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  1. 1. CoalCoal was the major fuel of the IndustrialrevolutionBut now no, the reasons for decline includedthe exhaustion of supplies, increased cost ofproduction , and competition from cleaner, safer....• Advantages:• 1-World reserves are likely to last over 300 years• 2-Modern methods have increased outputs• Disadvantages:• 1-Production costs have risen• 2-Burning coal causes air pollution and global warming• 3-Deep mining is dangerous• 4-Opencast mining harms the environment
  2. 2. Oil and natural gasMany countreis have come to replyupon eithers oil or natural gas theirmain source of energy. Spain hasn´tenough fuel and it has to import theenergy. Uk has sufficient reservesthanks to North Sea oil.• Adavantages;• 1-Oil and gas are cheaper and cleaner than coal.• 2-Both are easy to transport by pipeline or tanker• 3-They are safer than nuclear energy• 3-Oil is the basis of the petrochemical industry• Disadvantages:• 1-reserves may only 60 years• 2-New fields are difficult to discover and exploit• 3-Burning oil and gas causes acid rain• 4-Terminals and refineries take up much space
  3. 3. Nuclear energyMany countries that are short of fosil fiels , such asFrance , Belgium, Japan... Are turning increasingly tonuclear power, despite fears about its safety.Uranio and plutonio are some of the radiactibveminerals.• Advantages:• 1-Only limited raw materials are needed• 2-many safeguards make the accident risk minimal• 3-Underground• 4-It isn´t produce acid rain• Disadvantages:• 1- It is still not clear how safe nuclear power is• 2- Worries over health risks for those living near.• 3-High cost of decommissioning old station
  4. 4. Wood fuelWood fuel is the most importantsource of energy for people livingin the rural areas of the poorercountries .It is collected and afterit is used for burning at home• Advantages:• 1-Cheap and readily available fuel source• 2-Easy to use and store• 3-It can be renewable if managed carefully• Disadvantages:• 1-Collecting fuelwood is very time- consuming for women and children• 2-Result in loss or forested areas• 3-deforstation causes soil erosion
  5. 5. Hydro-electric powerIt is the most important of therenewable energy resources. Areliable supply of fast-flowing water isneeded to produce hydro-electricity.• Advantages:• 1-Cheap to produce• 2-Creates very little pollution• 3-HEP dams help reduce the risk of flooding• 4-reservoirs help reduce the risk of water shortages• 4-Reservoirs may be used for recreation• Disadvantages• 1-Dams are expensive to build• 2-limited choice of suitable sites• 3-Large areas of farmland are flooded• 4Wild life habitats are lost
  6. 6. Geothermal energyGeothermal means “heat from the Earth” . Ingeothermal power stations, high-temperaturegeothermal steam is produced when watercomes into contact with heated rocks belowthe ground . This steam can be used forheating or the power turbines and generateelectricity• Advantages• 1-It is renewable and causes little pollution• 2-It is reliable and provides a constant energy supply• 3- It may be used for heating and electricity• Disadvantages• 1-Limited choice of suitable sites• 2-High cost of construction and maintenance• 3-Possible danger from eruptions and earthquakes• 4-Emission of sulphuric gases
  7. 7. WindThe wind has been used for thousands of years as asource of energy for sailing ships and windmills.The turbines need to be in areas with strong windsthat blow on a regular basis. Such places are usuallyfound on exposed coasts or in upland parts of windylands• Advantages:• 1-Wind turbines do not cause air pollution . Winds are stronger in winter when demand for electricity is greatest• 2-Running costs are very low• 3-Wind farms can produce income for farmers• Disadvantages:• 1-Wind doesn´t blow all the time• 2-Wind farms spoil the look of the countryside• 3-Large numbers of turbines are needed.• 4-Wind turbines are noisy
  8. 8. Solar energySolar energy uses silicon cells to convert thesun´s energy into electricitySmall solar power units are quite common andare used to power watches ,calculatorsIt´s very expensive• Advantages:• 1-Unlimited supply and causes no pollution• 2-Ideal for small scale-energy needs• Disadvantages• 1-Needs sunshine , so limited choice of suitable sites• 2-Very expensive and still requires new technology
  9. 9. • Waves: Waves are very powerful and may be used to produce electricity.• Unfortunately, building machinery that can survive the full force of waves without being damaged has proved difficult.• Tidal: Like the Rance in Brittany , many British rivers have a large tidal range which could generate electricity. However , schemes such as proposed Severn Barrage would be expensive to build
  10. 10. Biogas: Rotting animal dung gives off methane gas which in developing countries can be burned and used instead of wood fuel. This is cheap source energy, but it means that the dung can no longer be used as a fertilizerBio-fuel: Crops like sugar cane maize contain starch. If fermented this can produce a type of alcohol which can be used to power cars.Biomass: Pellet