sciences is undertaking research to developtechniques for breeding black tiger prawns in captivity. The six year researchprogram is nearing completion and if successful will mean that farmerscurrent reliance on wild caught egg carrying females for broodstock will bereduced. Research is also being undertaken to shorten the five to six monthgrowth cycle, and to produce larger prawns.7Australian black tiger prawn hatchery salesCommercial hatcheries no. no. no. no. no. no.New South Wales 0 0 2 1 1 1Queensland 5 8 6 7 8 8Sales 000 000 000 000 000 000New South Wales 0 0 11000 4500 10700 13500Queensland 65000 97000 112000 146000 130000 121000Total 65 000 97 000 123 000 150 500 140 700 134500Value $COO $OOO $OOO $OOO $OOO $OOONew South Wales 0 0 1650 77 180 230Queensland 650 1320 1 180 2 420 2210 1500Total 650 1320 2 830 2 497 2 390 1730p Preliminay. na Not available.Sources: New South Wales Department of Ag~icultun and Fisheries; Queensland Department of PrimaryIndustries.
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTUREMarketsVirtually all Australian production of farmed black tiger prawns is solddomestically as chilled product. Only around 3 per cent was exported in 1994-95. Around 20 per cent of Queenslands production is sold within Queensland,with the remainder going interstate, primarily to Sydney.Kuruma prawnAlthough most Australian prawn farms grow black tiger prawns, a smallnumber of farms grow the more valuable species kuruma prawn (Penaeusjaponicus) for live export to Japan. Commercial production of kuruma prawnscommenced in 1992-93 in Queensland and in 1994-95 in New South Wales.The kuruma prawn is believed to have been introduced to Australia through ballast water from coal ships, with breeding populations now established around Mackay in Queensland.Structure of the kuruma prawn industryQueensland is currently the largest producer of kuruma prawns, with seven outof eight permits issued operating as commercial farms located betweenBrisbane and Bundaberg. The total area of operational ponds in Queenslandwas 72 hectares in 1995-96 (table 8).The four farms situated in northern New South Wales have a total area ofoperational ponds of around 39 hectares (table 8). The sector is dominated byone farm, accounting for 50 per cent of total kuruma prawn production in 1995-96.8 Number andponded area of commercial kuruma prawn farmsFarms no. no. no. no. no. no.New South Wales 0 0 0 0 4 4Queensland 0 0 2 4 6 7Total 0 0 2 4 10 11Area ha ha ha ha ha haNew South Wales 0 0 0 0 27 39Queensland 0 0 11 26 43 72Total 0 0 11 26 70 116Sources: New South Wales Department of Agriculture and Fisheries; Queensland Depanrncnt of PrimaryIndustries.
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTURE9 Australian kururna prawn productionVolume t t t t t tNew South Wales 0 0 0 0 35 39Queensland 0 0 23 45 85 190Total 0 0 23 45 120 229Value $000 $COO $OOO $OOO $000 $000New South Wales 0 0 0 0 1220 1930Queensland a 0 0 na 3 285 7 176 I3400Total 0 0 na 3 285 8 396 15 330a Landed value in Japan. p Preliminary. na Not avalable.Sources: New South Wales Department of Agriculture and Fisheries; Queensland Department of P i a y rmrIndustries.Kuruma prawn production and valueAustralian commercial production of k ~ m m a prawns has risen considerablysince the first commercial crops in the early 1990s to be worth around $15.3million in 1995-96 (table 9). The most rapid growth has been in Queensland,where the value of production has risen substantially to $13.4 million in 1995-96. Production in New South Wales was worth $1.9 million in 1995-96.Although returns are much higher for kumma prawns than for black tigerprawns, operating and capital costs are higher for kumma prawns because ofdifferent cultivation requirements, such as deeper ponds and longer growoutperiods. Feed for this species is more expensive to produce (because of thehigher protein levels necessary for good growing performance in kummaprawns) than that required for black tiger prawns (Department of PrimaryIndustries and Energy 1996). The live export focus of the k u ~ m prawn also ameans that harvesting, processing, packaging, airfreight and marketing costsare higher. In 1995-96, average costs of shipping live prawns to Japan was$20-25 a kilogram (L. Evans, Australian Prawn Farmers Association, personalcommunication, April 1997).Markets for Australian famed prawnsAustralia is a relatively small producer in world prawn aquaculture. In 1993,Thailand was the worlds largest prawn producer, accounting for 27 per centof total world farmed prawn production, next was Indonesia (19 per cent), thePhilippines (12 per cent) and China and Ecuador (1 1 per cent each). Thailandand Indonesia are the largest producers of black tiger prawns (FA0 1995).
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTURE7 fi Worldproduction of kuruma and black tiger prawnKummaAustraliaItalyJapanKoreaOther AsiaSpainOtherTotalBlack tiger prawnAustralia 577 808 898 1 097Indonesia 67 355 96811 98 358 105 000Malaysia 1 275 2 184 2 821 3 938Other Asia 8 570 10 216 10 426 8 904Philippines 47 591 45 740 75 996 86 096Thailand 107 970 155 069 179 358 210 000Other 16 350 21 190 23 570 28 093Total 249 868 332018 391 427 443 128a Less than one tonne.Source: FA0 (1995).Production from other nations, such as India, is rising but future output in thesecountries will depend on the type of environmental controls and policiesimplemented.Of the two species farmed in Australia, black tiger and kuruma, Australia is arelatively small producer, contributing less than 1 per cent of total worldsupplies of these species (table 10).Nearly all Australian kumma prawns are exported as live product, with Japanas the major market. Kumma prawns are the most expensive prawn becauseof their freshness, cultural significance and perceived superior colour, tasteand texture. One-third of total production is exported to Korea and a smallquantity is sent to Taiwan. In 1995, Australian exports of live prawns on theJapanese market totalled 172 tonnes valued at around A$7 million (Japan TariffAssociation 1995).The Japanese live prawn market is dominated by the k ~ ~ prawn which has m aa particular appeal to Japanese buyers because of its distinctive red and white
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTURE11Japanese imports of live prawns 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 t t t t t tAustraliaChinaHong KongKoreaTaiwan 2710 4217 2953 138 45 17Other 0 1 0 1 12 36Total 2 883 4 359 3 244 520 452 474Source: Japan Tariff Association (1995).stripes when cooked and the characteristics already outlined. The firstsuccessful shipment of live kuruma prawns from Australia to Japan was in1991 (Stephens, Tran, Battaglene, Curtotti and Bull 1995).Australias major competitors on the Japanese market are Japanese domesticsupplies, China and Korea (table 11). Japanese production of farmed kurumaprawns in 1994 was 1519 tonnes (MAFF 1996). Kuruma prawns from Taiwanare considered by the Japanese to be of lower quality because of their smallersize in comparison with Japanese and Australian product (Ovenden and Kriz1993). A disease outbreak in Taiwanese prawn farms resulted in a sharp declinein Taiwanese production and consequently exports in 1993. Australia canmarket large sized kuruma prawns to Japan during the summer months whensupplies from northern hemisphere producers are low and the price on theJapanese market is high.Outlook for farmed prawnsPrawn farming has contributed an increasing share of total Australian prawnproduction. In 1990-91 Australian farmed prawns contributed 3 per cent tototal Australian prawn supplies; in 1995-96 the share had risen to 11 per cent.Aquaculture represents a potentially important source of growth in domesticprawn supplies.While the volume of Australian prawn aquaculture is low compared with manyoverseas producers and the industry faces a range of constraints, it is expectedthat the total area devoted to prawn farming will increase fromits current levelof around 400 hectares. This area will be devoted to production of both kurumaand black tiger prawns.
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTUREIn Queensland, an additional 300 hectares of prawn ponds are planned to beconstructed and be operational, in the next five years, doubling the size of thesector in Queensland industry (L. Evans, Australian Prawns FarmersAssociation, personal communication, May 1996).The ponded area for black tiger prawns is expected to expand in 1996-97 by110 hectares with two new farms being introduced (50 and 18 hectares) andthree operating farms expanding their pond area. The largest prawn farm inAustralia - Seafarm Pty Ltd - is expanding its operations at Cardwell in NorthQueensland from 62 to 92 hectares. For kuruma prawns the pond area isexpected to be expanded by 125 hectares in 1996-97 with three farmsexpanding and two new farms being developed in central Queensland (L.Evans, Australian Prawn Farmers Association, personal communication, April1997).There will be some further increase in production in the short term asestablished farms reach full capacity and make gains in productivity as farmingtechniques and technology improve.This increase in area, combined with expected higher yields, is projected toraise the production of kuruma prawns to around 550 tonnes a year and thevalue of production to around $60 million (in 1996-97 dollars) by 2001-02(Smith 1997).Japanese market returns will be a major influence on the direction of Australianprawn farming. If producer returns from sales of live kuruma prawns on theJapanese market stay high then the ponded area devoted to kuruma prawnfarming will increase. However, if farmgate prices for kuruma prawns fall fromcurrent levels then it is likely that more producers will focus on the productionof black tiger prawns for the domestic market.A potential limiting factor for expansion is the availability of suitable sites.There is limited opportunity for creating new farm sites on the east coast ofAustralia because of the conflict between aquaculture and other coastal usergroups. This is particularly the case on the New South Wales coastline whichis the most heavily populated in Australia. Many potentially suitable areas aredesignated national parks or reserves, and in some areas development of touristresorts has possibly alienated areas that are suitable for prawn farming.Suitable sites for growing kuruma prawns along the Queensland coast arelimited because a number of appropriate coastal areas have been secured asfish habitat reserves and wetland reserves. Uncertainty over native title claimshas the potential to limit expansion into other locations (Collins 1995).
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTUREThere are a number of other possible constraints on the growth of the industry.These include the requirements to meet environmental guidelines andmonitoring, particularly on waste discharge from ponds, access to broodstock,alternative and cheaper supplies of feed and the need to reduce production,marketing and processing costs.Environmental regulation and monitoring have become an issue for prawnfarmers in recent years. Disease outbreaks and consequent high mortalities inprawn farms within South East Asia, caused mainly by low standards ofenvironmental control in farms, have left regulatory authorities in Australiataking a cautious approach to environmental policies and regulations. It isargued by industry that the current degree of environmental monitoring isoverly strict considering the extremely low farm densities (farms per kilometreof coastline) of prawn farm operations in Australia as compared with SouthEast Asia.While the Commonwealth government is responsible for quarantine at thepoint of entry into Australia, the state and territory governments areresponsible for quarantine, product movement and disease control thereafter.Various state and territory governments have legislation dealing with animalhealth issues but regulations differ across the states. Evans (1996) argues thatthe ~ommonwealthcould a role in establishing standards and regulations. playThese inconsistencies are also apparent within state agencies over the licensing --of aquaculture facilities.Australian black tiger prawn culture depends on a supply of wild broodstockprawns caught by trawlers off Cairns. There are disadvantages involved withusing wild broodstock because there is a natural shortage of black tiger prawnsbetween September and February when hatchery demand is at its greatest.Research is currently being undertaken to reduce farmers dependence on wildcatches of egg bearing females for broodstock.Developments in prawn feed will also influence the future of the industry. Asin most other aquaculture industries, feed costs are a significant issue for theprawn farming industry. Feed comprises up to 60 per cent of on-farmproduction costs. Currently Australian prawn farmers use 3500 tonnes ofprawn feed a year, worth $5 million, most of which is imported (Bashford1996). Research is being undertaken by CSIRO to develop a cheaper prawnfeed that maximises the growth rates of farmed prawns and is more digestible.This latter aim is important since easier digestibility results in less foodwastage and hence decreased amount of nutrients entering the ponds, thusmaintaining higher water quality.
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTUREThe Japanese market for live kuruma prawns is relatively small and pricescould be expected to be sensitive to total supplies. Any significant expansionof production in Japan or in other countries may serve to reduce domesticprices. As most of the technologies involved in production and live freight arereadily transferable, it is likely that production will expand further. Highersupplies on the Japanese market, combined with the expectation of a strongerAustralian dollar against the yen over the medium term, make it unlikely thatthere will be a major Australian industry expansion into kurumaprawn farmingin the medium term.If there is only limited expansion of kuruma prawn production, much of thelarger ponded area will be devoted to production of black tiger prawns, mainlyfor the domestic market. While yields are expected to increase as managementpractices improve, disease control will remain a major issue, particularly inthe older ponds. The high level of fresh and frozen prawn imports (7800 tonnesvalued at $106 million in 1995-96 - ABARE 1996) and recent retailingdevelopments, such as the entry of major supermarket chains into seafoodretailing, suggest that the domestic industry will have relatively few difficultiesin marketing its product, even if there is a fall in import prices (Smith 1997).Freshwater crayfishThree native species of freshwater crayfish are farmed in Australia: yabby(Cherax destructor), redclaw (C. quadricarinatus) and marron (C. tenuimanus).The development of an inland Australian aquaculture industry for freshwatercrayfish began in the late 1960s with experimental culture of marron andyabby. Historically, most of Australias freshwater crayfish production hasbeen small scale cultivation of yabbies in farm dams.Freshwater crayfish are farmed extensively and semi-intensively. Extensiveculture is private farming in existing farm dams and natural water bodies.Supplementary feeding, stock and water quality management and predatorcontrol may be used to increase yields. Semi-intensive culture employspurpose built ponds.YabbyYabby (Cherax destructor) are native to the arid regions of eastern Australia.A population has also been translocated to the south west of WesternAustralian. Yabbies are currently farmed in New South Wales, South Australia,=ctoria and Western Australia. The species grows to a marketable size withineighteen months.
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTUREYabbies have been widely translocated to South East Asia, Central and SouthAmerica and Africa. The level of production outside of Australia is unknown,and is likely to be insignificant (Jbnes 1996).Structure of the industryAlthough there is a large number of enterprises involved in yabby farming, forthe majority of enterprises, yabby farming is a diversification from other formsof farming including agriculture.Of the 116 permits for yabby farming in New South Wales in 1995-96, 37farms were commercially operating (table 12). There has been a considerableincrease in total pond area farmed, from 54 hectares in 1990-91 to 653 hectaresin 1995-96.In Western Australia yabby farming is carried out in conjunction with theharvesting of koonacs (C. plebejus, C. glaber) and commercial catches of wildharvest yabbies. The farming is extensive and in many cases a supplement toagriculture farming, with local markets being supplied. In 1995-96 there were43 yabby farms in Western Australia.In South Australia there are approximately 400 registered crayfish farmers, 68of which were commercial yabby farmers in 1995-96. The freshwater crayfishsector is regionally organised, with many growers involved in both yabby andmarron growing. The South East, Kangaroo Island, Fleurieu Peninsula, MidNorth and Eyre Peninsular are the main growing regions (South AustralianDevelopment Council 1995).In Victoria, there were 7 2 culture permits issued for growing yabbies and 51culture permits for growing yabbies in conjunction with fish farming. Detailson the number of commercial operators were not available.12 Number of yabby farms or permits 1990-91 1991-92 1992-93 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96New South Wales na 24 28 43 44 37South Australia na na na na 61 68Victoria na na na na 100 123 aWestern Australia 48 na 50 53 37 43Total-- 48 24 78 96 242 27 1 ~ .a Includes oermits for~~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~ farming vabbies and oemns for vabbies and fish. na Not available. ",S o u r e r New South Walcr l k p m m e n l of Agncullurc 2nd Fishencs. South Aulrdill&n Rcrcar.h ~ n 1)evcloprnent dInsl~rure; Fishencs kpanvnent of Western Auilral~a. V~clonan lkpvtrnenl of Conservat~on and NalunlResources.
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTUREYabby production and valueTotal Australian yabby production has nearly quadrupled since 1990-91, froman estimated 90 tonnes to an estimated 163 tonnes in 1995-96 (table 13). Totalvalue of output is estimated at around $2.1 million in 1995-96.Western Australia is the largest producer of farmed yabbies, with annualproduction estimated at 112 tonnes in 1995-96, valued at $1.2 million (table13). Drought conditions in Western Australia led to the decline in productionin 1995-96 as many dams became unusable. New South Wales is the nextbiggest producer. Recent data for Victorian production are unavailable. Annualproduction in Victoria fluctuates around five tonnes compared with wildcommercial catches of 7-16 tonnes. However, it has been argued that much ofthe product sold from farms is taken or sold illegally from public waters(Victorian Department of Conservation and Natural Resources 1995).MarketsYabbies have been marketed from both the wild capture fishery and aqua-culture sector for several years. On the two major domestic fish markets -Sydney and Melbourne -the average annual throughput over the period 1991-92 to 1995-96 was 36 tonnes of live and cooked product.13 Yabby growout production 1990-91 1991-92 1992-93 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96pVolume t t t t t tNew South Wales 9 15 6 16 32 34South Australia a 19 12 10 26 10 17Victoria 20 5 5 5 na naWestern Australia 42 81 127 289 210 112Total 90 113 148 336 252 163Value $OOO $OW $000 $OW $OW $OOONew South Wales 87 181 73 210 511 409South Australia a 292 136 113 293 100 175Victoria 200 60 60 100 325 325Western Australia 338 690 1148 2610 2100 1230Total 917 1067 1394 3213 3036 2139a Includes mmon. p Preliminary.Sources: New South Wales Department of Agriculmre and Fisheries; South Australian Research and DevelopmentInstitute; Victorian Department of Conservation and Natural Resources; Fisheries Department of WesternAustralia; ABARF, 1996 and previous issues. 18
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTUREBased on industry estimates, 80-100 tonnes of farmed product could be soldon the domestic market. Some growers have exported product to European andSouth East Asian markets. However, no published data are available on thelevel or destination of Australian yabby exports. In Western Australia, whichis the major growing state, the product is sold live on the local market and inEuropean markets. Approximately 70 per cent of Western Australianproduction is exported. It is expected that there will be a shift from Europeanto Asian markets over the next five years.RedclawRedclaw (Cherax quadricarintalus) is a tropical species from northernQueensland. There is no commercial wild capture fishery for redclaw,primarily the result of their remote location from markets. The commercialaquaculture of redclaw commenced in 1985 in Queensland. Ponds are stockedwith juveniles that are taken from the wild or are hatchery reiied. Someoperators maintain broodstock ponds that contain naturally reproducingpopulations (Kailola, Williams, Stewart, Reichelt, McNee and Grieve 1993).Structure of the industryThe industry consists of a number of large producers and many small producersall producing redclaw semi-intensively in earthen ponds.Queensland has the largest number of commercial farms (table 14). InQueensland the majority of redclaw production is farmed in conjunction withother enterprises (including agriculture and tourist enterprises). In 1995-96there were 112 permit holders for redclaw, of which 62 farms produced14Number andponded area of commercial of redclaw farmsFarms no. no. no. no. no. no.New South Wales 0 0 5 8 7 5Queensland 21 27 34 44 44 62Total 21 27 .39 52 51 67Area ha ha ha ha ha haNew South Wales 0 0 2 22 18 6Queensland 157 162 81 47 57 68Total 157 162 83 69 75 74Sources: New South Wales Department of Agriculture and Fisheries; Queensland Department of PrimaqIndustries.
