Humanities 102

December 9, 2013
The Baroque era is when the first public opera
house came into existence - the Teatro San
Cassiano, which opened in Venice...
The spread of ideas during the Scientific Revolution was the most
enlightening. People wanted to spread knowledge. They wa...
The Age of Reason saw the beginning of the Scientific Revolution and different progressions of new
schools of thought. A r...
The beginning of the American Industrial Revolution can be attributed to Samuel Slater. He opened the first
industrial mil...
Realism was developed in the 1840s. Realism is a style that focuses on the everyday lives of the
lower and middle class , ...
Second Industrial Revolution differed from the First
industrial Revolution in many ways. Great Britain was
the world’s ind...
Surrealism began in the 1920s. It was an art movement that was
basically a pictorial art. This was inspired by Freud’s tea...
Most discoveries of medicine saved lives
but some had social and moral
implications that spilled over into societal
and ge...
Postmodernism is "post" because it is denies the
existence of any ultimate principles, and it lacks the
optimism of there ...
The legacy of colonialism is important in explaining about
the diversity and unity of experiments with state formation
in ...
Resurrection – Khalil Gibran

Gibran Khalil

Gibran Khalil was born on January 6, 1883, in Northern
Lebanon. He grew up in...
Blue Mosque in Istanbul, Turkey

Mosques architecture has meaning, from the paint color to
the fountain. Since there was a...
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Humanities projectpp

  1. 1. Humanities 102 December 9, 2013
  2. 2. The Baroque era is when the first public opera house came into existence - the Teatro San Cassiano, which opened in Venice, Italy, in 1637. Early Baroque Era Composers include: Opera video, “When I am Laid in Earth” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AC Y03VwWmnA • Francesco Cavalli (1602-1676) • Antonio Cesti (1623-1669) • Jean-Baptiste Lully (1632-1687) • Henry Purcell (1659-1695) Late Baroque Era Composers include: • Alessandro Scarlatti (1660-1725) • Antonio Vivaldi (1678-1741) • Jean-Philippe Rameau (1683-1764) • George Frederic Handel (1685-1759) • John Gay (1685-1732) • Archangelo Corelli (1653-1713) • Giovanni Battista Pergeolesi (1710-1736) • Leonardi Vinci (1690-1730) • Christoph Willibard Gluck (1714-1787) Opera composer, George Frederic Handel (1685-1759), from the birth of the art form in the baroque era Opera composer, Henry Purcell (1659-1695), from the birth of the art form in the baroque era By the 1630s, opera began to shed its aristocratic origins and become a popular entertainment. Opera still held focus on ancient myths and histories about noble men and women. It still held to the trend to brilliant singing called bel canto, meaning "beautiful song". To attract a larger crowd, operatic composers added elements from Italy's popular comic theater, such as farcical scenes and stock characters, and magical transformations, signs of its baroque nature.  Matthews, Roy T, F DeWitt Platt, and Thomas F.X. Noble. The  "The Baroque Era (1600-1750)." Opera Boot Camp. The Metropolitan Opera Western Humanities. New York: McGrawHill, 2012. Print. Page Guild, 2012. Web. 5 Dec. 2013. 433. Provides useful information on opera. Talks about where it <http://operabootcamp.drupalgardens.com/content/ baroque-era-1600-1750>. originated and how it developed. This website contains useful information, pictures, and videos.
  3. 3. The spread of ideas during the Scientific Revolution was the most enlightening. People wanted to spread knowledge. They wanted to share it with the rest of the world instead of being selfish and keeping it to themselves. Scientist and intellectuals realized that new scientific findings needed to be given the widest dissemination possible, since the information would be of immeasurable value to others who were engaged in their own research. The Flush Toilet • • • • • • • • • • Interesting Scientific Revolution Inventions: Pencil- Date: 1564.Inventor: Nicholas Jacques Conte. Printing Press- Date:1436. Inventor: Johannes Gutenburg. The Flush Toilet- Date: 1596 Inventor: Sir John Harrington The Piano- Date:1720 Inventor: Bartolomeo Cristofori of Padua. Scissors- Date:1761 Inventor: Robert Hinchcliffe. Sandwich- Date:1762 Inventor: John Montagu Pendulum Clock- Date: 1581 Inventor: Galileo Battery- Date:1800 Inventor: Count Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta. Cotton Gin- Date:1794 Inventor: Eli Whitney. Mayonnaise- Date:1756 Inventor: French chef of Duc de Richelieu. The Piano Printing Press Pendulum Clock Pencil Scissors Battery  Hebbar, Priya. "Scientific Revolution." Prezi. Prezi Inc, 2012. Web. 3 Dec. 2013. <http://prezi.com/hp_clgrsrtnk/top-10-most-useful-scientificrevolution-inventions/>. This website provides inventions, the inventors, dates, uses, and even fun facts about each invention.  Matthews, Roy T, F DeWitt Platt, and Thomas F.X. Noble. The Western Humanities. New York: McGrawHill, 2012. Print. Page 456. Provides useful information on the scientific Revolution. Goes into detail with inventions and other useful information for that period.
