Running head: LITERATE ENVIRONMENT 1 Literate Environment Analysis Gina Stewart-Harman WaldenUniversity Professor Cindee Easton EDUC-6706R The Beginning Reader PreK-3 October 17, 2012
LITERATE ENVIRONMENT 2 Literate Environment Analysis Creating an effective literacy environment is a complex progress that involves getting toknow your students and selecting appropriate texts. Tompkins and McGee (1993) describe threeperspectives on literacy instruction that support the literacy environment. The three perspectivesinclude interactive, critical, and response. The following is an analysis of how these research-based practices helped me create a literate environment. It also includes feedback fromcolleagues and family members of students I teach. There is more to teaching reading and writing than instructional practices and strategies.Effective teachers get to know their students to find out what distinctive literacy experiencesstudents are bringing to the classroom and that influence students’ literacy autobiographies(Laureate Education, Inc., 2010d). Getting to know my students’ literacy experiences hasallowed me to connect students with texts that will affect them in profound ways (LaureateEducation, Inc., 2010b). I have learned about student affect and cognitive aspects of literacydevelopment. I can get to know literacy needs by working with emergent, beginning, andtransitional readers and learning about their interests, reading motivation, and cognitive aspectsof their literacy development. The more I can find out about my students’ literacy developmentthe better I can plan high-quality instruction. I can also provide different diagnostic assessmentsbased on their current grade level expectations. These assessments can include things likephonemic awareness screening test, letter naming fluency assessment (LNF), an informal readinginventory, an oral reading fluency test, and a comprehension diagnostic assessment(Macmillan/McGraw-Hill, 2010). Some of the assessments that I might administer to measurereading motivation and interest are the Elementary Reading Attitude Survey, and the Motivationto Read Profile (MRP) (Gambrell, Palmer, Codling, &Mazzoni, 1996; McKenna, &Kear, 1990).
LITERATE ENVIRONMENT 3Specific considerations should be made for English language learners, struggling students, and/orstudents with special needs. With some of the cognitive or interest assessments, I may need totake into consider the child’s stages of literacy development and the connections to possiblemotivations or lack thereof. Cognitive assessments can help me determine just right books forstudents. Interest surveys can help me guide students towards reading material that engage alltypes of learners. The data that I will gather will guide my instruction for whole class, smallgroup, and individuals in many ways. The data helps see how important it is to differentiateinstruction based on literacy stages as well as individual cultural, social, and emotional context(Laureate Education, Inc. 2010b). Helping students access the content by building backgroundknowledge and relating it to the context of their lives will help students develop motivation toread. I have discovered that both cognitive and interest assessments are useful in understandingstudents’ literacy autobiographies. By implementing both types of assessments, teachers can geta clear picture of individual students and their unique literacy needs. The data collected caninform instruction and provide a base to connect students to the text. There are many choices when selecting text. It is important to take into consideration thevarious types of texts. The goal is to select text that my students can connect with and meet mystudents literacy needs. Selecting appropriate and engaging texts for my students has helped mecreate a supportive literacy environment. By examining text dimensions, level of difficulty, textlength, size of print, visual supports, text structures, genres, and online resources, I am able tochoose texts that best match my students’ needs (Laureate Education, Inc., 2010a). Through thiscourse, I learned how to examine a variety of text using a matrix designed by Douglas Hartmanthat considers linguistic to semiotic features as well as narrative and informational text (LaureateEducation, Inc., 2010a). This matrix is helpful in thinking about a range of literacy experiencesto