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTUREcommercial quantities. It also appears that there is a constant turnover of permitholders in the industry in Queensland (Lobegeiger 1995).Redclaw fanning did not commence in New South Wales until 1992-93. Whilethere is some redclaw farming activity in the north of the state it is unlikelythat there will be any further development because climate conditions are notentirely suitable for growing this species. In 1995-96there were twenty permitsholders, with five farms commercially producing redclaw.In the Northern Territory there are two licensed redclaw farms, but each is stillin the pilot stage of development. Tropical redclaw cany diseases not foundin Victoria and it is unlikely that an application to farm the tropical species inthat state would be approved.While there has been an increase in the number of operators in Queensland,the area under commercial production has declined since 1991-92. In NewSouth Wales, ponded area has also fallen since 1993-94 (table 14).Redclaw growout production volume and valueTotal Australian redclaw production peaked in 1994-95 at 63 tonnes, valuedat nearly $0.9 million. In 1995-96, total Australian production fell to 55 tonnes,valued at around $0.8 million. Production fell in both states in 1995-96 (table15).Queensland is by far the dominant redclaw producing state, with productionincreasing from around 33 tonnes in 1990-91 to 54 tonnes in 1995-96. TheVolumeNew South WalesQueenslandTotalValueNew South WalesQueenslandTotalp Preliminary.Sources: New South Wales Depmment of Agriculture and Fisheries; Queensland Department of PrimaryIndusuies. 20
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTUREvolume of redclaw farmed in New South Wales peaked in 1993-94 and 1994-95 at 3 tonnes. Production in the Northern Territory is expected to stay under100 kilograms (Northern Territory Department of Primary Industry andFisheries 1996).MarketsCurrently the main market for redclaw is the domestic market. Around 70-80per cent of product is sold in Australia, with Sydney and Melbourne being themain markets. The majority of the product is sold live, both on the domesticand export markets. Some product is sold frozen, either whole or split. Themain export market has been Japan, but interest is being developed in Taiwan,Korea, Indonesia and Singapore. Detailed data on exports of Australianredclaw are not available.Large quantities of juveniles have been exported in recent years. Manycountries in southern Asia, North and South America, Africa and parts ofEurope have obtained stock from Australia. In 1994-95, Queensland hatcheriessold 1.4 million juveniles valued at $0.37 million -77 per cent were destinedfor overseas markets, 22 per cent for Queensland operators and 1 per cent forinterstate farms. Redclaw are also grown in the United States, Latin Americanand Caribbean countries. These suppliers are likely to be Australias maincompetition on export markets.In 1996 the average farmgate price was $10-16 a kilogram for animals under100 grams (B. March, South Queensland Redclaw Farmers Association,personal communication, September 1996). There is a high market demandfor animals over 100 grams, particularly on export markets. However, becauseoperating costs are high, most farmers attempt high stocking densities, andproduce animals under 100 grams.MarronMarron (Cherax tenuimanus) is a freshwater crayfish native to WesternAustralia. It has been cultured in that state for over twenty years. Marron havebeen translocated to southern Queensland, northern New South Wales andSouth Australia for farming purposes. However, most Queensland farms haveswitched to the production of redclaw. Translocation has not been undertakenby Victoria where marron is declared a noxious fish.Marron have also been widely translocated and efforts to develop aquacultureenterprises have been made in the United States, Central America and Africa.However, no commercial production has been reported (Jones 1996).
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTUREStructure of the industryMarron are cultured both extensively and semi-intensively in WesternAustralia and South Australia. Environmental conditions in New South Walesare suited to marron growing, but the number of producers is small. In 1995-96 there were four commercial farms in New South Wales, from nine permitsissued. In South Australia there were 28 commercial marron operators in 1994-95 and 33 in 1995-96. In Western Australia there were 86 permits issued in1994-95 and 105 in 1995-96.Marron production volume and valueThe total value of marron farming for human consumption is estimated to havebeen about $0.7 million in 1995-95 (table 16). There is also hatcheryproduction of marron (see below). Growout increased from 15 tonnes in 1990-91 to 25 tonnes in 1995-96. Average unit values over the period 1990-91 to1995-96 have ranged from $23 a kilogram to nearly $29 a kilogram, makingit the highest valued freshwater crayfish species farmed in Australia.MarketsThe marron farming industry supplies two main markets. The first is the marketfor human consumption, both domestic and export. About a quarter ofproduction used for human consumption is exported, mainly to Taiwan, theUnited States and Europe. The second market is for juvenile marron which arestocked for commercial or private culture and are sold both on domestic andexport markets.16 Marron growout productionVolume t t t t t tNew South Wales 0 0 a a B aWestern Australia 15 16 17 18 17 19South Australia b 2 1 3 4 6Total 15 18 18 21 21 25Value $OOO $OOO $OOO $OOO $OW $OWNew South Wales 0 0 2 3 7 3Western Australia 308 392 430 450 385 570South Australia b 41 34 85 84 141Total 308 433 466 538 476 714a Less than one tonne but included in the total. b included in yabby statistics. p Preliminary.Sources: New South Wales Department of Agriculture and Fisheries; Fisheries Department of Western Australia;South Australian Research and Development Institute.
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTUREFreshwater crayfish hatchery productionReflecting the small number of hatcheries involved in commercial operationsin some states, data on hatchery production for freshwater crayfish can onlybe presented in an aggregated form.Data on yabby hatchery production were available only for New South Wales.The number of permits has fluctuated widely in recent years. The number ofpermits for hatchery production far exceeds the number of hatcheries in com-mercial operation. For example, of the 21 permit holders in 1995-96,only fifteenoperated as commercial hatcheries. Prior to 1992-93 hatchery production wasfor wild release only. There are no hatcheries in South Australia.Redclaw hatcheries are located primarily in Queensland. In 1994-95, therewere an estimated nineteen hatcheries producing redclaw juveniles on acommercial basis in Queensland while there were two operating in New SouthWales. The total number of juveniles sold in 1995-96 was around 1.0 million,valued at $0.2 million (table 17).Marron hatcheries are located in Western Australia and New South Wales;however. data on the number of hatcheries were not available for Western Aus-tralia. N&hatcheries exist in South Australia. The total value of output in 1995-96 was estimated to be about $0.2 million, with 0.4 million juveniles sold.1 7%shwater crayfish hatchery sales and valueSalesYabbyRedclawMarronTotalValueYabbyRedclawMarronTotala For wild release onlv. o PreliminmSources: New South % i e s Depanm;nt of Agriculture and Fisheries; Fisheries Department of Western Australia;Queensland Depamnent of Primary Indusuies.
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTUREOutlookfor freshwater crayfishOn the domestic market, yabbies, redclaw and marron largely compete witheach other for market share although they have different attributes. Forexample, redclaw has a higher meat to weight ratio than yabby. Lack ofknowledge about the differences between the products has meant that the - - -market is often unwilling to pay more for one species than another. This factorhas contributed to the problem of promoting reiclaw as high value product (B.March, President, South Oueensland Redclaw Farmers Association, personalcommunication, September 1996).While interest in farming redclaw has increased, as it is thought to have betterprospects than yabby or marron because higher yields are obtainable, thefragmented nature of the industry has meant that marketing and promotion ofthe product has been limited. This fragmentation of the industry is not only anissue for redclaw growers. The extensive nature of farming and the lack ofquality control are major issues facing the marron and yabby sectors.In Western Australia there has been deregulation of the commercial marronfarming industry to encourage development opportunities. Under the oldregulations, marron were commercially produced under a variety of licensingarrangements, ranging from impositions on which market various licenceholders could sell to requirements for pond construction, broodstock andpredator proofing requirements. Under the new regulations, growers will haveaccess to a greater range of markets, limits on pond and dam sizes have beenreduced and restrictions on the type of pond or dam construction and predatorproofing have been lifted. However, unlike yabby farming, the costs ofinvesting in marron farming are considerable because of the need to buildponds.Further development of the marron sector is likely in South Australia.Estimates of marron production are 100 tonnes a year by 2000. For yabbies,production is expected to increase at a rate of 5 tonnes a year to 50 tonnes ayear by 2000 (South Australian Development Council 1995). In WesternAustralia, areas farmed for marron are expanding north of Perth, where watertemperatures are higher and growing periods are consequently shorter. Marronare slower growing than yabbies but grow to a larger size and are a highervalued product.Treadwell, McKelvie and Maguire (1992) conclubed that the potential of theindustry will depend critically on the effects on costs of improvements in farmperformance and the success of marketing efforts in reducing the effect ofhigher supplies on prices, including the development of export markets. Smith,
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTUREDennis and Proctor (1996) reported that there is potential to develop trade withSouth Korea for yabby and marron. A11 three species are native to Australia,so it could be expected that Australia would have an advantage as a supplieronce markets are developed. However, competition is likely from farmedredclaw from US, Latin American and Carribean suppliers.The extent of translocation of redclaw outside of Australia possibly exceedsthe other two species (yabby and marron) combined (Jones 1996). Manycountries in southern Asia, North and South America, Africa and even partsof Europe have obtained stock. Commercial production and sale of broodstockand juveniles has occurred in the United States and substantial growth isreported from Ecuador. In Latin America and Caribbean countries, suitableclimate conditions, low labour costs, minimal regulatory restrictions and theabundance of freshwater resources suggest that redclaw aquaculture may besuccessful (Medley, Jones and Avault 1994).
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTURE4. MolluscsPearl oystersThe pearl industry is Australias most valuable aquaculture industry. There arepearl farms in Western Australia, the Northern Territory and Queensland, withWestern Australia being the dominant producer.Several species of pearl are found and cultured in Australian waters. The mainpearl oyster cultured in Australia is the gold or silver lipped pearl oyster(Pinctada maxima), which produces high quality pearls known as South Seapearls and mother of pearl shell. This species can be found across the centralIndo-Pacific region from India to New Guinea and the Philippines, and inAustralia from Carnarvon on the west coast to south of Cairns on the east coast(Bureau of Resource Sciences 1994). Other species farmed in Australia on amuch smaller scale include the Shark Bay pearl oyster (P albina albina), theblack lipped pearl oyster ( P margaritifera) and the winged oyster (Pteriapenguin).Structure of the industryIn Western Australia, pearling activity centres on Broome, where there arecurrently sixteen pearl producers (table 18). There are four hatcheries inWestern Australia and a fifth currently being built. The quota on wild shell inWestern Australia is 572 000 shells a year.Pearl oyster culture has been operating in Western Australia for around fortyyears and many of the basic techniques for pearl growing are well established.The industry is presently based on the collection of pearl oysters from the wild18 Number of pearl licences 1990-91 1991-92 1992-93 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96Western Australia 13 13 16 16 16 16Queensland na na na 21 20 20Northern Territory na na na 5 6 6Total 13 13 16 42 42 42na Not available.Sources: Fisheries Department of Western Australia; Northern Territory Depattment of Primary Industry andFisheries; Queensland Depmment of Primary Indusuies.
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTUREduring the fishing season which are transported to farms for use in theproduction of cultured pearls. Pearl oysters are farmed in mesh panels hungfrom floating longlines or supported on the sea floor.There are currently six licensed operations in the Northern Territory (table 18).These farms are situated around Darwin, with wild shell collected primarilywest of Melville Island and north of Arnhem Land. The quota on wild shell inthe Northern Territory is 120 000 shells a year. The allocation may be used asmother of pearl or part live shell for farms.Licensed companies in the Northern Territory must hold both a fishery andculture licence to operate, and so all six farms are entitled to establishhatcheries. Two companies established a private pearl oyster hatchery under ajoint arrangement in 1991. This was established with the support of theNorthern Temtory government to boost the number of shells available forculture.In Queensland, around half of the twenty current pearl farms are located aroundThursday Island in the Torres Strait near the tip of Cape York. The remainingfarms are situated between Cooktown and Townsville.Almost all wild shell in Queensland is collected in the Torres Strait ProtectedZone management area. Three companies produce hatchery reared shell on theeast coast to supplement supplies of wild shell.Pearl beds in Western Australia, the Northern Territory and the Torres Straitare jointly managed by state and Commonwealth governments. Pearl farms,including farming and in some areas collecting, are the responsibility of thestates. Many pearl farms on the east Queensland coast are located withinQueensland marine parks or the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park area. Farmingwithin the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park and the Torres Strait Treaty Zonerequires prior consultation with, and a permit from, the Great Barrier ReefMarine Park Authority and the Torres Strait Islander Council respectively.In Western Australia, pearling is covered by separate legislation from otheraquaculture industries. The pearling industry has operated under separatelegislation since before 1912, and is Western Australias longest establishedaquaculture industry. The 1990 Pearling Act aims to maintain both sustain-ability and the value of the industry. Quotas based on levels of historical fishingare imposed to control numbers of shell taken from the wild to ensuresustainability of the stock. Production levels are also controlled through quotasimposed on the number of hatchery raised spat each farm can culture. Hencenew entrants to the industry need to buy quota from existing licence holders.
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTURE19 Value of Australian pearl production 1990-91 1991-92 1992-93 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96p $COO $OOO $OOO $OOO $OOO $OOOWestern Australia 126187 126000 79600 84000 143000 121 300Northern Territory na na na na na naQueensland na na na na 10000 10000Total 126187 126000 79600 84000 153000 131300p Preliminary. na Not available for confidentiality reasons.Sources: Fisheries Derrartment of Western Australia; Queensland DepaRment of Primary IndustriesAt present each company is licensed to use 20000 spat supplied fromhatcheries. Such a system is designed to discourage overproduction and ensurethat the current value of the industry in maintained.Pearl production and valueBecause of the limited number of farms in the industry, the volume ofproduction of pearls is confidential and thus not available. However, it is knownthat, on average, the production of pearls has been gradually rising as industryefficiency has improved and the value of pearls in Japanese yen has fallen(M. Buckley, Pearl Producers Association, personal communication, June1996). In 1995-96, the estimated value of Australian pearl production(excluding the Northern Territory) was at least $131 million, making itAustralias most valuable aquaculture industry (table 19).The reduction in the yen value of pearls over the past seven years has beencaused by a number of factors. First, demand has been fluctuating in Japanbecause of the recent economic slump and the earthquake at Kobe, thedistribution centre in Japan for the majority of the worlds pearls. Second,prices fell in 1992-93because of expectations of a large increase in productionfrom Indonesia. However, this production increase did not eventuate becauseof the extensive pearl oyster mortality in the Indonesian pearling sector.MarketsPearls are marketed principally in Japan by a limited number of buyers andsellers. In 1995-96 total Australian pearl exports were valued at $196 million(table 20). Historically, Japan and Hong Kong have been Australias majormarkets, accounting for around 80 per cent of the value of Australian pearlexports. A considerable proportion of pearls exported to Hong Kong arethought to be re-exported to the United States. In 1995-96 there was a quantityof pearls sent to a confidential destination. The value of these exports was$1 16 million and are included in other country destinations.
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTURE Australian pearl exports, by destination20Japan 79 013Hong Kong 7 320Switzerland 1113United States 12 792Spain 386Other 2 314Total 102 939Source: Ausvalian Bureau of Statistics.Pearl exports are classified by various types - natural pearls, unworkedcultured pearls and worked cultured pearls. The cultured pearls are furtherclassified into round, half round or other types. In 1995-96,60 per cent of thetotal value of Australian pearl exports was in round, cultured unworked pearls.OutlookMarketing issues are seen as one of the most important areas of future focusfor the Australian pearl industry, particularly with increased world production.As world production increases, marketing quality pearls will become moreimportant if market share is to be maintained. In response to these pressures,the industry has developed a marketing and promotional strategy to increasethe profile of Australian pearls which are of a higher quality in terms of quality,longevity and size than other cultured South Sea pearls.Major competitive threats to the Australian pearl industry come fromIndonesia and the Philippines where there is considerable production potentialof Pinctada maxima at lower costs of production than in Australia. Despite thepotential in terms of production from farms in these countries, the pearlscurrently produced are mainly a creamy to yellow pearl of a lower quality thanAustralian pearls. In addition, farms in these countries are suffering high pearloyster mortalities as a result of environmental factors.Most established pearl fanns in Australia have reached a plateau of productionunder current wild shell quota restrictions. Maintaining the value of the pearlindustry has been apriority with state governments, hence the wild shell quotaand the imposition of hatchery quotas. Hatchery quotas were put in place in1989, to control the production of shell to maintain values. Given this, it isunlikely that the number of licences granted will increase in the near future.