  4. 4. The Age of Reason saw the beginning of the Scientific Revolution and different progressions of new schools of thought. A religious movement that came about was Deism. This was advocated by Descartes. It taught that God (mind) and man (nature) were distinct. Another man. Baruch Spinoza, introduced the idea of pantheism, namely, God and the universe are one and further that, “God was a substance consisting of infinite attributes.” People who believed in Deism, described it the religion of reason rejected Christianity as a body of revelation, mysterious and incomprehensible. God’s revelation, believed Deists, was simple, logical and clear-cut, a natural religion which always existed. Descartes Baruch Spinoza  "Age of Reason – Open Society." All about History. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Dec. 2013. <http://www.allabouthistory.org/age-of-reason.htm>. Website has useful information on the Age of Reason and some people that were involved in changes during this time.
  5. 5. The beginning of the American Industrial Revolution can be attributed to Samuel Slater. He opened the first industrial mill in the United States in 1790. Slater's pirated technology had greatly increased the speed with which cotton thread could be spun into yarn. While he did introduce a vital new technology to the United States, the economic takeoff of the Industrial Revolution did require several other elements before it would transform American life. Another important factor to the changing economy were new organizational strategies to increase productivity. This had started with the “outwork system”. This was when small parts of a larger production process were carried out in numerous individual homes. This organizational reform was especially important for shoe and boot making. However, the chief organizational breakthrough of the Industrial Revolution was the "factory system“. This was where work was performed on a large scale in a single centralized location. George Harvey: Pittsford on the Erie Canal, 1837 ... courtesy: Memorial Art Gallery of the University of Rochester  "Economic Growth and the Early Industrial Revolution." US History. Independence Hall Association in Philadelphia, n.d. Web. 5 Dec. 2013. <http://www.ushistory.org/us/22a.asp>. This website provides useful information on the Industrial Revolution. The most famous state-led creation of the Market Revolution was New York's Erie Canal. This began in 1817, the 364mile man-made waterway flowed between Albany on the Hudson River and Buffalo on Lake Erie. The Erie canal connected the eastern seaboard and the Old Northwest. The canal was a great success and set off a canal frenzy that, along with the development of the steamboat, created a new and complete national water transportation network by 1840.
  6. 6. Realism was developed in the 1840s. Realism is a style that focuses on the everyday lives of the lower and middle class , Realists depicted ordinary people without idealizing or romanticizing them, but they always made sure imply an moral point of view. Realists wanted to show what they saw around them in a serious, accurate, and unsentimental way. They considered neoclassicism as cold and romanticizing as exaggerated. Merchants, housewives, workers, peasants, and even prostitutes replaced kings, aristocrats, goddesses, saints, and heroes as the subjects of paintings and novels. The spread of democracy encouraged the realists to take an interest in ordinary people, and the camera, which was invented in the 1830s, inspired the realists in their goal of truthful accuracy. This wooden sliding-box camera was made in Paris in September 1830  Matthews, Roy T, F DeWitt Platt, and Thomas F.X. Noble. The Western Humanities. New York: McGrawHill, 2012. Print. Page 539. Provides useful information on realism. Goes into detail with inventions and other useful information for that period.
  7. 7. Second Industrial Revolution differed from the First industrial Revolution in many ways. Great Britain was the world’s industrial leader since 1760. They faced competition from Germany and the United States. Science and research provided new and improved industrial products and influenced manufacturing much more than during the first revolution. And steam and water power were replaced by newer forms of industrial energy, such as oil and electricity. The internal combustion engine replaced the steam engine in ships and, in the early 1900s, gave rise to the automobile and the airplane. Europeans and the world were entering an age of power and speed. Technology was also shaping the world. The wireless superseded the telegraph, the telephone made its introduction, and national and international postal services were instituted. Type writers and tabulators transformed business practices. Rotary presses printed thousands of copies of daily newspapers for an increasingly literate public. In transportation there were more efficient engines which resulted in lower transportation costs and less expensive products. Advertising became a significant source of revenue for publishers and a persuasive force in the costumer economy. The first mass-produced automobile was the 1900 Oldsmobile 1930, part of the National Air Races in Chicago  Matthews, Roy T, F DeWitt Platt, and Thomas F.X. Noble. The Western Humanities. New York: McGrawHill, 2012. Print. Pages 560-562. Provides useful information on the Second Industrial Revolution Goes into detail with inventions and other useful information for that period.