LITERATE ENVIRONMENT 4suit my students’ needs and interests. Studies prove that students are not exposed to enoughinformational text in the early years, which may lead to content knowledge discrepancies by thetime they reach fourth grade (Laureate Education, Inc., 2010c). Informational books can providebackground knowledge or content knowledge that adds to the curriculum as well as providemotivation for students to learn about topics of interest (Duke, 2004). According to Duke (2004),informational text can serve as a substantial platform for teaching comprehension strategies. Assuggested by Stephens (2008), students have an easier transition between elementary school andintermediate level if they are exposed to more reading that is content based. Like narratives,students must learn the structure of informal text especial now that we live in a digital world andmuch is learn on the internet (Tompkins, 2008; Laureate Education, Inc.2010c). According toTompkins (2008), students need many opportunities to listen to read-alouds while they arelearning about text formats. By teaching students specifically about text structure and features,the better they will be able to comprehend text and participate in a variety of writingactivities(Laureate Education, Inc.2010a). Beyond selecting text, I am learning to developappropriate instructional practices to facilitate affective and cognitive aspects of literacydevelopment in all students. Janice Almasi presented a framework for thinking about literacy instruction in the mediasegment “Perspectives on Literacy”, which highlights three perspectives interactive, critical, andresponsive (Laureate Education, Inc. 2010e). The interactive perspective focuses on teachingstudents how to read and write with accuracy, fluency, and with comprehension (WaldenUniversity, 2012). It also involves teaching students to be strategic and metacognitive readersand writers. The critical perspective focuses on examining text and the thinking behind the text,while response perspective connecting with text on personal and emotional levels (Laureate
LITERATE ENVIRONMENT 5Education, Inc. 2010e).When thinking about students, texts, and instructional practices inreference to interactive perspective, I am able to seek out appropriate types of texts that matchstudents’ reading levels and create an effective literacy environment. One way that I do this isdetermine their reading level through diagnostic assessments as well as formative assessments,which help me place students in small literacy groups. After I form small groups, I am able toselect texts that support the curriculum and the students’ individual needs. As illustrated inTompkins (2010), small groups allow teachers to provide scaffolded lessons that address specificskills and learning targets for specific groups of students. Outdated views of literacydevelopment have often included extensive whole-group instruction, which we now know is noteffective for most young children (NAEYC, 1998). One of the primary goals of the interactiveperspective is to use instructional methods that promote students’ independent use of strategiesand skills (Walden University, 2012). Within this goal, we want students to use comprehensionstrategies almost instinctively as they read. Being strategic helps the reader to examine thestrategy, and become flexible and adaptable as they read (Afflerbach, Pearson, & Paris, 2008).Coupled with the interactive perspective, effective teachers utilize critical and responseperspectives when designing lessons. I have learned the importance of incorporating critical and response perspectives intolesson planning as these perspectives help students make meaning of text and most importantlyconnect to specific social issues in our society. Dombey, (2011) suggests that learning to thinkdeeply about text will support students’ willingness to turn to books for information as well asfor enjoyment. Critical literacy is important because it helps the reader analyze text by looking atits components, why it is written, who it includes and excludes, and it involves self-questioning(Molden, 2007). With this perspective in mind, I have been able to select text that present
LITERATE ENVIRONMENT 6opportunities for students think about multiple perspectives, cultural differences, or social issues.Critical perspective supports students’ ability to think critically, judge, and evaluate text (WaldenUniversity, 2012). On the other hand, the response perspective provides the space andopportunity for students to think and respond to text in meaningful ways. Janice Almasi, pointedout that if we allow literacy experiences effect students personally and emotionally it is like atransaction where the reader is transformed by text (Laureate Education, Inc. 2010f). Feedback from colleagues and family members of students. What insights did you gain about literacy and literacy instruction from viewing this presentation? How might the information presented change your literacy practices and/or your literacy interactions with students? In what ways can I support you in the literacy development of your students or children? How might you support me in my work with students or your children? What questions do you have?In conclusion, …literacy environment….The URL for my Web 2.0 Presentation is http://www36.jimdo.com ReferencesAfflerbach, P., Pearson, P. D., & Paris, S. G. (2008). Clarifying differences between reading skills and reading strategies. The Reading Teacher, 61(5), 364–373.Dombey, H. (2011). Distorting the process of learning to read: The "light touch" phonics test for six year olds. Education Review, 23(2), 23-32.Duke, N. (2004). The case for informational text.Educational Leadership, 61(6), 40–44.Gambrell, L. B., Palmer, B. M., Codling, R. M., &Mazzoni, S. A. (1996). Assessing motivation