    • AUSTRALZAN AQUACULTUREHatchery produced spat has become an important supplement to wild shell,particularly as the pearl industry on the east coast has always suffered from alack of available shell. Current research with the potential to influence futureproduction levels include the development of hatchery techniques andimproving post-settlement survival. The technology used in producing pearlsfrom spat grown in hatcheries is still being developed. The shells are reared intanks and then placed in pearl farms in the ocean after about two months. Eachhatchery reared shell is seeded after two years and the pearl then takes abouttwo years to reach a salable size. In Westem Australia, which has the mostadvanced hatchery technology, it will take around five years for the first pearlsto be produced from these operations and thus before hatchery technology hasa clear impact on production (Pownall 1996).Edible oystersThe species currently grown in Australia include Sydney rock oysters(Saccostrea commercialis), Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas), the native flatoyster (Ostrea angasi), the milky or northern oyster (S. Amasa) and theblacklip oyster (S. echinata).Sydney rock oystersSydney rock oysters (Saccostrea commercialis) are cultured in estuarine areasand rivers of Queensland and New South Wales. In Queensland, production ofSydney rock oysters is generally located in the south, from the New SouthWales border to Hervey Bay. In New South Wales most Sydney rock oysterproduction is from leases located at Wallis Lake, Port Stephens, HawkesburyRiver and Georges River. Most spat are collected in the areas where com-mercial growing operations take place; however, some oyster growerspurchase spat from other areas.Structure of the industryIn New South Wales the number of Sydney rock oyster permits and numberof farms has declined significantly from 3800 farms operating commerciallyin 1991-92 to 393 in 1995-96 (table 21). The number of commercial farmsrepresents just over half of the permit holders in 1995-96. The major cause forthis decline has been the spread of the Pacific oyster into traditional Sydneyrock oyster growing areas.The industry in New South Wales is dominated by a few large growers. Around20-25 per cent of the growers produce 95 per cent of the states crop(R. Roberts, Oyster Farmers Association of New South Wales, personalcommunication, April 1996). Limited data are available for the number of
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTURE3 1 Number of Sydney rock oysterfarms and areafarmedFarmsNew South Wales na 3 800 na 697 645 393Queensland na na na 142 133 naTotal na na na 839 678 naArea ha ha ha ha ha haNew South Wales a na 5 037 na 4 480 4714 3 723Queensland na na 745 674 673 naTntal~ na na na 5 154 5 387 na U ~ P I C ns NuI atzlitblea Iuiludes Paclfi; ~Soun.er Nru South Wnlea 1)epanvnent u l Agncullurr and R s h m e r . Quwnsland Depmment of PnllluyIndustries.fanns and permits held in Queensland, however, there has been a decline inrecent years.In New South Wales the industry is regulated by New South Wales Fisheriesand the Health Department. The New South Wales Health Department isresponsible for the inspection and licensing of oyster depuration plants. Thereare a number of zones to control the movement of oysters from one estuary toanother as part of the Pacific oyster control program and in order to quarantinethe QX disease to the northern rivers area and the Georges River.Sydney rock oyster productionHistorically, Sydney rock oyster has been the most important edible oysterproduced in Australia. However, production declined considerably during the1980s. Reasons for this include the introduction of the Pacific oyster, pollution,toxic algal blooms and disease. As the production of Sydney rock oysters hasdeclined there has been a significant increase in Pacific oyster production,mainly in Tasmania and South Australia. This increase is expected to continue.In New South Wales the Sydney rock oyster is still the most valuable aqua-culture industry. While output has been slowly declining since 1990-91, thevalue of production has been relatively stable at around $28 million (table 22).Pacific oysterPacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) are native to Japan, but have beenintroduced elsewhere in the world for culture. World production was 0.87 31
    • AUSTRALZAN AQUACULTURE3 3 Sydney rock oyster productionVolume t t t t t tNew South Wales 5 809 6 372 5 785 5 785 5 180 4 844Queensland 176 153 192 125 90 125Total 5 985 6525 5 977 5 910 5 270 4969Value $000 $OOO $OOO $OOO $ooo $oooNew South Wales 26245 28815 27900 28283 27616 27121Queensland 888 707 759 570 398 570Total 27 133 29522 28659 28853 28014 27691p Preliminary.Sources: New South Wales Department of Agriculture and Fisheries: Queensland Department of PrimaryIndustries.million tonnes in 1993, with the main producers being Japan, South Korea,China and France (FA0 1995).Pacific oysters were first introduced to Western Australia, Tasmania andVictoria between 1947 and 1952. The Western Australian population did notsurvive but oysters from southern Tasmania did and were transplanted to PortSorell. These oysters colonised the Tamar River and now form the basis of theTasmanian commercial fishery. They were also introduced to Mallacoota Inletin Victoria and Coffin Bay in South Australia.Pacific oysters do not suffer from Winter Mortality and QX diseases as doesthe Sydney rock oyster, but both species suffer from mud worm infestation.Industry structurePacific oysters are farmed commercially in estuaries along the north and eastcoasts of Tasmania and several areas in South Australia. In recent years theyhave also penetrated New South Wales oyster growing estuaries, particularlyPort Stephens. Pacific oyster spat appeared in larger numbers in Port Stephensin 1985 and was then considered a noxious species. Restrictions on growingand marketing of Pacific oysters in New South Wales were lifted in 1991. PortStephens is the only region in New South Wales where farmers are permittedto grow Pacific oysters commercially. In 1995-96 there were 35 permitsgranted for the farming of Pacific oysters in New South Wales, and of theseeighteen farms produced commercially (table 23).
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTURE3 3 Number of commercial Pacific oysterfarms 1990-91 1991-92 1992-93 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96New South Wales na 10 na 13 14 18Tasmania na na 67 na na 85South Australia na na na na 50 56Victoria na na na na 1 1Total na na na na na 160na Not avnilable.Sources: New South Wales Department of Agriculture and Fisheries; Tasmanian Department of Primary lndustlyand Fisheries; South Australian Research and Development Institute.Since 1986, the %ctorian government policy has been to prohibit the farmingof Pacific oysters in situations where feral populations may become estab-lished. Consequently culture of this species occurs in ponding at CheethamSalts Ltds Lara salt ponds. A proposal to farm Pacific oysters in Comer Inletwas rejected by the Victorian government in late 1996.In South Australia there are currently 85 licensed Pacific oyster farms,occupying a total area of 600 hectares. In 1995-96, 56 farms were operatingcommercially. These leases are situated in five major areas, all on the EyrePeninsula: Denial Bay (near Ceduna); Smoky Bay; Streaky Bay; Coffin Bay;and Franklin Harbour (Cowell). Small numbers of leases are also located atLouth Bay (near Port Lincoln) and in Nepean Bay and Kangaroo lsland (SouthAustralian Development Council 1995). Ceduna and Smoky Bay producearound 69 per cent of oysters in South Australia (Davidson 1996).Leases rangein size from four to 10 hectares.A hatchery has been established in South Australia, following concerns thatTasmanian hatcheries may not be able to consistently supply spat to SouthAustralian growers and concerns about the possible importing of biologicalhazards, for example, north Pacific seastar and toxic dinoflagelletes.The Pacific oyster dominates oyster farming in Tasmania. The total leased areais 1351 hectares, of which about a third is developed, with another thirdsuitable for development. The remaining third is not suitable for oysterproduction using current production methods (Tasmanian Department ofPrimary Industry and Fisheries 1996).Pacific oyster productionTasmania dominates Australian production of Pacific oysters, accounting forover three-quarters of total production. Total Australian production of Pacificoysters more than doubled over the five years to 1995-96, to an estimated 4909
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTURE24 Pacific oyster productionVolume t t t t t tNew South Wales na 43 32 107 146 178Tasmania 2 175 2 235 2250 2 175 3044 3 750South Australia 106 139 345 486 855 976Victoria 3 4 4 4 5 5Total 2284 2422 2631 2772 4050 4 909Value YO00 $OOO $OOO $OOO $OOO $OOONew South Wales na 219 191 518 772 953Tasmania 10320 10430 11 084 11 000 15 218 19 000South Australia 448 669 1414 1945 3 535 3 950Victoria 16 20 16 16 18 18Total 10784 11 338 12705 13479 19543 23921p Prcliminq. na Not available.Sources: New South Wdes Department of Agriuculture and Fisheries; Tasmanian DepMment of Primmy lndustlyand Fisheries; Sauth Aushalian Research and Development Inslitute; Victorian Department of Natural Resourcestonnes. The total value of production rose sharply over the period, to around$24 million in 1995-96 (table 24).The South Australian Pacific oyster industryhas expanded rapidly since its first major harvest in 1990-91.Other edible oystersA native or flat oyster (Ostrea angasi) farm and hatchery has been establishedin Western Australia, with commercial growout being undertaken at a numberof lease areas within Oyster Harbour and Princess Royal Harbour. In 1995-96there were four licences issued, however, there was only one commercialproducer operating. Other pilot hatcheries are being developed for westernrock oyster in Western Australia.Flat oysters are prized in European markets but the European product is ofpoor quality and the industry is restricted by disease. The native SouthAustralian oyster has the potential to access this market, as farming techniquesused in Australia produce a high quality product which, though susceptible todisease, can be farmed to avoid it. However, there are technical difficulties ingrowing flat oysters that may limit the growth of this sector of the SouthAustralian industry (South Australian Development Council 1995).
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTUREIn Queensland, north of Hervey Bay, the majority of oyster production is basedon harvesting from natural stocks on rocky headlands. The main speciesinvolved are milky oyster (Saccostra tuberculata and S. amasa) and blacklipped oyster (S. echinata). Production is limited to selective harvesting,retention of broodstock and maintenance of banks.In the Northern Territory, while there have been expressions of interest infarming black lipped and milky oysters there have been no commercialdevelopments to date. Native flat oysters are also grown in Tasmania; however,the volume of production has declined as production of Pacific oysters hasincreased. In 1995-96 there were thirteen leases growing native oysters.In 1995-96 total production of other edible oysters was around 35 tonnes,valued at $0.1 million (table 25).25 Other edible oysters productionVolume t t t t t tQueensland 48 33 30 35 25 35Tasmania a a 20 na na 1 bWestern Australia - - - na na naTotal 48 53 30 35 26 35Value $OOO $OOO $OOO $OOO $OoO $COOQueensland 153 147 111 105 87 105Tasmania na 170 na na 6 3Western Australia - - - na 2 naTotal 153 317 111 105 95 108a Includes wild harvest production until 1994-95. b Less than one tonne. p Preliminary. na Not available forcon6dentiality reasons.Sources: Queensland Depanment of Primaq Indusuies; Tasmanian Department of Prinwy Industry and Fisheries;Fisheries D e p m e n t of Western Australia.Markets for Australian oystersThe majority of Australian oyster production is currently sold on the domesticmarket. The New South Wales supply of Sydney rock oysters is primarilytargeted at the Sydney and interstate markets, while production of Pacificoysters is targeted at interstate markets. In 1995-96, the interstate market forSydney rock oysters from New South Wales was worth $9.7 million and thelocal Sydney market was worth $11.5 million (New South Wales Fisheries
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTURE1997). In 1995-96, $0.6 million worth of Pacific oysters were sold interstate.The decline in production in New South Wales in recent years has been filledpartially by Tasmanian and New Zealand product.Total Australian oyster imports in 1995-96 were 555 tonnes (product weight),95 per cent of which were sourced from New Zealand. Imports of oysters haverisen by 50 per cent since 1990-91. All of this increase was of Pacific oystersfrom New Zealand. In 1996, imports from New Zealand comprised 3 1per centchilled half shell product and 66 per cent frozen half shell product (NewZealand Fishing Industry Board 1996).Tasmanian Pacific oysters are sold in three forms - fresh unopened (thecommonest form), fresh opened and frozen opened. The majority ofTasmanian oysters are distributed to the domestic markets in Victoria,Queensland or New South Wales. In Tasmania there is a growing trend forsmaller producers to sell through other larger producers. In addition, thecooperative marketing of Tasmanian oysters is currently under way throughTaSea, a cooperative of oyster growers set up to market premium oysters.South Australian production is now marketed primarily through OYSA, theSouth Australian Oyster Marketing Cooperative. OYSA markets 90-95 percent of all South Australian oysters. Most of the product is targeted at the SouthAustralian and Victorian markets. There is potential to further expand marketsas six growing areas have now been approved under the Australian ShellfishSanitation Program to supply undepurated Pacific oysters anywhere inAustralia. The majority of South Australian oysters are sold live (unopened).Queensland producers market oysters both in Queensland and New SouthWales, primarily through the Sydney Fish Market.World production of oysters is dominated by Pacific oysters (Crassostreagigas). In 1993total world production was nearly 1.02million tonnes, of which85 per cent were Pacific oysters (FA0 1995) (table 26). The major oysterproducers are Korea, Japan, France and China, which contributed 25, 23, 16and 12 per cent respectively to total world supplies of oysters (FA0 1995).Total Australian oyster exports have fluctuated widely in recent years. Exportsreached a peak of 56 tonnes (product weight) in 1994-95 but fell to 21 tonnesin 1995-96. The main markets for Australian oysters have been Singapore andHong Kong (table 27). Tasmania has been the major exporting state since 1993-94, accounting for over half of Australias exports. The next largest exportingstate has been New South Wales.
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTURE26 World oyster production, by speciesEuropean flat oysterPacific cupped oysterAmerican cupped oysterPortuguese cupped oysterSydney cupped oysterOtherTotal 875.9 875.8 953.9 1019.527Australian oyster exports, by destinationVolumeHong Kong t 6 1 3 3 6 10Japan t 4 2 3 2 1 3Malaysia t - - 1 2 3 3Singapore t 4 1 1 21 24 5Taiwan t - - - 6 8 -Other t 8 9 26 13 14 0Total t 22 13 34 47 56 21Value $OOO 227 220 330 577 607 348Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics. Hong Kong oyster imports28Australia 6 6 6 9 16 11Canada 174 223 265 247 319. 399China 75 113 296 201 447 613Japan 20 4 616 684 330 996New Zealand 128 105 110 111 155 166South Korea 148 285 247 472 434 600Other 75 62 83 79 122 118Total 626 798 1 623 1803 1823 2 903Source: Census and Statistics Department (1996).
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTUREAustralia is a relatively small supplier to the Hong Kong market, providingless than 1 per cent of total imports in 1995 (table 28). The major suppliers tothe Hong Kong market are Canada, Korea, Japan and China.While the Japanese market is relatively large, with total imports of live, fresh,chilled or frozen oysters of 8625 tonnes (product weight) in 1995, the marketis dominated by supplies from Korea. In 1995, Korea supplied 88 per cent oftotal Japanese oyster imports (Japan Tariff Association 1995). For Australianproducers, the prospects for expansion into the Japanese market will probablybe limited to supplying quality product into niche sectors in the market.OutlookPotential production in the New South Wales and Queensland oyster industriesis limited by lease space and efficiency. In Queensland there has been noincrease in area available for lease in recent years and leaseholders are beingencouraged to find more efficient ways of utilising existing leases. Similarly,in New South Wales it is expected that no new leases will be granted for oysterproduction. Current development is directed toward finding more efficientways of using lease space - for example, through deep water culturetechniques.In New South Wales there is a large number of permit holders. However,around 80 per cent of the harvest is grown by about 20 per cent of permitholders. In 1996, new oyster growing permits were issued with more stringentrequirements and the costs associated with holding a permit increased. Thesedevelopments may lead to a restructuring of the industry.In South Australia there are a number of applications for oyster leases awaitingconsideration. Ten to fifteen new leases can he expected. It is unlikely that allof these will be able to be fully developed within the next five years. However,total production could reach 4000 tonnes by 2000 (South AustralianDevelopment Council 1995).In Tasmania, production of Pacific oysters is expected to increase during thenext two years, with potential for further increases if suitable sites areidentified and developed. The availability of additional sites for culture is tobe dealt with under the Marine Farming Planning Act 1995. This Act, declaredin May 1996, sets up a planning process which should ease the problem ofrestricted availability of new sites by identifying suitable areas aroundTasmania (Tasmanian Department of Primary Industry and Fisheries 1996).
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTUREThe spread of Pacific oysters is a major problem for New South Wales Sydneyrock oyster farmers. The Pacific oyster proliferation in Port Stephens, a majorsource of Sydney rock oyster spat for growers in New South Wales andQueensland, has led to their introduction to many estuaries via transfers ofstock. Many growers are now looking to other areas as sources of Sydney rockoyster stock. A major problem in controlling Pacific oysters is the number ofderelict and idle leases. In addition, the time taken for Sydney rock oysters toreach mature size for harvesting is around double the time taken for Pacificoysters. The length of time to harvest the product is affecting the viability ofgrowers in New South Wales. Research is being considered to geneticallydevelop Sydney rock oysters that would mature faster to be able to competewith the faster growing Pacific oyster.The other major issues confronting the oyster industry are consumer safetyand disease risk. Health risks is likely to adversely affect consumer demand inboth the short and medium term. Strict quarantine and product and watertesting procedures may be needed to minirnise the risk of disease. There is alsoa growing range of introduced organisms - including species of starfish,seaweed, fan worms and crabs -that may pose some threat to the industry.The introduction of quality assurance programs is likely to improve thepotential for Australian oyster growers to sell premium products overseas.Under a new government to government agreement between Japan andAustralia, imports of live, fresh or frozen oysters and other molluscan shellfishinto Japan will be permitted on the basis of certification. The AustralianQuarantine and Inspection Service certification will be provided to thosegrowing areas under the Australian Shellfish Sanitation Control Program(ASSCP). In Tasmania, about 37 oyster growing areas are covered by ASSCPcertification. Similarly, growing areas in South Australia have also gainedAQIS accreditation.The Australian oyster industry has undergone rapid expansion into non-traditional growing areas. However, the New South Wales Sydney rock oystersector still provides around two-thirds of Australian production of oysters.Apart from the potential for the proliferation of Pacific oysters in traditionalSydney rock oyster growing areas there are a number of issues facing theSydney rock osyter growing sector. The main constraints to further growth inthe Sydney rock oyster fishery are the large number of derelict leases in highlyproductive areas and the undercapitalisation of many farms, which restricts theadoption of new technologies such as the use of triploid oysters which have asignificant shorter growing period.