  8. 8. Surrealism began in the 1920s. It was an art movement that was basically a pictorial art. This was inspired by Freud’s teaching that the human mind conceals hidden depths, the surrealists wanted to create a vision of reality that is also included the truths harbored in the unconscious. They portrayed dream imagery, fantasies, and hallucinations in a direct fashion that made their paintings more startling than those of Dadaist artists. Salvador Dali was a surrealism artist. Salvador had interesting paintings. His subjects were from his very lively imagination. These subjects even contained thinly disguised sexual symbols. The Persistence of Memory is the poetically named of his most famous work. This depicts soft, melting watches in a desert like setting. Dali’s use of such optical effects reflected his often-stated belief that life is irrational. The sexual themes are supposed to be read in the limp watches. This could be a reference to sexual impotence. This painting gave a strange twist to ordinary things, evoking the sense of a half-remembered dream which was the goal of surrealist art. Dali cultivated a controversial, even scandalous, personal image. It even earned him the public’s ridicule, and the surrealists went as far as to disown him. Even though he was disowned he is still admired. He created some of the modernism’s most fantastic images and for being a link with the pop artists of the 1960s. Another surrealism painter was Paul Klee. He is grouped with the surrealists but he was too changeable to be restricted to a single style. Klee took an innocent approach to art and that was what he was best known for. His approach to art was triggered by his fondness for children’s uninhabited scrawls. He portrays a childlike wonder in his whimsical works which has made him a favorite among collectors and viewers. Klee portrayed poetic images that were rich in color and had gentle wit. A great example would be Revolution of the Viaduct. Revolution of the Viaduct The Persistence of Memory  Matthews, Roy T, F DeWitt Platt, and Thomas F.X. Noble. The Western Humanities. New York: McGrawHill, 2012. Print. Pages 618-621.g Provides useful information on surrealism and the different artworks involved.
  9. 9. Most discoveries of medicine saved lives but some had social and moral implications that spilled over into societal and gender issues. Breakthroughs in medicine changed the patterns of behavior and raised the living standards for populations on all over the world. To go along with the topic on how medicine had social and moral implications we will discuss the invention of the birth control pill. This was invented in 1956 and triggered a sexual revolution. By the late 1960s the sexual revolution was part of the social unrest and rejection of accepted moral codes and personal behavior patterns for many Americans. This newly found sexual freedom, popular in the 1960s and 1970s, grew more restricted in the 1980s with the advent of AIDS. Jonas Salk Albert Sabin  Matthews, Roy T, F DeWitt Platt, and Thomas F.X. Noble. The Western Humanities. New York: McGrawHill, 2012. Print. Pages642. Provides information on modernism and the advances in science, technology, and medicine. In the 1950s polio was eradicated through vaccines. This was developed by American physicians. Their names were Jonas Salk and Albert Sabin. Innovative surgical methods, radiation treatment, and chemotherapy drastically reduced cancer mortality. Also, Francis Crick and James Watson reported their discovery of the structure of DNA, the chemical substance ultimately responsible for determining individual hereditary characteristics.
  10. 10. Postmodernism is "post" because it is denies the existence of any ultimate principles, and it lacks the optimism of there being a scientific, philosophical, or religious truth which will explain everything for everybody - a characterisitic of the so-called "modern" mind. The paradox of the postmodern position is that, in placing all principles under the scrutiny of its skepticism, it must realize that even its own principles are not beyond questioning. As the philospher Richard Tarnas states, postmodernism "cannot on its own principles ultimately justify itself any more than can the various metaphysical overviews against which the postmodern mind has defined itself." Postmodern ecological art by contemporary artist Francis Berry Postmodern art by contemporary artist Francis Berry, postmodern painter “A general and wide-ranging term which is applied to literature, art, philosophy, architecture, fiction, and cultural and literary criticism, among others. Postmodernism is largely a reaction to the assumed certainty of scientific, or objective, efforts to explain reality. In essence, it stems from a recognition that reality is not simply mirrored in human understanding of it, but rather, is constructed as the mind tries to understand its own particular and personal reality. For this reason, postmodernism is highly skeptical of explanations which claim to be valid for all groups, cultures, traditions, or races, and instead focuses on the relative truths of each person. In the postmodern understanding, interpretation is everything; reality only comes into being through our interpretations of what the world means to us individually. Postmodernism relies on concrete experience over abstract principles, knowing always that the outcome of one's own experience will necessarily be fallible and relative, rather than certain and universal.”  "Postmodernism." pbs. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Dec. 2013. <http://www.pbs.org/faithandreason/gengloss/postmbody.html>. This website has a clear definition and other information about postmodernism.
