Unity in Italy● Italy was divided in six countries● The Pope was sovereing in papal States which were protected by France.● Lombardy and Veneto were annexed by Austria
Italian unification● Piedemont was the main kingdom. It had a liberal monarchy (Savoy)● Cavour was its Prime Minister● 1859 Lombardia was annexed by Piedemont with help of France.● 1866 Piedemont got The Veneto thanks to the Austro-Prussian war .
GARIBALDI ( Romantic man)● The Italian nationalist Giuseppe Garibaldi led a nationalist uprising in 1861● Redshirts is the name given to the volunteers who followed Giuseppe Garibaldi in southern Italy.● Garibaldi offered The south of Italy and the central republic to The Piedemont● The first Italian Parliament proclaimed Victor Manuel II King of Italy in 1861
Victor manuel II, Liberal King of Italy● Papal states were annexed in 1870 when France was fighting against Prusia● Italy was a Country and its capital was Rome.
Unity in Germany● Germany was divided into 36 states● Main problem: Rivalry between Prussia and Austria.● Zollverein (a customs union) was created by Prussia in 1834 . It was the first step to this unification
German unification● Austria missed the boat● The uprising of 1848 offered the crown to Kaiser but He didn´t want a liberal kingdom and he rejected it.● Prussia chose the path of the war
Bye bye Napoleon .● War against Austria in 1866 moved this country away from path of unification● War against France united all the countries under the rule of King of Prussia.● Otto von Bismarck gained the war against Napoleon III● He got two little territories , Alsacia amd Lorena● France got into The Third Republic.
Decline of the old European empires.● These empires were a puzzle of “peoples” and all of them wanted one thing , independence.● Turkish empire: Croats, Serbs, Bosnians, Bulgarians● Austrian Empire; Hungarians, Czechs, Polish ,Slovaks● Russian empire: Moldavians, Ukranians, Lithuanians ,Polish ,Armenians , finns ...