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTURE-Oyster farmers are facing more competition for suitable sites as competinguses such as housing development, tourism and recreational activities claim alarger share of the coastal zone.AbaloneAbalone is an attractive species for aquaculture because of its high marketvalue and limited supply caused by overfishing of wild stocks in most parts ofthe world. Australia is one of the few nations with sustainable harvesting ofwild stocks and well established commercial and recreational fisheries. Japanwas the first country to develop abalone aquaculture in the early 1960s. Totalworld production of f m e d abalone in 1993 was 1051 tonnes (FA0 1995).However, this total does not include production from China or Taiwan. It isestimated that Taiwan produced around 2000 tonnes in 1995 (P. Hone, SouthAustralian Research and Development Institute, personal communication,April 1997).Abalone culture varies in scope and technological scale to include reseedingof depleted reefs, ranching on existing or constructed reefs (where animalsproduced in hatcheries are placed in specific areas for growing and harvesting),fanning in cages or farming in high technology onshore tank facilities in whichabalone spend their entire life in a fully controlled environment.Industry structureAbalone is currently farmed in South Australia, Tasmania and Victoria.In South Australia five land based abalone farms are currently producing atPort Lincoln, one on Kangaroo Island and a sea based farm at Streaky Bay.Wild caught abalone are subject to quotas, and can only be taken by licenseddivers. Farms lease abalone for broodstock purposes from quota holders, thenthey are sold to processors after spawning.In Tasmania, culture is undertaken in the sea using drums or mesh cages or onland using raceways. In 1995-96 there were fourteen abalone leases inTasmania farming blacklip (Haliotis rubra) and greenlip abalone (H.laevigata). In 1994 Victoria released a policy of creating new abaloneresources by means of ranching, provided wild stocks of abalone remain theproperty of the community, and ranching results in no adverse effect to thewild fishery or the environment (Victorian Department of Conservation andNatural Resources 1995). There are six permits for culturing abalone inVictoria, with two hatcheries and two farms producing abalone. The culturingtechniques include land based facilities and cagelranching with land basedhatchery facilities.
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTURE29 Australian farmed abalone productionVolume kg kg kg kg kg kgTasmania na 273 0 1006 1315 2088South Australia 0 0 0 0 0 5000Victoria 0 0 0 0 0 naTotal na 273 0 1006 1315 7088Value $OOO $000 $OOO $OOO $OOO $COOTasmania na na 0 na 40 63South Australia 0 0 0 0 0 naVictoria 0 0 0 0 0 naTotal na na 0 na 40 63p Preliminary. na Not available for confidentiality reasons.Sources: Tasmanian Department of Primary Industry and Fisheries; South Australian Research and DevelopmentInstitute; Victorian Department of Conservation and Natural Resources; South Australian Development Council(1995).In Western Australia there is interest in developing land based racewayfacilities for the culture of abalone species including greenlip, blacklip, roes(H. roei) and hybrid species (H. sp) (Aquaculture Development AdvisoryCouncil 1994). A limiting factor is the requirement for a specific feed at eachstage of development, including live algae (seaweed) at some points of theabalone life cycle.Data on the number of commercial farms, output and value are not completebecause of the confidentiality of the data for the small number of commercialoperators. Production of farmed abalone in 1995-96 is estimated to have been&er 7 tonnes, valued at over $63 000 (table 29). In Tasmania, blacklip abaloneis the predominant species cultured, accounting for 90 per cent of total farmedabalone production.-~n South ~ustialia, farms-are greenlip abalone.MarketsAbalone is one of Australias most highly valued fisheries products. In 1995-96 exports of abalone, mainly wild caught, were valued at $146 million (table30). The major markets for Australian abalone are Japan, Taiwan and HongKong accounting for 48 per cent, 24 per cent and 16 per cent, respectively ofthe total volume Australian abalone exports in 1995-96. Australia is theworlds major supplier of fresh and frozen abalone, supplying 81 per cent offresh and frozen abalone and 67 per cent of canned abalone on world markets(FA0 1996~).
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTURE30 Australian abalone exportsVolumeFresh, chilled or frozenHong KongJapanSingaporeTaiwanUnited StatesOtherTotalCannedHong KongJapanSingaporeTaiwanUnited StatesOtherTotalValueFresh, chilled or frozenCannedTotalSource: Ausudian Bureau of StatisticsJapan is the worlds largest market for abalone, importing 1090 tonnes ofchilled or frozen abalone or 48 per cent of the worlds imports of abalone in1993 (FA0 1996b). In 1995, Australia supplied 80 per cent of total Japaneseabalone imports and 85 per cent of Taiwans imports (Japan Tariff Association1995; Peoples Republic of China 1995) (table 31). Other Asian countries suchHong Kong and Singapore are also large abalone markets.OutlookThe decline in the global abalone fishery in recent years has resulted in strongopportunities for farmed abalone. Blacklip and greenlip abalone are wellknown in the international market place, with the blacklip forming the basisof the worlds largest wild fishery (in Tasmania). The colour and white fleshof greenlip abalone attract premium prices in Hong Kong and Singapore(Forster 1996).
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTURE31 Japanese abalone imports t t t t tLive, fresh or chilledAustralia 41 82 142 129 153China 161 221 284 217 184Korea 19 5 10 13 7North Korea 0 0 0 6 9South Africa 0 5 5 8 16United States 9 29 35 37 42Other 0 1 1 0 2Total 23 1 338 477 410 413FrozenAustraliaFranceNew ZealandNorth KoreaUnited StatesOtherTotalCannedAustraliaChileChinaPhilippinesThailandOtherTotal 1 229 1 157 1124 1106 877 88 1Total imports 2 375 2 134 2262 2 196 1988 1 868a Less than one tonne.Source: Japan Trf Association (1995). aifThe medium term outlook for the abalone market is linked to developments inthe Hong Kong market. While world supplies have been low because of thevulnerability of abalone to overfishing, higher supplies appear likely in themedium term, both from farmed product and from the recovery of wild stocks(Smith 1997).To maxirnise returns, product definition and promotion is needed to breakaway from the traditional commodity trading framework that currently existsin selling abalone. The aquaculture reared cocktail size product is considereda different product to the larger wild caught product. Hence, it is important 43
    • AUSTRALZAN AQUACULTUREthat abalone farmers determine the specific preferences of consumers for size,species and colour if they intend exporting to a particular country. & -There is a coordinated research Drogram in all states that are currentlydeveloping abalone aquaculture. Research includes tank design andcommercial evaluation. environmental conditions reauired for o ~ t i m agrowth l -and feed development for both juvenile and growout stages.While abalone products are high valued products, preliminary analysis of bothland based and barrel culture abalone farming has confirmed that high establish-ment costs are involved in growing abalone. Other potential impediments togrowth of the industry are acquisition of broodstock for hatchery production,availability of suitable feed, and the high cost of such feed.For land based abalone farming the acquisition of broodstock required forhatcheries has posed some problems in South Australia, where farms arereliant on sourcing broodstock from the wild fishery (which is subject to aquota system).The nature and source of food for ranched abalone is a particular concern forthe industry. Most ranching proposals are based on natural drift algae plusalgae which grow on ranch structures as the sources of food. There is alsointerest in farming algae for supplementary feeding. In South Australia, theSouth Australia Research and Development Institute (SARDI) is conductingresearch into manufactured feeds for abalone. Research to date has provideda feed regime that has reduced feed costs from $5-$7 a kilogram to around$2.50 a kilogram with a fivefold increase in growth rates (P. Hone, SouthAustralian Research and Development Institute, personal communication,March 1997). It is hoped that the cost of feed can be further reduced to$1-$1.50 a kilogram. These reductions in feed costs will substantially improvethe potential for farming abalone, as currently feed costs represent 40-60 percent of the total cost of production.Although land based farms are largely dependent on artificial food, thesourcing of wild algae for feeding abalone may be an issue in the early stagesof development of this sector in Victoria. Tasmanian abalone farmers havebeen allowed to harvest limited quantities of wild algae for five years, afterwhich they must rely on other sources for active feeding.In South Australia, allowing three years for product to reach market size, theexisting farms could account for a minimum of 80 tonnes production by 1997-98. Other proposed developments should account for total production of 300tonnes by 2000 (South Australian Development Council 1995). In Western 44
    • A USTRALZAN AQUACULTUREAustralia there is some interest in developing abalone farming, with severalpilot projects being undertaken. It is expected that by the end of 1997 therewill be at least two farms in Western Australia that will have commenced theresearch and development phase of development (P. Hone, South AustraliaResearch and Development Institure, personal communication, April 1997).In Tasmania it is projected that by 2000 total farmed abalone production willbe around 24 tonnes, two-thirds of which will be of blacklip abalone (TasmaniaDepartment of Primary Industry and Fisheries 1997).MusselsMussel farming in Australia is concentrated in the southern states. Althougha number of species are cultivated around the world, the blue mussel (Mytilusedulis) is the only marine mussel species farmed in Australia.Industry structureBlue mussels are cultivated in Port Phillip Bay in Victoria, in Oyster Bay andthe DEntrecasteaux Channel in Tasmania, and in Cockburn Sound, WarnbroSound and Geographe Bay in Western Australia.The main mussels producing state is Victoria, where there are 25 farming enter-prises concentrated in the Geelong Arm of Port Phillip Bay. Around 120hectares have been granted for mussel farming but not all of this area is fullydeveloped.In Western Australia the industry has grown from a pilot industry in the late1980s, with initial allocations of water area for mussel growing occurring in32 Number of mussel farms no. no. no. no. no. no.New South Wales na 1 1 2 2 ISouth Australia 0 0 0 1 1 4Western Australia na 8 9 na 13 16Tasmania na na na na 15 9Victoria na na na 26 25 25Total na na na 29 56 55na Not available.Sources: New South Wales Department of Agriculture and Fisheries; South Austnlian Research and DevelopmentInstitute; Fisheries Depattment of Western Australia: Tasmanian Depmment of Primary Indusvy and Fisheries;Victorian Department of Conservationand Natural Resources.
    • AUSTRALIAN AQ UACULTURE33 Farmed mussel productionVolume t t t t t tNew South Wales 25 13 27 58 34 42South Australia 0 0 0 0 0 naWestern Australia 127 266 249 325 387 383Tasmania na 191 218 353 272 333Victoria 300 300 140 500 500 500Total na 770 634 1236 1 193 1 258Value $OOO $O OO $OOO $000 $000 $oooNew South Wales 55 53 108 270 162 210South Australia 0 0 0 0 0 naWestern Australia 318 800 680 890 963 956Tasmania na 375 600 na 949 1225Victoria 660 490 490 1000 1250 1 250Total na 1718 1878 na 3 324 3 641na Not available. p PrelininarySources: New South Wales Fisheries; South Australian Research and Development Institute; Fisheries Departmentof Western Australia: Tasmanian De~artment Primary lndustv and Fisheries; Victorian Depmment of ofConservation and Natural ~esourcesthe Cockburn Sound in 1987. In 1995-96, there were sixteen licences issuedto farm mussels (table 32).There is no commercial mussel farming currently taking place in SouthAustralia but development licences have been granted to a major fishprocessing company for a research and development program on four sites onKangaroo Island.The development of mussel farming in Tasmania followed the development ofsalmon fanning. Mussel spat are gathered as part of the process of clearingAtlantic salmon cages and then cultivated on hanging ropes. Hatcherycultivation of juveniles is also increasing. There has been a rapid developmentin the farming of blue mussels, with about fifteen leases currently producingmussels commercially. The early leases were concentrated in the DEntre-casteaux Channel and Huon areas.Production volume and valueFarmed mussel production dominates total mussel production in Australia.Total farmed mussel production has more than doubled since 1990-91 to anestimated 1258 tonnes in 1995-96. The total value of Australian fannedmusselproduction is estimated have been almost $3.6 million in 1995-96 (table 33). 46
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTUREMarketsAustralian mussel producers compete for domestic market share with NewZealand product. In 1995-96 mussel imports into Australia totalled 2377tonnes, 99 per cent of which were sourced fromNew Zealand. Throughput onthe Sydney and Melbourne wholesale markets averaged around 100 tonnes(product weight) a year over the period 1991-92 to 1995-96. This includessales from wild fisheries.Nearly all Tasmanian mussels are shipped live and either sold locally, or inMelbourne and Sydney.In Western Australia there has been a shift in market emphasis. In 1992-93,91 per cent of the product was consigned to the local market. In 1995-96 it wasanticipated that 70 per cent would have been sold on the local market. Salesto eastern states increased from 8 per cent to 16 per cent over the period, andexports increased from 1 per cent to 14 per cent (Ferraro 1995).Australian mussels are exported as live, fresh or chilled product, frozen ordried. Total mussel exports have been increasing since 1990-91 - from justover 6 tonnes (product weight) to 44 tonnes (product weight) in 1995-96 (table34) -with the major exporting states being Tasmania and Western Australia.Singapore has been the major export market for Australian mussels (table 35).OutlookMussels are a relatively low value product, hence large volumes of high qualityproduct need to be produced to be viable. However, there are a number ofconstraints facing various sectors of the industry. These include the availabilityof suitable sites in terms of water quality and nutrient levels.In Victoria, there are a number of concerns for the mussel fanning industry.The main ones are the impact of shipping and port related activities andphytoplankton blooms. Shipping may have several types of direct harmfulimpacts on marine aquaculture through introduction of exotic species andfouling organisms through ballast water, leaching of toxic antifoulingmaterials, spillage of polluting materials, and sediment disturbance inchannels, ports and anchorages. In addition, the construction and maintenanceof ports and channels results in pollution. In the Geelong Arm of Port PhillipBay current dredging and proposed port developments are of particularconcern to mussel farmers.Blooms of phytoplankton species that are toxic to human consumers, and canproduce a bitter taste in farmed shellfish, have caused problems for theaquaculture and commercial wild capture shellfish fisheries at a number of
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTURE Australian mussel exports, by product34Volume t t t t t tLive, fresh or chilled a a 4 1 8 6Frozen 4 a 5 7 16 14Dried 2 7 7 a 3 24Total 6 7 17 8 27 44Value $WO $OOO $OOO $OOO $Ooo $oooLive, fresh or chilled 1 1 21 5 54 50Frozen 16 1 36 68 373 111Dried 16 102 114 2 81 222Total 33 104 171 75 508 383s ~ e s s t h a n tonne. oneSource: Australian Bureau of Statistics. Australian mussel exports, by destination35- -- - - 199-91 1991-92 1992-93 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96 t t t t t tChina 0 0 1784 1 150 0 1300Hong Kong 10 4840 2247 1100 10 160Indonesia 0 0 300 0 860 676Japan 100 376 2620 300 510 200Korea 1 069 0 0 0 88 3 860Malaysia 0 0 0 0 180 1179Singapore 0 2233 6 884 1536 21 072 13027Taiwan 0 0 0 1360 2 250 234Other 5 187 40 2774 2 264 2 236 23 624Total 6366 7 489 16 609 7 710 27 206 44 260Source. Austrahan Bureau of Statist~cslocalities. Different species appear to he prevalent in different parts of PortPhillip Bay at different times of the year, usually linked with high rainfall andhigh nutrient levels.In Port Phillip Bay and at Hinders, the diatom Rhizosolenia chunii has causedbitter taste problems in farmed mussels, resulting in lost sales and stockmortality. Blooms severely affected mussel farms in Port Phillip Bay in 1987,1993 and 1994, throwing doubt over the Geelong Arm (where most farms aresituated) as a viable long term growing area.
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTUREGrowers believe that alternative sites such as Flinders are not suitable workablealternatives. A working group for the Victorian Minister for Natural Resourcesrecommended that, because of the impacts of algal blooms on mussel farmsin the Geelong Arm, there was an urgent need to establish new mussel growingareas in the south eastern part of Port Phillip Bay and outside Port Phillip Bay.In New South Wales, mussels are grown on developmental leases only inTwofold Bay and Jervis Bay. An Environmental Impact Statement is beingprepared for commercial growing of mussels in Twofold Bay. If the proposalis accepted there is potential for mussel farming to be expanded in New SouthWales (I. Lyall, NSW Fisheries Aquaculture Branch, personal communication,April 1996).In Western Australia, mussel farming is likely to be restricted to areas ofelevated nutrients from terrestrial run off. Such areas are the coastalembayments of Cockbum Sound, Warnbro Sound, Princess Royal Harbour,Windy Harbour and King Georges Sound. As mussel farming is likely to berestricted to protected areas near rivers on the south and west coasts wherehuman activity is most extensive, suitable sites will be limited. As there are nohatcheries in Western Australia, the industry depends on natural spat fall whichis limited to Cockburn. This has limited expansion in areas other thanCockburn Sound. In 1995 an additional 47 hectares was released for musselproduction. This new area has the potential to increase Western Australianproduction by 1000 tonnes (Aquaculture Council of Western Australia 1995).In Tasmania spat culture techniques are not yet at the fully economic stage andunreliable natural seed collection is the main impediment to the extension ofproduction. Current projections suggest that annual production will be around1000tonnes by the year 2000 (Tasmanian Department of Primary Industry andFisheries 1996).In South Australia the successful development of all applications for BostonBay would provide for approximately 500 tonnes of production a year. Theproposed developments near Kangaroo Island could produce 2000 tonnes ofproduct a year by 2000 (South Australian Development Council 1995).