  11. 11. The legacy of colonialism is important in explaining about the diversity and unity of experiments with state formation in the Muslim world. Different things such as ethnic identity, social characteristics, and other indigenous religious and cultural factors in Islam are there to help explain the commonalities between Muslim states; colonialism is there to explain the points of convergence and divergence in experiences with state formation across the Muslim world. Muslims have basically lived with all the colonial powers. In much of Africa, Asia, and the Arab world, the British and the French ruled over vast Muslim territories. The Dutch ruled over territories that later became Indonesia, and the Germans, Spanish, Portuguese, and Russians held Muslim territories in East Africa, the Philippines, Malaya (what is now known as Malaysia), the Caucasus, and Central Asia. Israel's control of the West Bank and Gaza Strip may be seen as the last and only ongoing colonial relationship in Muslim lands.  Cole, Juan. "Who’s the Threat? Western Powers Have Invaded and Killed Millions of Muslims." Informed Comment: Thoughts on the Middle East, History and Religion. N.p., 26 May 2013. Web. 7 Dec. 2013. <http://www.juancole.com/2013/05/western-invaded-millions.html>. This site provides a map and information on the Muslim countries invaded and occupied by Westerners since 1798  Powerpoint Session 11 “Philosophy and Religion” Provides useful information on Islamic history and colonialism. Muslim countries invaded and occupied by Westerners since 1798: what is now Bangladesh (Britain); Egypt (France), much of Indonesia (Dutch); Algeria (France); Senegal, Mali, Niger, Chad (France); Moroccan Sahara, Ceuta (Spain); what is now Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan (Russia); Tunisia (France); Egypt, Sudan (Britain); Morocco (France); Libya (Italy); Palestine and Iraq (Britain); Syria and what is now Lebanon (France); Kuwait, UAE, Bahrain (Britain); Iran (Britain, US, Soviet Union during WW II); Iraq (US 2003-2011)
  12. 12. Resurrection – Khalil Gibran Gibran Khalil Gibran Khalil was born on January 6, 1883, in Northern Lebanon. He grew up in Bsharri in the mountain area. He was a man who appreciated nature, the falls, the cliffs, and cedars. All of these helped influence his drawings and even his writings. Gibran did not receive a formal education. But there was a village priest that visited him often and taught him the fundamentals of religion and the Bible. On June 25, 1895, the Gibrans embarked on a voyage to the American shores of New York, and finally settling in Boston. After moving to the US, he registered to a school but they changed his name. This stuck with him for the rest of his life. His name became Kahlil Gibran. Kahlil had very little education and this resulted in him being placed in an ungraded class that was reserved for just immigrant children where they had to learn English from scratch. In 1904, Kahlil finally had his first art exhibition which was located in Boston. He then decided to settle in New York in 1912. This is where he dedicated his time to writing and painting. His earlier works were written in Arabic, and from 1918, he published the majority of his work in English. In New York on April 10, 1931, Kahlil passed away. Gibran Museum in Lebanon Selection from the Collection of the Telfair Museum of Art (Gibran Khalil painting)  Powerpoint Session 12 “Literature” Provides useful information on Islamic literature.
  13. 13. Blue Mosque in Istanbul, Turkey Mosques architecture has meaning, from the paint color to the fountain. Since there was a warning against art because of its potential connection to idolatry, religious architecture soon became the initial focus of artistic expression. Mosques were centers for religious assembly. They typically had a rectangular plan with open courts and a fountain for purification. They had a mihrab, which was a small niche that indicates the direction of Mecca, Muhammad’s birthplace, which Muslims face when in prayer. They had domed walkways that lead to the mihrab. The most iconic images of the religion are the minarets, which are the two towers beside the mosque. Inside the towering spires the muezzin ascends a spiral staircase and at the top, from the platform, someone initiates the call to prayer. The aesthetic principles in Islam dictate a simple design and emphasize negative space. Instead of having overly decorative embellishments the structures traditionally focused on space and balance. Mosques are typically white, reflecting the sun. The black doors, windows, covered porches, etc. often help balance the starkness of the walls, and creating at times an intricate alternating line of light and dark. Other traditional Islamic color schemes are blue and gold, they are seen in the form of ceramic tile work. Mosque in Brunei Grand Mosque – Oman Islamic Masjid Al Aqsa Mosque Palestine Architecture Masjid Nabawi. Medina, Saudi Arabia  Power Point: Session 10 “Art & Architecture” Provides useful information of the design and meaning of mosques.

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