LITERATE ENVIRONMENT 7 to read. The Reading Teacher, 49(7), 518–533.Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2010a). Analyzing and selecting text [Webcast]. The Beginning Reader Pre K-3Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2010b). Getting to Know Your Students [Webcast]. The Beginning Reader Pre K-3Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2010c)Informational text in the early years [Webcast]. The Beginning Reader Pre K-3Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2010d). Literacy autobiographies [Webcast]. The Beginning Reader Pre K-3Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2010e). Perspectives on literacy [Webcast]. The Beginning Reader Pre K-3Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2010f). Response perspective [Webcast]. The Beginning Reader Pre K-3Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2010g). The beginning reader [Webcast]. The Beginning Reader Pre K-3Macmillan/McGraw-Hill (2010).Diagnostic Assessments. McGraw-Hill Education., New York, New York.Molden, K. (2007). Critical literacy, the right answer for the reading classroom: Strategies to move beyond comprehension for reading improvement. Reading Improvement, 44(1), 50–56.National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC). (1998). Learning to read and write: Developmentally appropriate practices for young children. Retrieved from http://www.naeyc.org/files/naeyc/file/positions/PSREAD98.PDF
LITERATE ENVIRONMENT 8Stephens, K. E. (2008). A Quick Guide to Selecting Great Informational Books for Young Children.Reading Teacher, 61(6), 488-490.Tompkins, G. E. (2010).Literacy for the 21st century: A balanced approach(5th ed.). Boston: Allyn& Bacon.Tompkins, G. E., & McGee, L. M. (1993).Teaching reading with literature. New York: Macmillan.Walden University.(2012). Framework for Literacy Instruction.October 15,2012 from https://class.waldenu.edu/webapps/portal/frameset.jsp?tab_tab_group_id=_2_1&url=%2F webapps%2Fblackboard%2Fexecute%2Flauncher%3Ftype%3DCourse%26id%3D_5517 64_1%26url%3DWaldenUniversity M.S. in Education Program Formative Evaluative Criteria for Apps and Reflective EssaysQuality of Work A: B: Graduate C: Minimal F: WorkSubmitted Exemplary Level Work Work Submitted butWork reflects Work B+ = 3.50; B = C+ = 2.50; C = Unacceptablegraduate-level A = 4.00; A- 3.00; 2.00; F = 1.00critical, analytical = 3.75 B- = 2.75 C- = 1.75thinking. All of the All of the previous, in previous, in addition to addition to the the following: following:Adherence to Assignment All parts of the Most parts of Does not fulfillAssignment exceeds assignment are assignment are the expectationsExpectations expectations, completed, completed. of the integrating with fully assignment.The extent to which additional developed Topics are notwork meets the material topics. fully Keyassigned criteria. and/or developed. components are information. The work is not included presented in a Assignment Assignment thorough and demonstrates Assignment demonstrates detailed minimal depth lacks breadth
LITERATE ENVIRONMENT 9 exceptional manner. and breadth. and depth. breadth and depth. Assignment demonstrates appropriate breadth and depth.Assimilation and Demonstrates Demonstrates a Shows some Shows a lack ofSynthesis of Ideas the ability clear degree of understanding intellectually understanding understanding of theThe extent to which to explore of the of the assignment’sthe work reflects the and/or assignment’s assignment’s purpose.student’s ability to- implement purpose. purpose. key 1. Understand the instructional Does not apply assignment’s concepts. Includes Generally theories, purpose; specific applies concepts, 2. Understand Demonstrates information theories, and/or and analyze exceptional from course concepts, strategies material in inclusion of videos or and/or videos, major points, required strategies readings, and using readings to correctly, with discussions; creditable support major ideas unclear 3. Apply sources**, in points. and/or presented addition to underdeveloped Does not strategies course videos include specific**May include, but or required informationare not limited to, readings. Provides Minimally from coursescholarly articles, careful includes videos orcollegial discussions; Demonstrates consideration specific requiredinformation from insightful of key information readings.conferences, in reflection instructional from courseservice, faculty and/or concepts. videos ordevelopment, and/or critical requiredmeetings. Outside thinking. readings.sources also mayinclude materials fromprevious WaldenMSED courses,videos, and readings.(but aren’t currentlybeing used in thiscourse) In addition,students may refer tothe courseWebliography, course