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTURE5. FishSalmonidsThe Australian salmonid industry encompasses commercial farming,hatcheries, tourism and recreational fishing. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchusmykiss) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are the dominant species, withsmall quantities of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and brook trout (Salvelinusfontinalis) also farmed. Trout form the basis of an extensive recreational fishery in many rivers and lakes and are bred and released into waters by government hatcheries in some states.Atlantic salmonFanned Atlantic salmon is currently the only type of salmon commerciallyproduced in Australia. Farming of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is largelycarried out in south eastern Tasmania in bays along the south and east coasts,and at Macquarie Harbour on the west coast. Farming has been attempted inother states. For example, while there was one commercial operation in SouthAustralia in 1994-95, it was not operating commercially in 1995-96.The fanning techniques used in the Australian industry have been adapted fromthose successfully employed for many years in Norway and Scotland. Thesystem involves hatching salmon fry in freshwater facilities and, after severalmonths of growth, transferring them to acclimatisation ponds where thesalinity of the water is gradually increased. After about eight months thesalmon are transferred to open sea cages, where they spend around 12 to 15months. During this period they grow from around 80 grams to a marketablesize of 3.4-4.5 kg.Structure of the industryThe Atlantic salmon industry in Tasmania was established as a joint ventureproject between the Tasmanian state government, a Norwegian company anda group of private Australian companies. This led to the formation of SalmonEnterprises of Tasmania Pty Ltd (SALTAS).The agreements which led to the setting up of SALTAS were incorporated inthe Salt Water Salmonid Culture Act 1985 which provided SALTAS with amonopoly on Atlantic salmon production for ten years until 1995. With theexpiry of this ten year moratorium, and with the licensing of Atlantic salmon
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTUREWhile the industry was mainly export oriented in its early years, local salesnow account for around two-thirds of the volume of production. Australianconsumers have gradually become more aware of the availability of freshsalmon. In 1995-96 the domestic market accounted for 68 per cent of thevolume of Australian farmed salmon sales (Doyle et al. 1996). Supplies offresh and frozen farmed salmon to the Australian market consists entirely offarmed Atlantic salmon production from Tasmania. Under the currentquarantine arrangements, commercial quantities of fresh, frozen and chilledsalmon imports are not permitted into Australia.In export markets, Australian farmed salmon competes with farmed Atlanticor Pacific salmon from other countries, high quality wild caught Pacific salmonand other premium foods (Doyle et al. 1996). The majority of Australiasexports of Atlantic salmon are fresh or chilled product. In 1995-96, Australianexports of farmed salmon were 2048 tonnes (product weight) worth nearly$20.5 million (table 37).Japan is the major destination for Australian farmed salmon, accounting foraround 70 per cent of Australias exports (table 38). The share that the Japanesemarket accounts for has declined since 1990-91, as other markets such as HongKong, Taiwan and Singapore, have become more important destinations forthe Australian product.The mix of products supplied varies across the export markets. While farmedfresh salmon is the major export to the Japanese market, farmed frozen salmonis the predominant form supplied to the Taiwan market. In 1995-96, 97 per37Australian exports of Atlantic salmon, by productVolume t t t t t tFresh or chilled 1 564 468 1479 1 862 2281 1 739Frozen 159 71 187 72 194 266Smoked 5 14 12 63 44 43Total 1 728 553 1678 1998 2519 2048Value $OOO $OOO $OOO $OOO $OOO $OOOFresh or chilled 16 546 4 403 17 907 23 343 23 070 15 962Frozen 1491 783 2575 1 151 2 236 3 378Smoked 87 293 298 1 845 1220 1 144Total 18 123 5478 20780 26 339 26526 20484Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics.
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTURE38 Australian exports of Atlantic salmon, by destinationChinaHong KongIndonesiaJapanKoreaMalaysiaSingaporeTaiwanThailandUnited StatesOtherTotal 1 728 553 1678 1998 2519 2048a less than one tonne.Source: Australian Bureau of Statisticscent of the volume of Australian exports to the Japanese market was freshproduct, while only 42 per cent of famied salmon exported to Taiwan was fresh(Doyle et al. 1996).On the Japanese market, Australian farmed Atlantic salmon competes mainlywith farmed Atlantic salmon from Chile and New Zealand which, likeTasmanian salmon, can be supplied during the northern hemisphere off-season. However, farmed Atlantic salmon also competes with Pacific salmonspecies such as chinook and sockeye which are supplied largely from theUnited States and Canada.Imports of fresh and chilled Atlantic and Pacific salmon to the Japanese marketare dominated by supplies from Norway which accounted for around 54 percent of Japanese fresh or chilled Atlantic and Pacific salmon imports in 1995.In 1995 Australia supplied around 9 per cent of Japanese imports of freshAtlantic and Pacific salmon (table 39).Imports into Australias other major export market, Taiwan, are also dominatedby Norwegian supplies, which accounted for about 55 per cent of totalTaiwans imports in 1955. Taiwans imports of fresh, chilled and frozenAtlantic and Pacific salmon rose sharply from 130 tonnes to 10 155 tonnes in1995 tonnes (table 40).
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTURE2 0 Japanese imports of fresh Atlantic and Pacific salmonAustraliaCanadaChileNew ZealandNorwayUnited KingdomUnited StatesOtherTotalSource: lapan Tariff Association (1995)40 Taiwanese imports of chilled Atlantic and Pacifie salmonAustraliaCanadaChileDenmarkJapanNorwayNew ZealandUnited Kingdom 0 2 3 0 125 200United States 71 58 50 79 402 792Other 32 83 116 61 114 405Total 131 335 637 3 077 6 802 10 155Source: Peoples Republic of China (1996).OutlookAustralia is a relatively small producer of f m e d salmon by world standards.Total world production of farmed Atlantic and Pacific salmon is estimated tohave been about 621 000 tonnes in 1996, of which Norwegian productioncontributed an estimated 288 000 tonnes (table41). Chile is the worlds secondlargest producer of farmed salmon at around 121 000 tonnes in 1996. It isprojected that by 2005 world farmed salmon production could increase toaround 1.2 million tonnes (FA0 1996b). Norwegian output is expected todouble over the period. However, its share of Atlantic salmon production willdecline as a result of larger production increases in other countries such asChile, Canada and the United Kingdom.
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTURE4 7 Worldfarmed salmon production 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 kt kt kt kt kt ktAtlantic salmonAustralia 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.6 6.0 6.0Canada 10.8 14.0 14.5 30.0 32.0 34.0Chile 17.7 27.8 32.0 35.0 62.0 76.0Faeroe Islands 20.0 18.0 16.0 15.0 13.0 15.0Iceland 5.0 6.0 6.0 7.0 3.0 3.0Ireland 8.0 10.5 12.0 11. 12.0 13.0Norway 155.0 171.0 170.0 207.0 249.0 288.0United Kingdom 40.6 38.8 49.0 52.0 72.0 80.0United States 9.0 10.0 11.0 13.0 17.0 17.0Others 2.6 1.9 4.5 4.6 5.4 6.2Total 271.2 300.6 317.6 377.2 471.4 538.2Pacific salmonCanada 16.0 15.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 9.0Chile 19.1 18.7 20.0 25.0 32.0 45.0Japan 21 .O 24.0 25.0 25.0 27.0 25.0New Zealand 3.0 5.0 3.5 3.0 3.5 4.0Total 59.1 62.7 56.5 61.0 70.5 83.0Total farmed salmon 330.3 363.3 374.1 438.2 541.9 621.2Source: FA0 (1996b).It has been argued that, historically, Australian farmed salmon producers haveenjoyed a price premium on the Japanese market over salmon sourced fromother countries (Tasmanian Salmonid Growers 1995; ABARE 1995). In recentyears, the premium represented an estimated 14 per cent of Australias averageprice on the Japanese market (Doyle et al. 1996). The basis for this premiumhas included factors such as quality, disease free status of Australian product,and seasonal factors. The contribution of each of these factors to the premiumis difficult to quantify; however, it appears that seasonality on the Japanesemarket is a relatively minor factor. Seasonal factors have had a small impacton the average price premium as they have contributed to the premium at sometimes of the year and deducted from it at other times of the year. Doyle et al.(1996) concluded that the aualitv of Australian farmed salmon is likelv to be;he main factor explaining~ust;alia9sprice premium. This quality -could in turn be attributed to a number of factors including Australias diseasefree status, good water quality, superior marketing or packaging or a reflectionof Australias status as a small niche producer (Doyle et al. 1996).Another issue that is not unique to this sector is the issue of suitable sites forfurther development. Under Tasmanias new Marine Farming Planning Act
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTURE1995, it is likely that an additional 1000 hectares will he allocated to salmonfarming. In addition, trials are currently being undertaken in Tasmania to assessthe feasibility of using offshore sites for salmon cages in an attempt to increasethe availability of suitable sites.TroutTrout were introduced into Australian inland waters, primarily for theirsporting value. There is no commercial fishery for wild stocks of trout. Thefreshwater industry is based on the production of rainbow trout throughout thetemperate regions of New South Wales, Victoria and to a lesser extentTasmania, South Australia and Western Australia. Rainbow trout (Oncorynchus mykiss) are farmed both in fresh and saline waters. The maintrout producing area is Victoria. Trout is also Victorias largest and longestestablished aquaculture industry. The main species farmed are rainbow trout and brown trout (Salmo trutta), and to a lesser extent brook trout (Salvelinusfontinalis).Industry structureThere are essentially two categories of freshwater trout farming. The firstgroup consists of a small number of large farms producing an average of 200tonnes a year and supplying around 80 per cent of the market. The secondgroup consists of small farms producing small volumes, often for the touristtrade through the provision of picnic facilities, kiosks and catch your owntrout ponds.In Victoria there are about forty trout farms, with ten producing commerciallyeither for domestic or export markets. The remaining farms are tourist farms,with some product sold commercially. Trout are produced in ponds orraceways.The techniques used on freshwater farms have changed little since the firstcommercial farm was established in the 1960s. Farms are situated near riversor streams which flow all year. Water from the stream is diverted through thefarm, using either gravity feeding methods or pumps and then back to the riverdownstream. The majority of farms breed their own fish, although some buyingof fry and fingerlings does occur.Trout are also farmed in cages in brackish and ocean water in MacquarieHarbour in Tasmania by two companies and are marketed as ocean trout. Inthe initial years of the industry ocean trout was often farmed as part of anAtlantic salmon operation. Difficulties were experienced in the productionprocess, because of a high percentage of early maturing fish and high summer
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTUREtemperatures. This caused increased mortality rates and many farms ceasedproduction of ocean trout. Currently most of the companies fanning Atlanticsalmon also farm ocean trout. The most recent published data were for 1991-92, when 400 tonnes of ocean trout were produced in Tasmania.The South Australian rainbow trout industry is targeted at the recreationalfishing market, with only a small percentage of production supplied to themarket. In 1995-96, there were six commercial operators farming rainbowtrout in South Australia.In New South Wales trout farms engage in a variety of activities. Some farmsconcentrate on the production of eyed-ova for export markets; othersconcentrate on production of fingerlings for stocking farm dams or are set upprimarily as tourist facilities. Only a small number of farms contributesubstantially to table fish production. In 1995-96 there were 3 1 permits issued,with 18 operating as commercial enterprises (table 42).Industry estimates of total production of trout are around 2100 tonnes onmainland farms, with about 150 tonnes produced in Tasmania (H. Meggitt,Australian Salmonid Growers Association, personal communication, April1996). The estimated total value of Australian trout production is at least $13.0million in 1995-96 from around 2498 tonnes of product (table 43).MarketsTrout are sold chilled, frozen, smoked or as products such as pate.Approximately 55 per cent of production is sold chilled, 25 per cent frozenand 20 per cent smoked. About 3-4 per cent is sold on export markets. In 1995-96 exports of Australian trout were valued at nearly $2 million, the bulk of thevalue being accounted for by frozen trout exports. The export volume of fresh,chilled and frozen trout has risen from 17 tonnes in 1990-91 to 176 tonnes42 Number of troutfannsNew South Wales 0 9 15 17 16 18South Australia na na na na 10 6Victoria na na na na 10 10Western Australia na 7 8 na 10 10Tasmania na na na na na naTotal 0 16 23 17 46 44ns Not available.Sources: New South Wales DepMmcnt of Agriculture and Fisheries; South Australian Research and DevelopmentInstitute: Victorian Depanment of Conservation and Natural Resources; Fisheries Depanment of WestemAustralia.
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTURE43 TroutproductionVolume t t t t t tNew South Wales 326 212 140 318 278 393South Australia 29 32 26 65 65 65Victoria 700 1 300 1200 1 800 1 800 2 000Western Australia 29 39 49 59 36 40Tasmania 620 600 600 na na naTotal 1704 2183 2015 2242 2179 2498Value $OOO $OW $000 $OOO $OOO $000New South Wales 1632 1714 919 1798 1564 2 144South Australia 214 230 191 473 473 473Victoria 3010 6500 4800 10000 10000 10000Western Australia 135 269 360 375 360 400Tasmania 5 188 5 500 5610 na na naTotal 10 179 14213 11 880 12 646 12 397 13 017p Preliminary, na Not available.Sources; New South Wales Depvrrment of Agricullure ilnd Fisheries; South Ausvalian Reswch and DevelopmentInstitute; Victorian Department of Conservation and Natural Resources: Fisheries Department of WesternAustralia; Tasmanian Department of Primary lndustly and Fisheries.(product weight) in 1995-96 (table 44). Major markets for fresh, chilled andfrozen trout are Hong Kong, Singapore and Taiwan (table 45).OutlookThe Goulburn River (below Eildon) in Victoria supports most of Australiasinland commercial trout production. The main limiting factor to increasingproduction is the volume of water already being diverted through trout farms(as well as other uses) and the nutrients and other pollutants that may bereturned to the river from other farms. In other areas of Victoria, limitationson the volume, quality and seasonal availability of running water is a majorconstraint on the types and magnitude of aquaculture opportunities.A major limiting concern for the Victorian trout farming industry is thedifficulty in complying with the Environmental Protection Authoritysdischarge water quality standards. Even by combining high water flows,biofiltrations and settling ponds for suspended solids, most farms havedifficulty meeting the standards at times.However, there is scope for both expansion of this sector and improvementsin efficiency and productivity - for example, through improved feeds and
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTURE44 Australian trout exports, by productVolume t t t t t tFresh or chilled 13 27 60 19 36 51Frozen 4 13 136 103 103 125Total 17 40 196 123 139 176Value $OOO $OW $OW $OW $OOO $COOFresh or chilled 64 190 615 217 516 482Frozen 31 92 1215 1 257 1249 1744Total 95 282 1830 1474 1765 2 226Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics45 Australian trout exports, by destination aHong KongJapanMalaysiaSingaporeTaiwanOtherTotal 17 40 196 122 139 176a Expons of fresh, chilled or frozen product. b Less than one tonne included in otherSource: Australian Bureau of Statistics.development of midseason supplies of eyed ova. Output from Victoria couldincrease to around 5000 tonnes by 2005 (H. Meggitt, Australian SalmonidGrowers Association, personal communication, May 1996), with the use ofmore efficient feeds, biofilters to improve water quality (both intake andoutflow) and aerators to increase carrying capacity of farms. There is somepotential to expand exports to Singapore and Japan. In addition, there is thedemand for trout eggs from Australian hatcheries stemming from the highquality, disease free nature of Australian stocks.In New South Wales, brook trout is a new species with potential for furthergrowth. It is a fast growing species. However, the lack of suitable sites may bea limiting factor and it is expected that there will be no new trout farmsestablished in New South Wales in the near future because of the lack ofsuitable sites.
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTUREIn Western Australia intensive growing out of trout for food is limited bysurface water supply. Any major expansion is only likely with increased accessto conjunctive use of water released by government irrigation dams.TunaSouthern bluefin tuna farmers are capitalising on avalue adding industry aimedat producing quality, high value tuna (Thunnus maccoyii) for the Japanesesashimi market by fattening juveniles in sea pontoons off Port Lincoln, SouthAustralia. Compared with wild catch, tuna farming offers the benefit of controlover end product quality, risk and seasonality. Successful trials in 1991 ofcapturing juvenile tuna and placing them in sea pontoons eventually led to thedevelopment of several tuna farms.Southern bluefin tuna farming involves capturing maximum size juvenile tunaweighing around 20 kilograms, placing them in sea pontoons and ongrowingto an average weight of around 30 kilograms. Juvenile fish for growing out areeither caught directly by the farm operators or are purchased from contractorswho supply directly to fanns. Juvenile fish are caught from January to Marchoff the South Australian coast using mainly purse seine techniques and towedin special purpose built towing cages to the farms. Such a trip can take abouttwo to three weeks to complete over a distance of 150-300 kilometres. Thesize of the juveniles delivered to tuna farms influences the time and cost ofgrowing out the tuna to a marketable size. The growout process can takebetween three and seven months depending on the size of juveniles caught anddesired size of marketable tuna.Industry structureThere are currently eleven 20 hectare commercial tuna farm areas near PortLincoln, South Australia. Each area generally includes a number of companieson the 20 hectare site. Tuna farms aim to produce a premium quality product.There is one experimental farm for research purposes that is funded by farmersand in-kind contributions (B. Jeffriess, Tuna Boat Owners Association ofAustralia, personal communication, March 1996).ProductionProduction has risen from 97 tonnes in 1991-92 to over 2000 tonnes in 1995-96 (table 46). In the shorter term, output is constrained by the availability ofsite licences. In April 1996, output was lower than anticipated because of ahigh number of tuna deaths. The South Australian Research and DevelopmentInstitute (1996)concluded that the deaths were probably the result of adverseweather conditions.
