Enlightened despots 2012 borbones 2012


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Enlightened despots 2012 borbones 2012

  1. 1. Enlightened Despots
  2. 2. Definition: (underline)It is a form of absolute monarchy or despotism in which rulers were influenced by enlightenment
  3. 3. Main features (copy this ) To allow religious toleration Freedom of spech and press Right to hold private property Foster the arts, sciences and education King ruled by birth and they refused to grant constitutions
  4. 4. More characteristics (copy this) Reformist politics such as: Rationalization of the administration of State Liberation of the production and trade Modernitation of the agriculture Educational reform Manofacturing developments
  5. 5. Effects of the EnlightenmentEngland  Civil war and establishment of a limited monarchy  Anger in the colonies because they are treated differently than "mother England"France  No immediate change but seething discontent that will lead to revolutionOther countries  Attempts to adopt Enlightenment principles
  6. 6. Enlightened DespotsFrederick II of Prussia (r. 1740- 1786)  Rebelled against father  Later developed finest army  Built Sans Souci (Potsdam)  Invited Voltaire to the court
  7. 7. Enlightened DespotsCatherine the Great of Russia (r. 1762-1796)  German born wife of Czar Peter III  Controlled government after Peter III’s accidental(?) death  Increased European culture in Russia  Peasant Reforms  Territorial Expansion  Corresponded with Diderot
  8. 8. Enlightened DespotsGustav III of Sweden (r. 1771-1792)  Forced Parliament to accept new constitution  Stimulated literatureCharles III of Spain (r. 1759-1788)  Bourbon family  Improved life for Spanish  Suppressed Jesuits
  9. 9. Maria Theresa and Joseph II of Austria(r. 1740-1780)16 childrenBuilt SchönbrunnEconomic reformsLimited power of the PopeReduced power of the lordsJoseph abolished serfdomPoland divided
  10. 10. Enlightened Despots vs. Absolute Rulers Focused(insistió) on Reluctant to improving country change Economic Economic reform disasters Dictated Sought advise
  11. 11. Independence WarThe American Revolution: Organized, popular opposition to an unjust government British government not acting in the interest of the people Protests, riots, crowd action used to defend an emerging common interest  English in origin, but adopted by American colonists
  12. 12. No Taxation withoutRepresentation! Colonists were not represented in Parliament, therefore shouldn’t be taxed Riots and protests as popular forms of social contract theory Spread via newspapers, pamphlets and broadsides Created an organized, slowly unified popular movement
  13. 13. State Constitutions  Republicanism.  Most had strong governors with veto power.  Most had bicameral legislatures.  Property required for voting.  Some had universal white male suffrage.  Most had bills of rights.  Many had a continuation of state-established religions while others disestablished religion.
  14. 14. Failure of Revolution:  Counter-revolutionary in many ways  A device for establishing a virtuous republican government over a population of less than virtuous people.  The voice of the people replaced by representative democracy  Right to vote guaranteed to select few  African slaves, women, native Americans and some poor whites failed to secure the freedoms and liberties that they had fought and died for.
  15. 15. On July 4, 1776 they drafted(ratificaron) the Declaration ofIndependence (copy) It was written by Thomas Jefferson This statement expressed the principles of that revolution The right of all persons to liberty Pursuit of Happiness Defense of “inalienable rights”
  16. 16. The Constitution (copy this) The text ensured: The separation and the balance of the powers Executive Legislative Judicial Established a republican form of the government Its state would have federal structure It guaranteed rights and freedoms (religion, life, property,liberty The federal government was responsable for foreign affairs,defense,finance and currency
  17. 17. WAR OF SUCCESION  In 1700, Charles II, the last Spanish monarch of the House of Habsburg, died without issue  He bequeaths his possessions to Philip, grandson of his half- sisterand King Louis XIV of France.  The war was centered in Spain and West-Central Europe   The war was concluded by the treaties of Utrecht (1713) and Rastatt (1714). As a result, Philip V remained King of Spain but was removed from the French line of succession, averting a union of the two kingdoms. The Austrians gained most of the Spanish territories in
  18. 18. Nueva Planta decrees  These acts constituted the first realization of Spain as a centralized country.  Courts were abolished except Castilla  Court cases could only be presented and argued in Castilian .  Abolishing the Parliament  The viceroy is replaced by a General Master.  A new territorial organitation appear
  19. 19. Territorial uniformism The territory was divided into provinces ruled by a governor called General Captain Courts were created to control Justice Sheriffs were nominated to rule the towns Taxex were collected by intendants
  20. 20. The bourbon Reformism There were cimportants followers of the Enlightenment such as Marques de la Ensenada, Floridablanca… Tne conservatism of the intellectual classes and the importance of the catholic church made it difficult for the Enlightenment ideas to become widespread
  21. 21. Esquilache´s riot It happened in Madrid in 1776 Esquilache prohibited the wearing of long coats and broad-cap hats because there were too many crimes,so imposed wearing shorter coats It is believed that the riot was instigated by conservatives and the increase in the price of wheat
  22. 22. The growth of XVIISpain was a rural and estated countryAgriculture was poor and Nobility controlled the landThis reforms improved the situationPopulation and agriculture production increased
  23. 23. Reforms The liberation of trade allowed for the spread of commercial companies Crown manofacures were created Private manofactures were protected Duties protected our products Problems : Nobody wanted to change the agricultural structure