England (The Tudors & Parliament)• Power was maintained far differently in England than in France and Spain.• Tudor dynasty reigned from 1485-1603.• Henry VII believed in divine right• Elizabeth I was popular and successful thanks to good Parliamentary relations.
English Parliament• House of Lords: • House of Commons – Upper house – Lower house – Hereditary rule or – Democratically appointed(elegido) by elected body. sovereign(soberano) – Prime Minister leads – Lord Spiritual and this house. Lord Temporal lead this house.
England (The Stuarts & Parliament) without a direct heir, • When Elizabeth died the throne passed to the Stuarts, the ruling family of Scotland. • James I, the first Stuart monarch forgot Parliament and sought absolute rule. • Leaders in the House of Commons (body of Parliament) resisted his claim to divine right. • In 1625, Charles I inherited the throne. He wanted to be an absolute monarch. He got more and more enemies as people were sent to prison without trial. • For 11 years, he ruled the nation without Parliament. When he finally asked Parliament for help to suppress a Scottish and Irish rebellions, the parliament fought against him.
Parliamentary Rebellion and CivilWhen Parliament finally won, they • War started the greatest political revolution in English history. • Charles fought against the reforms they proposed. • When he attempted to arrest the most radical leaders, they escaped and formed an army. • A civil war started, lasting from 1642- 1649. In the end, revolutionary forces won. • Oliver Cromwell led the New Model Army for Parliament, and by 1647, the king was in the hands of parliamentary forces.
Execution of King Charles• After the war, Parliament sent King Charles to trial.• He was condemned as tyrant, traitor, and public enemy, and beheaded (decapitado)• 1st time in history that a monarch had been tried and executed by his own people.• Sent clear message that in England, no ruler could be absolute and ignore the law.
The Commonwealth• After execution of Charles I, House of Commons abolished monarchy, House of Lords, and Church of England.• Declared England a republic called the Commonwealth led by Oliver Cromwell under a strict military rule.• Under the Commonwealth, Puritans replaced the Church of England. Strict piety.• After Cromwell died, Puritans(puritanos,en contra de las imágenes) lost their power on England.
Charles II• Many English were tired of military rule and strict Puritan ways• After a decade of kingless rule, Parliament invited Charles II to return to England from exile.• Unlike his father, Charles II was a popular ruler who avoided his father’s mistakes in dealing with Parliament.• Restored Church of England and promoted religious tolerance.
James II, William & Mary• Charles II’s brother James II inherited the throne.• Unlike Charles II, he wanted a Parliament and the Catholic Church.• Parliament invited his Protestant daughter Mary and her husband William of Orange to become rulers of England.• When they arrived, James left to France without violence, that was the Glorious Revolution.
English Bill of Rights • Before they could be crowned, William and Mary had to accept several acts passed by Parliament that became known as the English Bill of Rights. • It gave superiority of Parliament over the monarchy. • Monarch had to go to the Parliament regularly but He couldn`t take part . • Also restored trial by jury and the principle of habeas corpus in which no one could be sent to prison without first being charged (acusado)with a specific crime. • Created a limited monarchy. Separated England from the rest of Europe.