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTUREMarketsFat content, size and the colour of the flesh are crucial in successfullymarketing southern bluefin tuna to the Japanese sashimi market. These variouscharacteristics are influenced by such things as timing of harvest, andnutritional characteristics of the feed can affect the quality of the farmed tuna.Southern bluefin tuna fanning is geared to produce quality, high value tunamainly for export to Japan. High quality tuna (in terms of fat content and fleshcolour) commands a premium price in the Japanese tuna market. All farmedtuna are boxed and airfreighted chilled to Japan. Fish are sold throughout theyear but sales are concentrated outside the northern hemisphere summermonths when northern bluefin tuna supplies to the Japanese market are highest.The export value of Australian farmed southern bluefin tuna has risen fromjust over A$l million in 1991 to A$59 million in 1995 (B. Jeffriess, Tuna BoatOwners Association of Australia, personal communication, March 1996).Japan has increasingly relied on imports of southern bluefin tuna as domesticproduction has not been able to keep pace with demand. Australian exports ofsouthern bluefin tuna (farmed and wild caught) compete in the Japanese marketagainst high grade tunas such as northern bluefin and bigeye. In 1995 Japanimported 72 369 tonnes of fresh or chilled whole tuna (Japan Tariff Association1995), of which 3572 tonnes or 5 per cent was southern bluefin (table 47).Fanned southern bluefin tuna is targeted to fill the niche market in high qualityfresh chilled tuna.OutlookThe tuna farming industry is heavily reliant on imported pilchards, whichaccounted for over half of total feed requirements in 1995. Pilchard deaths in1995 in southern regions of ~ u s t r a l i a have focused attention on the tunafarming sectors dependency on pilchards. Research is currently beingundertaken to produce a commercially viable manufactured feed alternativewithin three years. A commercially viable pellet feed would have theadvantage of being available throughout the year, and also have a constant and46 Southern bluefin tunafarming 1990-91 1991-92 1992-93 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96Commercial farms nos 1 0 4 6 10 10Production t - 97 535 1275 1927 2013Value $OW - 1843 10 165 24225 37 995 39 924Source: South AusValian Research and Development Institute.
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTURE47Japanese imports of southern bluefin tuna, by major supplierFreshIndonesiaAustraliaNew ZealandTaiwanOtherTotalFrozenKoreaTaiwanIndonesiaAustraliaNew ZealandOtherTotal 842 1 194 1 601Source: Japanese Tariff Association (1996).predictable nutritional composition. If the alternative feed is viable, the tunaindustrys dependence on pilchards as a source of feed should fall over time.Tuna farmers may also wish to substitute other fish such as jack mackerel orsquid for pilchards given that tuna feed on these in the wild. The current priceof high quality jack mackerel, supplied to the rock lobster and tuna longliningindustry, is around $800-900 a tonne (A. Code, Port Huon Cold Storage,personal communication, September 1996). The current price of squid isaround $1800 a tonne. Because of the importance of nutrients in the feed givento tuna, there may be a low degree of substitutability between pilchard andother feeds such as mackerel and squid.In addition to the nutrient differentials between feeds, different feedingprograms may affect the quality of fish. A change in the quality of tuna causedby changes in feed is likely to result in different prices. To date there is littleevidence on the effect on tuna quality of using different feed programs.The long term future for farmed tuna looks bright given the emphasis onfinding more cost effective feeding programs and the continued high demandfor premium quality tuna in the Japanese market. As the number of site licencesincreases, as is likely to be the case, so will output (B. Jeffriess, Tuna BoatOwners Association of Australia, personal communication, March 1996).
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTUREIn the longer term, output may be constrained by the Australian southernbluefin tuna quota. The wild catch quota, currently at 5265 tonnes, imposes arestriction on the maximum amount of juvenile catch available for tunafarming. Farmed tuna production is expected to increase to nearly 2890 tonnes(whole weight) by the year 1999, using about 1800 tonnes of southern bluefintuna quota (B. Jeffriess, Tuna Boat Owners Association of Australia, personalcommunication, March 1997).A farm is being developed for yellowfin tuna in Western Australia. Currentlythere is one licence for farming in Shark Bay. The issues in the developmentof this sector are the availability of juveniles and the need for any farming tobe environmentally sensitive. Consequently, the development proposalincluded an environmental monitoring aspect to ensure that tuna farming takesplace within environmental guidelines. Juvenile yellowfin tuna are expectedto be caught in nearby waters. It is expected to remain a relatively smallindustry for several years, with annual output not exceeding a few hundredtonnes (G. Paust, Fisheries Department of Western Australia, personalcommunication, January 1997).Silver perchSilver perch (Bidyanus bidyanus) occurs naturally in tributaries and associatedwaters of the Murray-Darling system. The species has attracted interest bygrowers in the past five years since New South Wales research identified thatit had great potential as a commercial aquaculture species (Austasia Aqua-culture 1992).Industry structureIn New South Wales there are four large farms of 6-17 hectares and fifteenmedium sized farms (around 4-8 hectares) and about forty small farms (around1-3 hectares) (P. Read, New South Wales Fisheries, personal communication,September 1996). In New South Wales farms are spreadover a widegeographic area. The number of holders of permits has risen from 33 in 1990-91 to ninety in 1995-96, while the number of farms commercially producingfish has risen from four in 1991-92 to thirty in 1995-96 (table 48). The areaallocated to growing silver perch in New South Wales increased sharply in 1994-95 before declining in 1995-96.In Queensland, there were thirteen f m s commercially growing silver perchin 1995-96. In Western Australia, pilot and very small scale enterprises arebeing developed. In South Australia, the number of commercial operatorsincreased from one in 1994-95 to three in 1995-96.
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTUREProduction and valueIn 1995-96, an estimated 50 tonnes of silver perch were produced in Australia(table 49). While the volume of output has grown steadily since 1990-91 it hasnot achieved the level considered feasible by proponents in the early 1990s.The volume of output, especially in New South Wales, has varied considerablysince 1990-91. This most likely reflects the nature of the industry in that thereis a large number of growers who are growing silver perch as an adjunct toother primary industries. In 1995-96 there were thirty commercial growers inNew South Wales out of ninety permit holders.While the value of output more than doubled over the five years to 1995-96,the average unit value declined from around $22 a kilogram in 1990-91 toaround $9 a kilogram in the past three years.MarketsSilver perch are marketed mainly in the three eastern capital cities as live fishto the Asian restaurant trade. Silver perch has not penetrated the mass fishmarket, although some is sold as chilled product on the Sydney fish market.In 1994-95, recorded throughput on the Sydney fish market was just over 1tonne of whole fish. In 1995-96 this had risen to nearly 15 tonnes (Sydney FishMarket Authority 1996). Sales of silver perch in Sydney are heavily influencedby availability and prices of other fish (Ruello 1995).48 Commercial silverperchfarming 1990-91 1991-92 1992-93 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96pFarms no. no. no. no. no. no.New South Wales 0 4 7 7 24 30Queensland 1 2 3 4 4 13South Australia 0 0 0 0 1 3Total 1 6 10 11 29 46Area ha ha ha ha ha haNew South Wales 18 18 4 10 152 75Queensland na na na 22 24 21South Australia na na na na na naTotal 18 58 4 32 176 96 -p Prelimina~. Not available. nnSources: New South Wales Depanment of Agriculture and Fisheries; Queensland Depanment of PrimaryIndustries, South Australian Research and Development Institute. 64
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTURE49 Silver perch productionVolumeNew South WalesQueenslandSouth AustraliaTotalValueNew South WalesQueenslandSouth AustraliaTotal-a Less than one tonne. o Prelirninarv. na Not available for confidentiality reasons4 , u n e r New South Wa1r.r l k p m t n c n t of Agncullure m d Rshenes. Q u w n l m d Ikpsnmcnr dl trm3ryInductner. South A u s t m l ~ mRercarih and i)evelop~trntInstlruteIn 1994-95 nearly 70 per cent of Queensland production was marketed inSydney and the balance in Brisbane, with values averaging $6.50 a kilogramfor whole fish and $10 a kilogram for live fish. Around 60 per cent of theproduct was sold live while the balance was sold as chilled whole fish(Lobegeiger 1995).OutlookThe commercial industry is characterised by a large number of new growerswith limited aquaculture experience or fish handling and marketing skills.Sales of unsatisfactory, earthy tasting fish by some growers has damaged tosome extent the trade image of the fish. Marketing has been identified as apotential problem facing the silver perch industry (Rue110 1995).The cost of feed is also a critical issue influencing the prospects for theindustry. Farmers are currently paying $1000 a tonne for feed, and with anaverage feed conversion ratio of two to one, the cost of feed without transportcosts is more than 40 per cent of the market price (Allen and Rowland 1996).Research is being undertaken to develop feed based on plant protein and meatmeals. Current feed formulations have an average of 27 per cent fish meal,which is the most expensive input. Two formulations have been developed with 10 per cent and 5 per cent fish meal content. Research indicates that productquality is not compromised with the 5 per cent fish meal. The cost of such afeed would be around $700 a tonne which could substantially improve theprofitability of the industry (P. Read, New South Wales Department ofAgriculture and Fisheries, personal communication, September 1996). 65
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTUREAnother factor affecting the profitability of the industry is the lack of suitableharvesting techniques for silver perch. The results of poor harvestingtechniques may not become apparent until several days after harvest. Researchcurrently is under way in Victoria to investigate the diversification of irrigationfarming to include silver perch production. The approach being taken is toongrow the fish in enclosures in irrigation channels used for land based cropand fruit growing.BarramundiBarramundi (Lates calcarifer) occurs throughout the South East Asian region,including northern Australia, where it is the basis of significant commercial,recreational and aquaculture fisheries. In South East Asia, where barramundiis known as sea bass, there has been a successful farming industry for manyyears, particularly in Thailand. In 1993, almost 20 000 tonnes of sea bass werefarmed worldwide (FA0 1995).The wild caught barramundi fishery in Australia forms the basis of both acommercial and a recreational sector. In 1995-96, the wild commercial fisheryof 1061 tonnes was valued at around $6.9 million (ABARE 1996).Industry structureBarramundi is farmed under a variety techniques for growing out weanedfingerlings to market size. The most common growout system is pond culture,either in brackish or fresh water. The other methods are cage culture inestuarine waters and intensive production in an indoor controlled environmentin recirculating systems. There are at least nineteen commercial farms inAustralia (table 50).The success of using cages in estuarine areas has been limited by a number offactors including biofouling of cages, disease and poor site selection. Pondgrowout (with free ranging or caged fish) has been successful in northQueensland but production efficiency needs to be improved to ensureprofitability. Intensive farming of barramundi in recirculating systems hasproved to be a successful technique and has permitted production close tomarkets.In 1988 the Northern Territory government established a pilot barramundihatchery. In 1996 there were six licensed barramundi farms in the NorthernTerritory. Of these, two were in commercial production and four were still inthe development stage (Northern Territory Department of Primary Industryand Fisheries 1996).
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTURE50 Number of commercial barramundifarms no. no. no. no. no. no.Queensland 5 9 11 9 7 15South Australia 0 0 0 0 4 7New South Wales 0 0 1 1 1 1Western Australia 0 0 na na na 2Northern Territory na na na na na 2Total 5 9 12 10 12 27 -na Not available for eonfidentialitv reasons.Sourctr: Quwnsland 1)epmment ,,f Pnmrry Indurlnci. South Auslral~mKcrruch mJ Ikvrlapm~nrIn~tlrulc.F~rhenej Nonhem Terntory I>epmn,enl of P n m q lnduirv mJ Rshcnrr. Dcpmrnenr of Wrtcm Auilrd~d.Ncw S,,uth Wdu, Dep~nment Agnuullure and F~shenes oiIn Queensland the industry is characterised by four or five main producers,each producing over 20 tonnes, and many hobby farmers producing 1-5 tonneseach. Some farms are in the early stages of development (C. Phillip, AustralianBarramundi Growers Association, personal communication, May 1996). In1995-96 barramundi production in Queensland occurred in 78 freshwaterponds covering 40 hectares.In Western Australia pilot work commenced in 1992-93 at Lake Arglye usingthe local species and pen culture. The product was market tested during 1994-95.Barramundi is grown at two locations in South Australia: at Robe based on aflow through water system using underground water and at Kangarilla, wherefarms are located in an aquaculture park concept using an intensive farmingsystem. In 1995-96 the number of commercial operators had risen to sevenfrom four in 1994-95. In New South Wales there is only one grower, using arecirculating system.In Victoria, the risk of introduction of a viral disease to public waters has beenconsidered too great to warrant approval of a fish culture permit. Barramundiis transported live and marketed live in Victoria; however, the fish carries avirus that affects two of Victorias threatened fish - Murray cod andMacquarie perch - as well as silver perch.Barramundi productionThe volume of farmed barramundi increased steadily from 92 tonnes in 1990-91 to around 529 tonnes in 1995-96.Because of the small number of operatorsinvolved in New South Wales and the Northern Territory, data could not be
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTURE-- -reported separately. The estimated total value of barramundi farming was atleast $5.8 million in 1995-96, compared with $1.1 million in 1990-91 (table51).MarketsMost of the barramundi farmed in Australia is supplied to the Australianmarket. Only a small portion of output is exported, as Asian aquacultureproducers can supply barramundi at around half the price of Australian product(C. Phillips, Australian Barramundi Growers Association, personalcommunication, May 1996). In 1994-95, around 90 per cent of production wassold as 400-500 gram whole fish, with the remainder being larger fish for thepremium fillet market (Barlow, Williams and Rimmer 1996).Product from Queensland is sold live, gilled and gutted, fillets or whole fish,with average sale prices in 1994-95 being $11.71 a kilogram, $12.43 akilogram, $15.00 a kilogram and $10.69 a kilogram respectively. In 1994-95,85 per cent of Queensland production was marketed interstate, 13 per cent inQueensland and 2 per cent was exported (Lobegeiger 1995). In 1994-95 therewas a change in the proportion of product type on the market. While gilled andgutted fish comprised 95 per cent of the market in 1993-94, this declined to 4451 Farmed barramundi productionVolume t t t t t tQueensland 92 135 232 248 200 328South Australia 0 11 na na 300 101New South Wales 0 0 0 0 na naWestern Australia na na na a a aNorthern Territory na 15 na na na 100Total 92 161 232 248 500 529Value $OOO $OOO $OOO $OOO $OOO $OOOQueensland 1105 1536 2290 2419 2192 3330South Australia 0 121 na na 3 300 1300New South Wales na na na na na naWestern Australia 0 0 0 a a aNorthern Territory na na na na na 1200Total 1 105 1657 2290 2419 5 492 5 830a Pilot famine. n Preliminarv. na Not available for confidcntialitv reasons.~ ~ .~~~Snurres: oueensiand ~ e o m k e nof Primm Industries: South ~ ~ s u a l i a n t ~. Research and Develooment Institute. ~ ~~.Nrr Soulh Wales lkpnnment 01 Agri;ullure and Rrhcnrs. Fnshcnes k p m r n c n t of Weslcrn Ausrmlra; Nonhcrnlrm~ory Dep;mrnent af P n m q IndusncsanJ Ftrhenus; South iurtrdl!an 1)erclopment Counotl IYY5
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTUREper cent in 1994-95.Conversely, whole fish comprised 43 per cent of the marketin 1994-95, compared with 3 per cent in the previous year (Lobegeiger 1995).OutlookThe longer term potential for the industry is most likely to lie in importreplacement. The industry is relatively young and, given technologicalimprovements, there is potential to reduce production costs. Currently,barramundi is imported at around $5-6 a kilogram, compared with the locallyproduced price of around $11 a kilogram (C. Phillips, Australian BarramundiGrowers Association, personal communication, May 1996). Apart fromimport replacement, barramundi could compete with other domestic fish, suchas snapper.A major constraint to further development is the relatively high productioncosts. Estimates of current on-farm production costs are in the range $5-7.50a kilogram for plate sized product. The major on-farm variable cost is food,which accounts for about 30-50 per cent of on-farm costs (Barlow, Williamsand R i m e r 1996). Research is c;rrently being undertaken by the QueenslandDe~artment Primary Industries to address the need for lower feed costs and ofimproved feeding practices.Another constraint is marketing and diversification into other product forms.Diversification into larger sized fish will enable farmers to supply thepotentially large domestic market for fillets and improve the potential toexpand export markets which are based on large fish.In South Australia the development of the last two farms at Kangarilla willprovide for a total annual production of around 125 tonnes. Further .development at Robe is unlikely to lead to more than 300 tonnes a vear.. adoubling of current capacity. her growth in this sector is constrained bythe lack of adeauate hatchew facilities. Without dedicated broodstock. holding ufacilities, hatchery capacity and nursery capacity there is little chance of newentrants into the industry being able to secure fingerling supply -an essentialprerequiste for new entrants.
