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Enlightened despots 2012 borbones 2012
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Enlightened despots 2012 borbones 2012

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Enlightened despots 2012 borbones 2012 Enlightened despots 2012 borbones 2012 Presentation Transcript

  • Enlightened Despots
  • Definition: (underline)It is a form of absolute monarchy or despotism in which rulers were influenced by enlightenment
  • Main features (copy this ) To allow religious toleration Freedom of spech and press Right to hold private property Foster the arts, sciences and education King ruled by birth and they refused to grant constitutions
  • More characteristics (copy this) Reformist politics such as: Rationalization of the administration of State Liberation of the production and trade Modernitation of the agriculture Educational reform Manofacturing developments
  • Effects of the EnlightenmentEngland  Civil war and establishment of a limited monarchy  Anger in the colonies because they are treated differently than "mother England"France  No immediate change but seething discontent that will lead to revolutionOther countries  Attempts to adopt Enlightenment principles
  • Enlightened DespotsFrederick II of Prussia (r. 1740- 1786)  Rebelled against father  Later developed finest army  Built Sans Souci (Potsdam)  Invited Voltaire to the court
  • Enlightened DespotsCatherine the Great of Russia (r. 1762-1796)  German born wife of Czar Peter III  Controlled government after Peter III’s accidental(?) death  Increased European culture in Russia  Peasant Reforms  Territorial Expansion  Corresponded with Diderot
  • Enlightened DespotsGustav III of Sweden (r. 1771-1792)  Forced Parliament to accept new constitution  Stimulated literatureCharles III of Spain (r. 1759-1788)  Bourbon family  Improved life for Spanish  Suppressed Jesuits
  • Maria Theresa and Joseph II of Austria(r. 1740-1780)16 childrenBuilt SchönbrunnEconomic reformsLimited power of the PopeReduced power of the lordsJoseph abolished serfdomPoland divided
  • Enlightened Despots vs. Absolute Rulers Focused(insistió) on Reluctant to improving country change Economic Economic reform disasters Dictated Sought advise
  • Independence WarThe American Revolution: Organized, popular opposition to an unjust government British government not acting in the interest of the people Protests, riots, crowd action used to defend an emerging common interest  English in origin, but adopted by American colonists
  • No Taxation withoutRepresentation! Colonists were not represented in Parliament, therefore shouldn’t be taxed Riots and protests as popular forms of social contract theory Spread via newspapers, pamphlets and broadsides Created an organized, slowly unified popular movement
  • State Constitutions  Republicanism.  Most had strong governors with veto power.  Most had bicameral legislatures.  Property required for voting.  Some had universal white male suffrage.  Most had bills of rights.  Many had a continuation of state-established religions while others disestablished religion.
  • Failure of Revolution:  Counter-revolutionary in many ways  A device for establishing a virtuous republican government over a population of less than virtuous people.  The voice of the people replaced by representative democracy  Right to vote guaranteed to select few  African slaves, women, native Americans and some poor whites failed to secure the freedoms and liberties that they had fought and died for.
  • On July 4, 1776 they drafted(ratificaron) the Declaration ofIndependence (copy) It was written by Thomas Jefferson This statement expressed the principles of that revolution The right of all persons to liberty Pursuit of Happiness Defense of “inalienable rights”
  • The Constitution (copy this) The text ensured: The separation and the balance of the powers Executive Legislative Judicial Established a republican form of the government Its state would have federal structure It guaranteed rights and freedoms (religion, life, property,liberty The federal government was responsable for foreign affairs,defense,finance and currency
  • WAR OF SUCCESION  In 1700, Charles II, the last Spanish monarch of the House of Habsburg, died without issue  He bequeaths his possessions to Philip, grandson of his half- sisterand King Louis XIV of France.  The war was centered in Spain and West-Central Europe   The war was concluded by the treaties of Utrecht (1713) and Rastatt (1714). As a result, Philip V remained King of Spain but was removed from the French line of succession, averting a union of the two kingdoms. The Austrians gained most of the Spanish territories in
  • Nueva Planta decrees  These acts constituted the first realization of Spain as a centralized country.  Courts were abolished except Castilla  Court cases could only be presented and argued in Castilian .  Abolishing the Parliament  The viceroy is replaced by a General Master.  A new territorial organitation appear
  • Territorial uniformism The territory was divided into provinces ruled by a governor called General Captain Courts were created to control Justice Sheriffs were nominated to rule the towns Taxex were collected by intendants
  • The bourbon Reformism There were cimportants followers of the Enlightenment such as Marques de la Ensenada, Floridablanca… Tne conservatism of the intellectual classes and the importance of the catholic church made it difficult for the Enlightenment ideas to become widespread
  • Esquilache´s riot It happened in Madrid in 1776 Esquilache prohibited the wearing of long coats and broad-cap hats because there were too many crimes,so imposed wearing shorter coats It is believed that the riot was instigated by conservatives and the increase in the price of wheat
  • The growth of XVIISpain was a rural and estated countryAgriculture was poor and Nobility controlled the landThis reforms improved the situationPopulation and agriculture production increased
  • Reforms The liberation of trade allowed for the spread of commercial companies Crown manofacures were created Private manofactures were protected Duties protected our products Problems : Nobody wanted to change the agricultural structure