LITERATE ENVIRONMENT 10reference list(Bibliography), andthe theoreticalfoundations, all ofwhich are located inthe eCollege coursepage.Written Expression Represents Work is well Somewhat The quality ofand Formatting scholarly organized with represents writing and/or writing in a correct APA mature, APAThe extent to which correct APA formatting scholarly, formatting arescholarly, critical, format. throughout. graduate-level not acceptableanalytical writing is writing, with for graduatepresented in APA Work is Ideas are APA generally level work.format; unified clearly and followed. around a concisely Major points doStandard Edited central expressed. Ideas are not not reflectEnglish ( i.e. correct purpose with clearly and appropriategrammar, mechanics). well- Elements of concisely elements of developed effective expressed. communication. ideas, communication logically such as an Elements of No effort to organized in introduction effective express ideas paragraph and communication clearly and structure conclusion are such as an concisely. with clear included. introduction transitions. and conclusion Work is not Work is are not written in Effective written in included. Standard Edited sentence Standard English. variety; clear, Edited English Work contains Contains many concise, and with few, if more than a grammatical or powerful any, few mechanical expression grammatical or grammatical, or errors are evident. mechanical mechanical errors errors. Work is written in Standard Edited English. No prominent errors interfere with reading.It is expected that all applications and reflective essays will be submitted according to the assignment due dates indicated.Exceptions may be made at the discretion of the faculty member if contacted by the student prior to the due date describing
LITERATE ENVIRONMENT 11extenuating circumstances. Updated: 8/07Comments and Grade: Application: Literate Environment Analysis PresentationIn each of the Application Assignments in this course you applied a research-based literacy practice thatcontributes to a literate environment. This week you will finalize your Literate Environment AnalysisPresentation in which you use a Web 2.0 presentation tool to present your analysis of each of thesepractices. You will then share your presentation with a teacher colleague at your school and a familymember of a student and elicit their feedback about the research-based literacy practices analyzed inyour presentation. Finally, you will write an essay (in Word format) that addresses each item (I–V) on theLiterate Environment Analysis Presentation Outline.As noted in the Course Project Overview provided in Week 1, this assignment is informed by IRAStandard 5 :Literate Environment.Click on the link below to access the outline for your Literate Environment Analysis Presentation (alsoprovided in Week 1, "Course Project Overview").Literate Environment Analysis Presentation OutlineOnce you have shared your presentation and elicited feedback from a teacher colleague and a familymember of a student by having them respond to the questions provided in "V. Feedback from Colleaguesand Family Members of Students" of the Literate Environment Analysis Presentation Outline, completethe following: Write an essay (in Word format) that addresses each item (I–V) on the Literate Environment Analysis Outline. Include the URL (web address) for your presentation and be sure that you have provided access to the site for your Instructor.Important Note: You will not submit your actual presentation to your Instructor or to your ePortfolio. Youonly need to include the URL in your essay.Submit your assignment by Sunday of Week 7.Once you have received feedback from your Instructor, make any necessary revisions. Then, upload yourassignment to your ePortfolio as described below.Important Note:This is a preselected assignment for the Demonstration of Content Knowledge (DCK)Major Assessment and must be uploaded in two places.STEPS:1.Submit your assignementfor your instructor to grade.2. Once you have made any revisions based on instructor feedback, upload your assignment to yourePortfolio under the Transition Point Four, Major Assessment: "Demonstration of Content Knowledge."(Note:Although this Major Assessment is not due until the end of your program, you need toupload this assignment into the ePortfolio so that it is saved in advance and in a secure place.Directions for uploading the pre-selected activity to your ePortfolio are located in your ePortfolio space.Log into your ePortfolio, click on "Demonstration of Content Knowledge" from the menu on the left, andthen click the word, "Directions.")3. In one of the Direction steps, you are directed to identify the specialization standards from a TargetSet. The directions in your ePortfolio will guide you to the specific Target Set for your specialization. In theTarget Set, find the standard that matches the standard(s) listed below. Tag that standard.Specialization Standards: International Reading Association (IRA) Standard 5: Literate Environment Candidates create a literate environment that fosters reading and writing by integrating
LITERATE ENVIRONMENT 12 foundational knowledge, use of instructional practices, approaches and methods, curriculum materials, and the appropriate use of assessments.