    • A USTRALZAN AQ UACULTUREOtherfishMarine j s hAustralia has not developed a significant marine fish fanning industry. Theabsence of suitable technology for Australian species is one of the majorconstraints. However, there is a number of marine farming operations inAustralia in various stages of development. These species include black bream,coral trout, dolphin fish or mahi mahi, estuarine cod, flounder, mangrove jack,milkfish, mulloway, snapper, striped ttumpeter, whitebait and whiting. To dateno production has been recorded for any of these species, either because ofconfidentiality reasons, or because pilot operations have not reachedcommercial development. Research is also continuing for a range of otherspecies.Other freshwaterjshSince hatchery techniques were developed in the 1970s, native freshwater fishhave been bred for farm dams and restocking waterways, mainly forrecreational fishing. A range of species are now being cultured for hatcheriesand for food purposes. The species include Murray cod (Maccullochellapeeli),Australian bass (Macquaria novemaculeata), golden perch (Macquariaambigua), Mary River cod (Maccullochella sp), Saratoga (Scleropages spp)and Sleepy cod (Oxyeleotris lineolatus).Detailed data on production of freshwater species other than silver perch areonly available for Queensland and New South Wales. In New South Wales arange of species including golden perch, Murray cod, catfish and Australianbass are farmed for food purposes. Also included in the New South Wales datais information on barramundi farming. Data from Queensland is only forgolden perch.The volume of golden perch produced for food peaked in 1991-92 and 1992-93. However, since then the volume produced has declined significantly to 320kilograms, with no production recorded in Queensland in 1994-95 and 1995-96. Similarly the value of production has fallen from a high of around $62 000in 1991-92 to $3000 in 1995-96 (table 52).Data on other fish includes barramundi farming in New South Wales, as wellas Murray cod, Australian bass and catfish. Total Australian production ofother species of fish has fluctuated over the past six years. In 1995-96 estimatedproduction -excluding Tasmania, and Northern Territory because data wereunavailable -was 187 tonnes, valued at $2.0 million (table 52).
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTURE52 Commercial production offreshwater fish 1990-91 1991-92 1992-93 1993-94 1994-95Volume kg kg kg kg kgGolden perchNew South Wales 1200 4 900 3 100 a 500Queensland 158 1 196 2 304 445 0Murray codNew South Wales - 11000 - a aOtherfih bNew South Wales - - 470 14641 19636Queensland - 200 - - -Western Australia - - pilot pilot 162Victoria na na na na naSouth Australia na 13 000 11 000 27 000 naTotal 1 358 30296 16 876 42 086 20298Value $OW So00 $000 $oOO $000Golden perchNew South Wales 26 40 22 a 6Queensland 2 22 27 b 0Murray codNew South Wales 333 - a aOtherfrch bNew South Wales - - 6 176 236Queensland - 4 27 6 0Western Australia - - pilot pilot 5Victoria na na na 300 375South Australia na 139 115 299 naTotal 28 538 197 78 1 622a Included in other fish. b Includes bammundi, Ausmlian bass, Murray cod and catfish. p Preliminary, na Notavailable...Sounes; Neu South Wdrr Ilepnnlncnt o f Agnculturr and Rrhcnes, Q~cmsl3ndDcpmment df Pnru:qIndurtnci. Fichenc, Dcpmment ot We,tern Austrd13: V ~ c t ~ nIkpmment of N~turalKcsuurcec and mConservation.Data for commercial hatchery production were only available for Queenslandand New South Wales. Hatcheries produce a wide range of fish for use incommercial growout ponds and stocking in public waterways. Total sales offingerlings rose from 0.7 million in 1990-91 to 3.1 million in 1995-96. Thetotal value of commercial hatchery production rose from $0.15 million in1990-91 to $0.9 million in 1995-96 (table 53).OutlookThe requirement for natural feed and the low stocking densities necessary forculturing may preclude viable growout to market size for some species.
    • AUSTRALIAN AQ UACULTURE-5-3 Commercialfreshwater f i h hatchery production 1990-91 1991-92 1992-93Volume 000 000 000Golden perch 750 1456 1784Australian bass 0 430 220Murray cod 0 7 187Mary River cod 0 1 6Sleepy cod 0 25 6Catfish 0 0 25Estuary perch 0 0 0Other 0 37 -Total 750 1956 2 228Value $OOO $OOO $OOOGolden perch 150 324 434Australian bass 0 132 81Murray cod 0 6 181Mary River cod 0 2 11Sleepy cod 0 16 4Catfish 0 0 26Estuary perch 0 0 0Other 0 16 -Total 150 496 737a Less than loOO but included in total. n Preliminan.Sources: New South Wales ~ e ~ a r t m c ofi ~ ~ r i c u l h l and Fisheries; Queensland Department of Primary n reIndustries.Another limiting factor is the low demand and hence low prices for somespecies. The potential for these species not only depends on market prospectsbut also on developing more appropriate culturing techniques, particularly forfeeding and increasing stocking rates. The chance of successfully developinga domestic market for freshwater fish is rated higher than that for exportmarkets. In overseas markets, Australian farmed species are largely unknown.Furthermore, they would be competing with large and increasing supplies ofcultured freshwater fish, particularly in Asia. Farming of freshwater finfishdominates world aquaculture production (FA0 1995).
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTUREEelsShortfin eels (Anguilla australis) are present in coastal streams and estuariesfrom south eastern Queensland to the Murray River in South Australia, andeastern Tasmania. Longfin eels (A. reinhardtii) inhabit coastal streams andtributaries from Cape York to Wilsons Promontory in Victoria as well asnorthern and eastern Tasmania. The abundance of longfin eels is greatest inQueensland and New South Wales while shortfin eels are most common inVictoria and Tasmania.Commercial eel harvesting involves capture of wild stock from waterways orcapture of eels from waterways that have been stocked and then ongrown tomarketable size.Zndushy structureInVictoria, there are eleven culture permits (that is, permits to stock designatedwaterways and harvest); in addition there are nineteen pennits to harvest wildstock.In Tasmania the wild fishery has operated since the mid-1960s. Shortfin eelsaccount for over 90 per cent of the catch. The catch is taken mainly from farmdams and lagoons.Similarly, in Queensland the industry is based on harvest of wild stock, withpermits for harvesting which also include permission to catch juvenile eels.Eel productionProduction of eels is based on stocking lakes and dams in Victoria and Tasmaniawith juvenile eels from Tasmania. After stocking there is little management orfeeding, and eels take about 8-9 years to reach commercial size. Informationon the volume and value of the cultured eel fishery is limited. Catch data forthe most important producing state, Victoria, were not available. However, it isestimated that the value of harvesting eels from stocked areas in Victoria isabout $0.6 million. In 1995-96,500 kilograms of eels worth $3900 were farmedin New South Wales. No data were available for Queensland.MarketsMost of the Australian eel catch is destined for export markets. The shortfin eelcatch is purged in fresh water, eviscerated and snap frozen mainly for export toGermany. Longfin eels are exported live or chilled to Hong Kong and Taiwan,or frozen for the French market. A small proportion of both species is smokedand sold on the domestic market. The total value of eel exports in 1995-96 was$7.6 million, of which $5.2 million was for live product (table 54).
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTURE54 Australian eel exports, by productVolumeLive nos 243067 286 361 335 040 464983 456 525 405 847Fresh or chilled t 0 11 15 13 6 11Frozen t 237 290 325 332 205 209ValueLive $OOO 1481 2 357 4222 4 335 4767 5 219Fresh or chilled $W0 0 88 195 159 61 126Frozen $OOO 2228 2046 3 342 2996 1977 2 236Total $COO 3 709 4491 7 759 7 490 6 805 7 581Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics.Hong Kong is the major market for live eels, accounting for nearly 87 per centof Australian exports in 1995-96. Exports of live eels to Taiwan have increasedconsiderably over the past five years (table 55).OutlookAustralian eel production is very small in relation to other producing countries.Japan is the largest producer, with an output of 34 000 tonnes in 1993,followedby Korea (2500 tonnes), Italy (3000 tonnes) and Malaysia (3000 tonnes) (FA01995). Total world production of farmed eels was 86 000 tonnes in 1993 (FA01995).Australian producers face competition in both major markets, Asia andEurope, from producers closer to those markets. The transport cost differencewill be a significant disadvantage in meeting competition from what arealready established industries.In Australia, interest in eel farming is high. However, supply of juvenile eelstock is a major impediment to further growth. Apart from overfishing, waterpollution, habitat degradation and the modification of river systems are allhaving an impact on eel populations (OSullivan 1996).Tasmania has been identified as having Australias largest elver or juvenile eelresource. This resource has been harvested for restocking purposes inTasmania. In 1995,6.5 tonnes were harvested, 1 tonne of which was sent forexperimental culture and restocking purposes on the mainland. However, thereare management implications in determining what quantity of elvers can beharvested without having an adverse effect on Tasmanian stocks.
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTURE Australian eel exports, by destination55 1990-91 1991-92 1992-93 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96Live no. no. no. no. no. no.Hong Kong 238443 208303 244 172 392627 328202 351539Japan 60 203 56 300 600 4 509Singapore 1197 500 100 856 8 905 8 068Taiwan 3 067 65 634 77 114 55 556 93 038 38 491Other 300 11 721 14038 6 844 25 780 3 240Total 243067 286371 335480 456183 456525 405847Frozen t t t t t tGermany 218 234 262 270 194 191Hong Kong 4 25 26 5 1 12Netherlands 15 9 9 41 1 0Taiwan 0 4 17 16 9 4Other 0 18 19 0 0 2Total 237 290 333 332 205 209Fresh or chilledGermany 0 0 12 13 6 0Hong Kong 0 7 2 - 1 10Other 0 4 1 0 0 1Total 0 11 15 13 7 11Source: Ausvalian Bureau of Statistics.The shortfin eel resource in Victoria and Tasmania will not support heavierfishing pressure and any increase in production is likely to come fromexpansion of culture operations. The Victorian eel management plan includesprovisions to remove those permits which have not been actively fished againstand immediately reduce the potential for overfishing.In New South Wales, because the status of wild stocks is unknown, fisheriesmanagers are taking acautious approach to developing this industry. No elversare allowed to be imported into New South Wales until an effective importprotocol is developed.
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTUREAquarium fishThe Australian marine aquarium fish industry in based on the collection of fishfrom the wild. Most of this activity occurs on the Great Barrier Reef inQueensland; however, there is significant collection from other areas ofQueensland and some from Western Australia.The Australian freshwater aquarium fish industry is based almost entirely onfarmed fish either from overseas or locally in Australia. The Australian industrycomprises many small backyard and cottage style operators, many of whichare not licensed. This means that data are not readily available. For instance, inQueensland a survey of licensed operators is used; however, in some yearsnonresponse by larger operators makes any analysis of trends difficult.Industry structureThe aquarium or ornamental fish industry consists of hundreds of operatorsvarying in size from small backyard operations to large scale pond or shedfacilities. A large variety of species are produced and the method of describingthis sector varies from state to state, making it difficult to quantify the numbersinvolved. For example, in 1995-96 in New South Wales there were eightcommercial hatcheries for goldfish (Carassius auratus), one tropical aquariumfish hatchery and five koi carp hatcheries (Cyprinus carpio). In 1995-96, inWestern Australia there were 35 licensed growers of aquarium fish. In 1994-95 and 1995-96 there was one commercial aquarium fish grower in SouthAustralia, so data cannot be presented. In Queensland in 1994-95, there were41 freshwater fish hatcheries surveyed, producing for aquariums, commercialgrowout and stocking purposes. In Victoria, production of decorative oraquarium fish, mostly goldfish, is from four farms.ProductionData were not available for all states. Currently freshwater aquarium fishfanners in Australia supply approximately 5-7 million fish to the Australianaquarium fish industry This represents 40-50 per cent of the industrys totalturnover (Department of Primary Industries and Energy 1996). Treadwell,McKelvie and Maguire (1992) estimated that the Australian aquarium sectorwas worth $0.88 million in 1990-91. If an average unit value of $0.50 a fish isassumed, then estimated value for 1995-96 is around $6 million.MarketsThe size and trends in the domestic market for aquarium and ornamental fishare difficult to determine. Demand for aquarium and ornamental fish is likelyto move in line with growth in disposable income and spending on hobbiesand related activities. 76
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTURE56 Aquarium and ornamental f i h productionVolumeNew South WalesQueenslandValueNew South WalesQueenslandWestern AustraliaVictoriaSources: New South Wales Department of Agriculture and Fisheries; Queensland Department of PrimaryIndustries; Victorian Oe~artment Natural Resources and Conservation; Fisheries Department of Western ofAustralia.Exports of ornamental fish (both farmed and wild caught) have risensubstantially since 1990-91, from around 52 000 fish to nearly 224 000 fish in1995-96. The total value of exports has also risen, from $0.6 million in 1990-91 to $2.7 million in 1995-96 (table 57). The major markets are Japan, HongKong and the United States (table 58).Australia also imports ornamental fish. The quantity imported has remainedrelatively stable over the past five years at around 7 million fish. Over 98 percent of imports are of freshwater varieties (table 59).OutlookThe Australian market is relatively small. Larger commercial producers inAustralia need to produce consistent supplies of a significant number ofdifferent species and varieties to remain commercially viable. Australian exports of ornamentalfish57Volume no. no. no. no. no. no.Australian species 48029 108239 707550 169900 237144 216326Other species 3 799 5 680 272 379 1247 239 3455 7 348Total 51828 113919 979929 1417139 240599 223674Value $000 $000 $OOO $OOO $OOO $OOOAustralian species 557 703 1216 1268 1341 2597Other species 47 68 97 339 51 84Total 604 77 1 1313 1607 1392 2681Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTURE -ijgAustralian exports of ornamentalfish, by destination 1992-93 no. no. no. no. no.Germany 0Hong Kong 263 252Japan 33 832Mauritius 0Netherlands 3 205Singapore 1811Taiwan 605 358United Kingdom 5 071United States 48 253Other 19 147Total 979 929Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics.59 Australian imports of ornamentalfihVolumeFreshwater 000 7 622 7 597 7 269 7 753 6978 6 309Saltwater 000 139 98 93 120 148 109Total 7761 7 695 7 362 7 873 7 126 6418Value $OOO 2446 2488 2 555 2 720 2 152 2 119Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics.There are some species that could possibly be raised in Australia, and localproducers may have some advantages over imports. In supplying the domesticmarket, local producers would not have the added cost of quarantine procedureswhich imports are required to undergo, and the 22 per cent sales tax placed onimported aquarium fish. Disease is common in aquarium fish, but many exoticspecies grown in Australia are free of disease. This is a distinct advantage notonly on the domestic market but also on export markets. In addition, there areattractive native species which could be developed for the aquarium market.Further development of the industry also depends on improvements intechnology, as well as access to new genetic stock.
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTURE6. Other speciesMicroalgaeSalt tolerant microalgae are cultured commercially at Hutt Lagoon nearGeraldton and Karratha in Western Australia, and Whyalla in South Australia.Microalgae are used in various industries as pigments, feeds and finechemicals. The species cultured is Dunaliella salina and the main product isbeta carotene. Beta carotene is extracted from the algae, and is mainly used inthe pharmaceutical industry, as a health food, supplied in capsules. It is usedas an antioxidant to protect the breakdown of vitamin compounds. It alsoreplaces the synthetic colouring used in a number of foods. The green algae,Cholorella sp. are grown at Dongara and supplied in a dried form to the healthfood market.Operations began at Hutt Lagoon in 1979 and product has been exported since1986. The first production ponds were completed in 1986 (25 hectares).Australias largest farm of 400 hectares is located at Whyalla in SouthAustralia. Australia produces 80 per cent of the worlds natural beta carotene.Increased consumer awareness of the health benefits of natural beta caroteneis contributing to the strong demand for these products. The largest marketsare the United States and Japan.Data on production are very limited. In Western Australia there are threepermits for culturing beta carotene. In 1994-95 the industry in WesternAustralia was worth about $1.5 million. Approximately 2 tonnes of productcan be recovered from 250 hectare ponds in a year (Aquaculture Council ofWestern Australia 1996). The operator in Western Australia is planning toexpand its algae growing facility by more than 550 hectares over the next sixyears.CrocodilesFarming of crocodiles began in the late 1960s and is now conducted inQueensland, the Northern Territory and Western Australia. In northernAustralia there are two species of crocodile native to Australia, the saltwateror estuarine crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) and the Australian freshwatercrocodile (C. johnstoni). Both species are cultivated for their skins and flesh.
