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How the Americas Change
How the Americas Change
How the Americas Change
How the Americas Change
How the Americas Change
How the Americas Change
How the Americas Change
How the Americas Change
How the Americas Change
How the Americas Change
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How the Americas Change

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  1. How theAmericas Change<br />By Hannah Shipps<br />
  2. The Americas in the 19th Century<br />After the United States gained independence, it quickly expanded westward.<br />The Louisiana Purchase and Lewis and Clark Expedition greatly hastened this process.<br />The Civil War ensured that the United States would remain politically united.<br />Canada was originally colonized by both British and French trappers.<br />The French and British had different laws, religions and languages, but instead of fighting amongst themselves, they remained united against a common enemy: the United States.<br />The result was a culturally diverse yet politically united and peaceful society.<br />
  3. The Americas in the 19th Century<br />After gaining independence, Latin America was broken into Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador and several independent states.<br />Creole elites divided into many different camps – the only thing they agreed on was the policy of claiming American land.<br />Division and discord allowed caudillos to come to power in much of Latin America.<br />One, Juan Manuel de Rosas, called for regional autonomy, while also centralizing the government. He restored order, but also made terror a tool of the government.<br />La Reforma of the 1850’s limited the power of the military and the Roman Catholic church in Mexico.<br />
  4. The Little Ice Age<br />During the 14th to 19th centuries, average temperature dropped 4 degrees lower than today’s average.<br />This was right after a warmer period, so the change was very drastic.<br />For 5 years, frequent and heavy storms made croplands into swamps.<br />Europeans grew mostly cereal grains, which are especially susceptible to storms. Soon, famine took hold.<br />Already weakened by starvation, people were much more susceptible to disease, such as bubonic plague.<br />
  5. Frontiers of America<br />As Americans continued to spread westward, Spanish Louisiana feared attack.<br />Napoleon made a secret treaty with Spain, trading Louisiana for a province in Italy. However, he is more focused on Haiti, which rebelled against French control in 1791.<br />The Americans citizens became restless in their desire for Louisiana, and in 1803, congress directed Jefferson to take Louisiana.<br />Instead, Jefferson bought Louisiana from France, who needed money for war with England, for $15 million.<br />
  6. Frontiers of America<br />During the first half of the 19th century, Americans moved westward for many different reasons.<br />Many went to Texas, hoping to make a new life for themselves. However, they soon had to defend themselves against Mexican General Santa Anna.<br />Christian pioneers, such as the Whitman family, settled among Indians as missionaries.<br />Indians were forced to travel west, such as the Cherokee tribe and the Trail of Tears.<br />The Mormons, looking for religious freedom, moved to the undesirable Valley of the Great Salt Lake.<br />
  7. Crossroads of Freedom<br />The Confederacy set up a functioning government at Richmond in May 1861.<br />They only needed to defend their territory to win the war, but the Union needed to defeat the South’s army, conquer and occupy its territory, and destroy its government.<br />Grant took command of Union troops and captured both Fort Henry and Fort Donelson, while Foote captured Island No. 10.<br />On April 24, the Union captured New Orleans, the Confederacy’s principal port and largest city.<br />The South was trying to gain recognition from Britain, and the North was trying to prevent this.<br />
  8. Crossroads of Freedom<br />From May 8 – June 9, 1862, Jackson started having victories against the Union.<br />On May 31, Southern General Johnston was killed in battle and replaced with the bold, daring Lee.<br />The South had an advantage because they had slaves to stay home and work the fields while they went to war.<br />The North began to realize that rather than simply fighting for the union of the states, they should also fight for the freedom of these slaves.<br />
  9. Crossroads of Freedom<br />In August, Bragg took over Tennessee and Kentucky.<br />Encouraged by Lee's victory at Manassas and invasion of Maryland, the South looked forward to recognition from the Union.<br />On September 14, Jackson took Harpers Ferry, and Lee decided not to retreat.<br />On September 17, Hooker’s corps attacked Lee’s left flank near Sharpsburg.<br />As more soldiers joined the fray, attacks and counterattacks on both sides continued until September 18.<br />
  10. Crossroads of Freedom<br />By the dawn of the 18th, there were at least 10,000 casualties and losses on each side.<br />Although there was no clear winner to the battle, Lincoln perceived it as enough of a Union victory to allow him to announce his Emancipation Proclamation.<br />This Proclamation discouraged France and Britain from recognizing the Confederacy.<br />Though the war would continue for another two and a half years, the Union had now virtually won the war.<br />

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