1. Causes of descolonization• 1.Desire of Independence of Mother country(Metropoli).• 2 .Feeling as a Nation.• 3 .Loss of prestige among the colonial powers.• 4.International opinion widespread against colonization.• 5- Principle of self- government.
2. INDIA• It had always wanted to be free from British Empire.• Leader Mathama Gandhi• Movement of no violence• India became independent
3. ASIA & AFRICA• After the war , lots of colonies fought for their idependence and got them.• Africa countries saw how Asian people were gaining independence ,so they started to fight for their freedom.
4. The emergence of the Third World• Most of the new states that emerged claimed to be able to decide their own destiny and face the problem of poverty in their countries• The conference of bandung ( Sukarno, nerhu, Nasser) condened colonialism• The Movement of the non – aligned countries dídn´t want to take part in the international policy of the two world powers
5. Introduction• The land known as Palestine had, by 1947, seen considerable immigration of Jewish people fleeing persecution. Zionist Jews were particularly in favour of getting Palestine as a new Jewish homeland.• The local Palestinian population of Muslim Arabs felt that the influx of newcomers was threatening their way of life.• Clashes between the Arabic and Jewish populations had been frequent and bloody.• The British rulers of Palestine decided on a repression of the Arabic people to keep peace. By 1947 this had achieved an unhappy calm among all three groups.
6. May 15 1948?• The United Nations Partition Plan (1947) had decided that partition was the best way to stop the fighting in Palestine. The Jews were to get c.55% of the land, and the Arabs, 45%.• Naturally the Palestinian Arabs rejected it out of hand.• The Jewish - leader Ben-Gurion -gave it a cautious welcome.• All sides knew, however, that the British rule was coming to an end. Their ‘Mandate’ (permission) to rule only lasted until May15 1948.
7. 1948-9 Israeli War of Independence.• Arab League countries declared war on the new Israel immediately. Egypt, Iraq, Syria, Jordan and Lebanon all planned invasions.• The idea was to crush Israel before it could become established.
8. The Suez CanalTraditionally the Canal had been important as the trade link between Britain, (Europe) and India. By 1949 however India had becomeindependent of Britain.The Canal found a new role in oil transportation between Europe and the Middle East. This made it hugely important fordeveloped countries-like Britain- who were dependent on oil.
9. The Suez Campaign : A test of might for the young nation of Israel.
10. Israel expands at Egyptian expense.
11. The Palestinians (Arabs) set up a more efficientorganisation to promote itself in 1964- with theassistance of the Arab League (all the Arabnations).This was the PLO – or Palestinian LiberationOrganisation, based originally on the West Bank Flag of the PLO-Palestinian Liberation Organisation. Yasser Arafat- leader of the By Arabs the PLO were seen as PLO from 1968 onwards. freedom fighters. By Jewish settlers the PLO were seen as terrorists.
12. Israel before and after the six-day war 1967.
13. More refugees Many Arabs fled from Israel. This is a refugee camp in Syria. The people here would harbour grudges ( alber - garían rencor)about their lost homes for years to come. The words of the PLO would be very persuasive for them.How would you feel if you had lost your home in a war?
14. Presidents Sadat (UAE), Carter (USA), and Begin (Israel) signthe Camp David Accords. 1978.