The democratic government• José Giral is the new chief of government, decided to yield to the militia of the Trade Unions and the Popular Front in order to stop the war
The internationalization of the conflict• The war seemed to be a conflict between the democratic in part revolutionary forces and the fascist political regime• Germany and Italy supported the rebel Army from the very beginning and sent important items to help such as aircraft and tanks
On the other hand• Britain and France supported a policy of neutrality and didn´t take part in the conflict following a kind of “The Comité de no intervención” The borders were closed and a total seizure was imposed on the Republic.• The Republic was alone and The URSS became the only provider of European military support.• As the matter of fact a huge wave of international solidarity spread in favour of the republican forces.
The International Brigades
What were the International Brigades?• Military units made of socialist, communist, and anarchist volunteers.• 35 000 men and women from 50 countries• volunteered to defend the Second Spanish Republic.
International Brigades“Make Madrid the tomb of Fascism”
Where were the International Brigades from?• From 50 different countries, but who had the most?• France: 9,000• Germany: 4,000• Italy: 5,000• Poland: 3,000• Soviet Union: 3,000• USA: 2,800• Great Britain: 2,300
Why did the International Brigades flight in Spain 1936-1939?• Did other European Countries help Spain during the civil war?• No! They signed an agreement not to interfere, but Fascist Germany and Italy helped Franco.• Britain and France were afraid of conflict with Germany and Italy. The Spanish Republic paid the USSR to help.• Volunteers traveled to Spain between 1936-1939 to fight against Fascism and help the Second Republic build a better democracy.
How were volunteers recruited?• The USSR decided to “help” the Republic• The COMINTERN (Communist International) organized volunteers for the Spanish Republic.
Who organized the international brigades?• Communist International (the Comintern) in Paris, France.• Groups crossed the Pyrenees to Albacete.• processed volunteers by nationality and language.
Where did they fight?
2, 800 American Volunteers• Economic and political problems in the U.S.• The State Department prohibited travel to Spain• Mostly working class people (young communist league)• General Motors and Texaco gave fuel and vehicles to Franco. 125 in the American Medical Bureau as doctors, nurses, and ambulance drivers THE ABRAHAM LINCOLN BATALLION
90 African American Volunteers• “Black and white unite to fight”• First racially integrated military unit in US history.• First Black commander• Racism, discrimination, exploitation, and segregation in the USA
Ernest HemmingwayWar reporter for the Americannewspaper alliance. Wrote acommentary about the SpanishCivil War
Emma Goldman It takes less mental effort to condemn than to think.• 1936 organized the International Brigade of Anarchists in the USA.• At age 67 she brought them to Spain hoping that a “real revolution” would occur.
2,300 British Volunteers• Working class with industrial jobs like labor, construction, and mining.• From big cities• British and Irish fought together except …..• Who did the IRA members fight with?
George Orwell• Personal account of experiences and observations of the Spanish Civil War.