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTURE- -Australia is party to the Convention on International Trade in EndangeredSpecies of Wild Life and Fauna (CITES) and Australian crocodiles areconsidered species at risk under this international treaty. The Commonwealthgovernment has given international assurances that the trade in skins and meatcrocodiles does not further endanger the species.Each state or territory in Australia is responsible for the management of itsown wildlife, in captivity or the wild. States or territories cannot introducecommercial programs involving the export of skins or meat, unless theirmanagement program has been approved by the federal government.Exports of all Australian crocodiles are regulated under the Wildlife ProtectionAct. Trade in crocodile products is strictly controlled and pennits must beobtained from the Australian Nature Conservation Agency.Industry structureThe Northern Territory has eight crocodiles farms. Two of these have abattoirfacilities, two have tourist facilities, and six are developed commercialproducers. One farm is established as a hatchery only, where hatchlings areraised for one year and then sold to other farms. Other farms have their owncaptive breeding facilities. There is a quota on collection of eggs from the wild- around 15 000 eggs a year. This quota is not always reached. It has notvaried significantly over the past five years.Production in Western Australia is based largely on the collection of eggs andhatchlings. There are three licensed farms in Western Australia. In contrast,production in Queensland relies totally on the success of captive breeding asthe collection of eggs and hatchlings is prohibited. There are currently fivecommercial farms operatingin Queensland.The volume of crocodile meat production has increased substantially over thepast five years (table 60). The value of meat production has also grownstrongly. However, production of skins remains a far more valuable activity,accounting for around 80 per cent of the value of production.From a commercial viewpoint, the slun of saltwater crocodiles is recognisedas the best and most valuable skin of any of the worlds crocodilians. Thesaltwater crocodile has a quicker growth rate and more scales on the belly thanthe freshwater crocodile. It is for these reasons that they are a more valuedskin. The skins are used to make high quality fashion goods, most of whichare sold in Europe and Japan. In 1995, Japan imported 1216 kilograms ofcrocodile skins from Australia, valued at A$16 million (Japan Tariff
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTURE60 Farmed crocodile outputVolumeMeat kg kg kg kg kg kgNorthern Territory 5520 2714 9346 17744 29630a 35411aQueensland na na na na na 15 000Western Australia na na na na na naSkins no. no. no. no. no. no.Northern Territory 3407 4476 2958 7415 6187a 6915sQueensland na na na na na 3000Western Australia na na na na na naValueMeatNorthern Territory 58 27 97 181 na naQueensland na na na na na 300Western Australia na na na na na naSkins $OOO $WO $OOO $000 $OOO $OOONorthern Territory 1231 815 517 1547 na naQueensland na na na na na 900Western Australia na na na na na nae Calendar year only. na Not available.Sourcer: Northern Tenitory Depztment of Primary lndustry and Fisheries; Queensland Department of PrimaryIndusuies.Association 1995). In 1995 total Japanese imports of crocodile and alligatorskins was 101 tonnes, of which a quarter was supplied by the United States.Heads and feet of crocodiles are often processed into articles for the localmarket and tourism. The meat is processed for human consumption.Grading of skins is done before the skins are sold. Grading is based on stateof preservation, shape of skin, flaying of slun and scarring. A second gradeskin usually sells for 75 per cent of the price of a first grade skin. Third gradeskins sell for less than 50 per cent of the full price and are used for the localmarket or tourism (V. Simlea, Northern Territory Department of PrimaryIndustry and Fisheries, personal communication, August 1996).Saltwater crocodiles are only legally produced in Australia, Papua NewGuinea and Indonesia. In Papua New Guinea production costs are lower thanin Australia. However, they have problems with disease. Other major
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTUREcompetitors for reptile skins are the United States, as the major producer ofalligators, and South American suppliers of wild cayman skins.World production of farmed crocodylidae was relatively low during the mid-1980s, until 1988 when production rose from 10 tonnes to 38 tonnes. Itsubseauentlv rose in 1989to 62 tonnes. Production peaked at 70 tonnes in 1991(FA0 i995): The world price has remained relativeiy depressed in recent yearsand Australian farms are now consolidatin,q their activities. It is anticipatedthat any further expansion of the industry will come from existing operatorsrather than new entrants to the industry.Tourism is a major feature of the crocodile industry in Australia. Onions (1991)estimated that a further $2.5 million is generated by this activity. Byproductsfrom farming such as skulls and teeth are sold as tourist souvenirs, and anyexpansion in this area will depend on the growth in the tourist market.
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTUREAppendix A: Aquaculture production, by state61 New South Wales aquaculture productionFishTrout aSilver PerchOther fish bCrustaceansPrawns c 186 183 276 265 248 27 1Freshwater crayfish 9 15 7 19 35 35MolluscsEdible oysters 5 809 6415 5 817 5 892 5 326 5 022Mussels d 25 13 27 58 34 42Total aquaculture e 6 366 6 864 6 276 6 572 5 958 5 799a Includes rainbow, bmwn and brook trout. b Includes freshwater fish, barramundi and eels. e Includes tigerprawn, kuruma pnwn and freshwater shrimp. d Includes freshwater mussels. e Includes mud crab.Source: New South Wales Depmment of Agriculture and Fisheries.
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTUREValueFishTrout a 1632 1714 919 1798 1564 2 144Silver perch 213 152 39 52 168 272Other fish b 26 373 28 176 242 88Ornamental fish 415 409 409 414 428 229CrustaceansPrawns c 1999 1775 3 239 3 235 3 742 4 820Freshwater crayfish 87 181 96 254 559 427MoIluscsEdible oy sters 26245 29034 28091 28 801 28 388 28074Mussels d 55 53 108 270 162 210Total aquaculture e 30672 33691 32925 37 439 35253 36264a Includes minbow. brown nnd bmok trout.h Includes freshwater fish, barramundi and eels. e Includes tigerprawn, k u ~ m prawn and freshwater shrimp, d lncludes freshwater mussels. e Includes mud crab. aSource: New South Wales Department of Agriculture and Fisheries.
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTURE t t t t t tFishSilver perch a 10 38 40 34 21Bmamundi 92 135 232 248 200 328Other fish b a 1 2 1 0 0Ornamental fish na na na na na naCrustaceansPrawns 755 715 853 1229 1424 1294Freshwater crayfish 33 40 40 32 60 54MolluscsPearl oysters na na na na na naEdible oysters 224 186 222 160 115 160OtherCrocodiles na na na na na naTotal aquaculture 1 104 1087 1387 1710 1833 1857a Less than one tonne but included in total. b Includes freshwater fish. p Preliminary. na Not available.Sources: Queensland Depanment of Primary Industries.
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTURE64 Value of Queensland aquaculture productionFishSilver perch 1 165 202 370 295 193Barramundi 1 105 1536 2 290 2419 2 192 3 330Freshwater fish 2 26 54 6 0 0Aquarium fish 155 245 260 189 146 324CrustaceansPrawns 8 222 8 350 10 157 19328 24675 28 200Freshwater crayfish 474 577 572 443 825 742MolluscsPearl oysters na na na na 10000 10000Edible oysters 1 041 854 870 675 485 675OtherCrocodilesTotal aquaculture 11 000 11 753 14405 23 430 38 618 44 664p Preliminary. na Not available.Sources: Queensland Department of Primary Industries
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTURE t t t t t tFishTrout 29 39 49 59 36 40Other fish a 0 na na na a 1Ornamental fish na na na na na naCrustaceansFreshwater crayfish 57 97 145 307 227 131MolluscsPearl oysters na na na na na naOther pearl oyster na na na na na naEdible oysters na na na na na naMussels 127 266 249 325 387 383OtherCrocodilesMicroalgaeTotal aquaculture 213 402 443 69 1 1 362 555a Includes snapper, bream and silver perch. p Preliminay. na Not available.Source: Fisheries Department o Western Australia. f
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTURE66 Value of Western Australian aquaculture production 1990-91 1991-92 1992-93 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96p $OoO $OOO $OOO $OOO $OOO $OOOFishTrout 135 269 360 375 360 400Other fish a na na na na 5 25Ornamental fish na na na na 30 naCrustaceansFreshwater crayfish 646 1082 1578 3 060 2 485 1 800MolluscsPearl oystersOther pearl oysters 0 0 0 na 200 naEdible oysters 0 0 0 na 2 naMussels 318 800 680 890 963 956OtherCrocodiles na na na na na naMicroalgae na na na na 1424 naTotal aauaculture-~~~~- ~~ 127286 128151 82218 88325 147045 124481a Includes snapper, silver bream and silver perch, p Preliminary.Source: Fisheries Department of Western Austnlia.
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTURE67 South Australian aquaculture production t t t t t tFishAtlantic salmon 0 0 0 0 na 0Trout 29 32 26 65 65 65Tuna 23 97 535 1 275 1927 2013Silver perch 0 0 0 0 na naBmamundi 0 na na na 300 101Other fish na 13 11 27 na 179CrustaceansFreshwater crayfish 19 14 11 29 14 23MolluscsEdible oysters 106 139 345 486 855 976Mussels 0 0 0 0 0 naAbalone 0 0 0 0 0 5OtherMicroalgaeOtherTotal aauaculture 317 295 928 1882 3 161 3 362p Preliminay. na Not available due to confidentiality reasons.Source: South Australian Research and Development Institute.
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTURE68 Value of South Australian aquaculture production 1990-91 1991-92 $OOO YO00FishAtlantic salmon 0 0Trout 214 230Tuna 0 1843Silver perch 0 0Barramundi 0 0Other fish na 139CrustaceansFreshwater crayfish 292 177 147 378 184 316MolluscsEdible oysters 448 669 1414 1945 3 535 3 950Mussels 0 0 0 0 0 naAbalone 0 0 0 0 0 naOtherMicroalgae na na na na na naOther 1 049 na na na na naTotal aquaculture 2 003 3 058 12032 27 320 45 487 47 506p Preliminary. na Not available due ta confidentiality reasons.Source: South Australian Research and Development Institute.
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTURE69 Tasmanian aquaculture productionFishAtlantic salmonTroutMolluscsEdible oystersMusselsAbaloneClamsTotal aauaculturea Less than one tonne. p Preliminnry na Not available.Source: Tasmanian Deplrnenl of Primary Industry and Fisheries70 Value of Tasmanian aquaculture production $ooo $000 $000 $OOO $M)O $M)OFishAtlantic salmon 31 800 39600 49 000 48 000 55 728 58 500Trout 5 188 5 500 5 610 na na naMolluscsEdible oysters 10320 10600 11084 11OOO 15224 19003Mussels na 151 600 na 949 1225Abalone na na 0 na 40 63Clams na na na na na naOther species 616 428 na 1 050 3 900 4000Total aquaculture 47 924 56 503 66 294 60050 75 841 83 191p Preliminary.na Not available.Source: Tasmanian Department of Primzy Industry and Fisheries.
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTURE71 victorian aquaculture production t t t t t tFishTrout 700 1300 1200 1 800 1 800 2 000Eels na na na 70 66 66Other fish na na na na na naOrnamental fish na na na na na naCrustaceansFreshwater crayfish 20 5 5 5 na naMolluscsEdible oysters 3 4 4 5 5 5Mussels 300 300 140 500 500 500Abalone 0 0 0 0 0 naOtherZooplanktonTotal aquaculture 1023 1609 1349 2 380 2 371 2 571p Preliminary, na Not available.Sources: Victorian Department of Natural Resources and Conservation; ABARE (1996).
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTURE72 Value of Victorian aquaculture productionFishAtlantic salmonTroutCrustaceansFreshwater crayfishMolluscsEdible oystersMusselsAbaloneOtherZooplanktonTotal aquaculturena Not available, p Preliminary.Source: Victorian Depanment of Conservation and Natural Resources73 Northern Territory aquaculture production and value 1990-91 1991-92 1992-93 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96pVolumeBarramundi t na 15 na na na 100Prawns t na na na na na 140ValueBarramundi $OOO na na na na na 1200Prawns $OOO na na na na na 1900Crocodiles $000 1289 842 614 1728 na naOther species $OOO 1290 55 000 40000 46 215 46215 43 115Total aquaculture $000 2 579 55 842 40 614 47 943 46 215 46 215na Not available.Sources: Northern Territory Department of Primary Industry and fisheries; Australian Prawn Farmen Association.
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTUREReferencesABARE 1996, Australian Fisheries Statistics 1996, Canberra (and previous issues).Australian Bureau of Statistics 1996, South Australian Year Book 1997, no. 3 1:1997, South Australia, Adelaide.Aquaculture Council of Western Australia 1995, Mussels on the move, in ACWA News, no. 8 , January, Perth, p. 1.-1996, Western biotechnology continues to expand, in ACWA News, no.14, July, Perth, p. 2.Aquaculture Development Advisory Council 1994,Aquaculture Development Strategies for the Industry in Western Australia, Government of Western Australia, Perth.Austasia Aquaculture 1992, New South Wales government keen to capitalise on silver perch research, in Austasia Aquaculture, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 17-18.Barlow, C., Williams, K. and Rirnmer, M. 1996, Seabass culture in Australia, Info$sh International, no. 2, Kuala Lumpur, pp. 26-33.Bashford, K. 1996, Prawn food for thought, Austasia Aquaculture, vol. 10, no 4, pp. 44-6.Bureau of Resource Sciences 1994, Resource Assessments of Australian Commonwealth Fisheries, Fishery Status Reports 1993, McLouglin, K., Staples, D. and Maliel, M. (eds), AGPS, Canberra.Census and Statistics Department 1996, Hong Kong Trade Statistics, Trade Statistics Dissementation Section, Census and Statistics Department, Hong Kong, December (and previous issues).Collins, C. 1995, Foreigners come after raw prawn, The Australian, 21 August, p. 18.Davidson, W. 1996, Implementing quality assurance programs in the South Australian oyster industry, in Outlook 96, Proceedings of the National
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTURE Agricultural and Resources Outlook Conference, Canberra, 6 8 February, vol. 1, Commodity Markets and Resources Management, ABARE, Canberra, pp. 274-7.Department of Primary Industries and Energy 1996, Report o the National f Task Force on Imported Fish and Fish Products, AGPS, Canberra.Doyle, S., Holmes, L. and Stokes, A. 1996, Salmon Imports - Impacts on the Australian Farmed Atlantic Salmon Industry, ABARE Submission to the Industry Commission Study, Canberra, November.Evans, L. 1996, Prawn farming in New South Wales, in New South Wales Fisheries Aquaculture Newsletter, vol. 2, no. 3, May.FA0 (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) 1995, Aquaculture Production Statistics (1984-1993), Fisheries Circular no. 8 15, revision 7, Rome.-1996a, Major Trends in Global Aquaculture Production I984 to 1994, Fishery Information Data and Statistics Unit, Rome.-1996b, Globejish Highlights (4/96), Kuala Lumpur.-1996c, Fishery Statistics: Commodities 1994, vol. 79, Rome.Ferraro, A. 1995, Mussel producers forecast increase, ACWA News, no. 8, Perth, p. 15.Forster, A. 1996, Abalone aquaculture on the move, Western Fisheries, January, p. 15.Japan Tariff Association 1995, Japan: Exports and Imports - Commodity by Country, Tokyo, December (and previous issues).Jones, C.M. 1996, World developments in the aquaculture of Cherax with particular reference to redclaw (Cherax quadricarinalus), Paper presented at the 1996 Annual Meeting of the World Aquaculture Society, Bangkok, 29 January to 2 February.Kailola, P., Williams, M.J., Stewart, P., Reichelt, R., McNee, A. and Grieve, C. 1993, Australian Fisheries Resources, Bureau of Resource Sciences, Department of Primary Industries and Energy and Fisheries Research and Development Corporation, Canberra.
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTURELobegeiger, R. 1995, Queensland Aquaculture Production 1994-95, Report to Farmers, Queensland Department of Primary Industries, Brisbane, December.Lobegeiger, R., Taylor-Moore, N. and Gillespie, J. 1994, Aquaculture in Queensland, Queensland Yearbook 1994, no. 52, ABS cat. no. 1301.3, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Queensland, Brisbane, pp. 157-69.MAFF (Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Japan) 1996, 71st Statistical Yearbook of Ministry Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Government of Japan, Tokyo.Medley, P.B., Jones, C.M. and Avault, Jr. J.W. 1994, A global perspective of the culture of Australian redclaw crayfish, cherax quadricarinatus: production, economics and marketing, World Aquaculture, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 6-13.New South Wales Fisheries 1997, 1995-96 Oyster Production Data from Oyster Farms in New South Wales, Sydney.New Zealand Fishing Industry Board 1996, Exports of Seafood Products, Calendar Year to December 1996, By Species, By Country, Report no. 7 , New Zealand.Northern Territory Department of Primary Industry and Fisheries 1996, Tropical Aquaculture in the Northern Territory, Darwin.Onions, J.T. 1991, Crocodile farming in the 1990s, in Proceedings of the Intensive Tropical Animal Production Seminar, Townsville, Queensland Department of Primary Industries, Brisbane, pp. 42-9.OSullivan, D. 1996, Problems with juvenile supplies hold up eel farm development, Austasia Aquaculture, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 30-1.Ovenden, C. and Kriz, A. 1993, Marketing Live Kuruma Prawns to Japan, Queensland Department of Primary Industries, Brisbane.Peoples Republic of China 1996,Monthly Statistics of Imports; The Republic of China, Taiwan District, Statistical Department, Directorate General of Customs, Ministry of Finance, December (and previous issues).Pownall, M. 1996, Fisheries warn on pearl prices, The West Australian, 6 June. 96
    • AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTURERuello, N. 1995, Silver perch marketing in Australia, in Austasia Aqua- culture, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 3 8 4 0 .Smith, P. 1997, Outlook for the Australian seafood industry, in Outlook 97, Proceedings of the National Agricultural and Resources Outlook Confer- ence, 4-6 February, vol. 1, Commodity Markets and Resource Management, ABARE, Canberra, pp. 249-57.Smith, P., Dennis, F. and Proctor, W. 1996, South Korean Market for Seafood, ABARE Research Report 96.3, Canberra.South Australian Development Council 1995, Review of the South Australian Aquaculture Industry, Stage 1 report, Adelaide, July.South Australian Research and Development Institute 1996, Report by the South Australian Government: Tuna Mortalities April-May 1996, Prepared by S.M. Clarke, South Australian Research and Development Institute, Adelaide, August.Stephens, M., Tran, Q.T., Battaglene, T., Curtotti, R. and Bull, T. 1995, Fisheries Research: An Evaluation of the Costs and Benejits of Selected Projects, ABARE Research Report 95.8, Canberra.Sydney Fish Market Authority 1996, Report of Monthly Prices, Sydney, December (and previous issues).Tasmanian Department of Primary Industry and Fisheries 1996, Tasmanian Rural and Marine Projiles, Hobart, September.Tasmanian Salmon Growers Association 1995, Submission on the Risk Associated with the Importation of Salmon from Canada and the United States, Hobart.Treadwell, R., McKelvie, L, and Maguire, G.B. 1992, Projitabiliry of Selected Aquacultural Species, ABARE Discussion Paper 9 1.1 1, AGPS, Canberra.Victorian Department of Conservation and Natural Resources 1995, Victorian Aquaculture Strategy, Victorian Fisheries Discussion Paper, Melbourne, November.